18,903 research outputs found

    Apparel of the Reformation: The Significance of Fashion in Tudor England

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    This paper compiles research that addresses the importance of fashion in Tudor England. Specifically, it describes the important relationship clothing had to Catholicism and Protestantism and how the differentiation of ideologies could be seen in the construction and design of garments along with the specific adornments worn. The significance of these questions can be seen within the importance of micro-histories in this discipline. Something as simple and overlooked as fashion and fabric can really shed light on how people lived in a religiously divided Tudor England and how fractured their religious and social structures were. The paper aims to show how the importance of one’s Christian sect affiliation permeated deeply into the everyday lives and wardrobe of Tudor subjects and how this display of affiliation through fashion was a decisive choice which furthered the already growing conflict between Catholic and Protestant ideals.No embargoAcademic Major: HistoryAcademic Major: PhilosophyAcademic Major: Philosophy, Politics and Economic

    Constructing a Theological Framework That Revitalizes the Missional Nature of Churches of Christ in South Australia

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    This thesis addresses the need for a theological framework that revitalizes the missional nature of Churches of Christ in South Australia. The problem identified within this ministry context was a lack of clear theological principles that informed a common understanding of identity for missional engagement. The purpose of the project was to create a study guide that informs common theological commitments and grounds congregations for missional vitality. A research and development team made up of seven Church of Christ ministers from different backgrounds was assembled to design a curriculum that addressed the problem. Through eight two-hour sessions over four months in the first half of 2022, the team discussed a theological framework that could revitalize mission. This was informed by a Trinitarian theological rationale introduced as perichoresis. The conceptual framework for discussions included (1) the historical and theological foundations of Churches of Christ, (2) a Trinitarian doctrine of God presented as perichoresis, (3) contemporary congregational practices, and (4) a theological proposal for re-imagining mission. The team developed a study guide that promotes a dynamic theological framework for practicing theology and revitalizing the missional nature of the church. The artifact, Movement & Identity: Participating in the Life of God’s Mission, was evaluated by the team and members of Church of Christ congregations in South Australia. The curriculum is designed to assist participants with practical theological interpretation through (1) discovering new ideas about God in the context of Churches of Christ traditions, (2) engaging with contextual theology in community, (3) participating in God’s mission, and (4) reflecting on how God’s agency transforms the church. The development of the study guide will stimulate a practical theological framework that promotes dynamic theological dialogue and missional vitality for Churches of Christ in South Australia

    The Path of Synodality: Walking and Talking Together as the Mystical Body of Christ

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    The Church is by nature synodal and ‚Äúthe entire People of God is  challenged by its fundamentally synodal calling.‚ÄĚ Synodality is stablished to energize  the life and evangelising mission of the Church  in union with Christ. The fact that in practice she might be lacking in synodality sometimes or in some  places, does not invalidate this attribute. According to Pope Francis, ‚Äúit is precisely this path of  synodality which God expects of the Church of the third  millennium.‚ÄĚ Thus, ‚Äúwhile synodal procedure and events have a beginning, a process and a conclusion, synodality offers a specific description of the  historical development of the Church as such, breathes life into her  structures and directs her mission.‚ÄĚ Hence, the purpose of this essay is to throw  more light on this sublime feature of the Church (the path of synodality) and to bring out into fuller light the important functions of the members (the  Hierarchy and the Laity) who are walking and talking together with Christ, their Head, and with one another as ‚Äúthe Mystical Body of Christ.&nbsp

    Do Catholics have an external locus of evaluation? Inauthentic experiences of Catholic guilt in the pursuit of self-forgiveness

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    This two-part mixed methods study investigated emotional response to transgression and selffor-giveness in Catholic individuals in concert with locus of evaluation orientation following a hypothe-sis that Catholics may be particularly unable to find self-forgiveness in the teachings of their reli-gion. Study 1 was a qualitative semi-structured interview with a sample of 20 practicing Catholic participants. Questions focused on the emotive experiences of selfforgiveness and transgressions and the contribution that Catholic practices (prayer and reconciliation) make to the process. Data were analysed using thematic analysis which supported evidence of Catholic guilt but suggested that there may be some inauthenticity and insincerity with which penitents' approach reconciliato-ry practices. Study 2 used a sample of 239 Christian participants in groups of Catholics and Christian non-Catholics. Participants responded to two psychometric questionnaires: the Heartland Forgiveness Scale, and the Locus of Evaluation Inventory. Followed by two additional questions pertaining to self-forgiveness experiences, and one question requiring participants to prioritise types of forgiveness. The results found no difference between Catholics and non-Catholics in their response to self-forgiveness or locus of evaluation orientation. However, in non-Catholic Christians but not in Catholics, the frequency of religious practice correlated with higher total forgiveness and its subscales (including self-forgiveness), with more internal locus of evaluation, and with lower self-regard, suggesting that church attendance does not relate to the propensity for self-forgiveness in Catholic individuals

    The Disputation: The Enduring Representations in William Holman Hunt's ‚ÄúThe Finding of the Saviour in the Temple,‚ÄĚ 1860

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    This interdisciplinary thesis problematizes the Jewish presence in the painting The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple (1860) by William Holman Hunt. This ‚ÄúJewish presence‚ÄĚ refers to characters within the painting, Jews who posed for the picture and the painting‚Äôs portrayal of Judaism. The thesis takes a phenomenological and hermeneutical approach to The Finding providing careful description and interpretation of what appears in the painting. It situates the painting within a newly configured genre of disputation paintings depicting the Temple scene from the Gospel of Luke (2:47 ‚Äď 52). It asks two questions. Why does The Finding look the way it does? And how did Holman Hunt know how to create the picture? Under the rubric of the first question, it explores and challenges customary accounts of the painting, explicitly challenging the over reliance upon F.G. Stephens‚Äôs pamphlet. Additionally, it examines Pre-Raphaelite and Victorian religious contexts and bringing hitherto unacknowledged artistic contexts to the fore. The second question examines less apparent influences through an analysis of the originary Lukan narrative in conjunction with the under-examined genre of Temple ‚Äúdisputation‚ÄĚ paintings, and a legacy of scholarly and religious disputation. This demonstrates a discourse of disputation informing The Finding over and above the biblical narrative. In showing that this discourse strongly correlates with the painting‚Äôs objectifying and spectacular properties, this thesis provides a new way to understand The Finding‚Äôs orientalism which is further revealed in its typological critical reworking of two Christian medieval and renaissance paintings. As a demonstration of the discourse, the thesis includes an examination of Jewish artists who addressed the theme of disputation overtly or obliquely thereby engaging with and challenging the assumptions upon which the disputation rests

    Ministering between Heaven and Earth: John Chrysostom's theology and practice of church leadership

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    This thesis systematically explores Chrysostom‚Äôs theology and practice of church leadership. It identifies major themes from Chrysostom‚Äôs treatise, De sacerdotio, and discusses them in the larger context of his theological presuppositions and historical situation. Reflections on the contemporary significance of Chrysostom‚Äôs insights are given at the end of each major chapter and in the appendix. Chapter 1 gives the rationale, methodology, and research limits of the thesis. It discusses what is lacking in many theological studies of Chrysostom‚Äôs views on church leadership and proposes to address the lack by employing a theological method that emphasises the interrelationship of his theological ideas whilst taking advantage of the revival in Chrysostomian studies that emphasise the historical and sociocultural influences present in his works. After discussing the background of De sacerdotio, interrelated themes are identified for further investigation in the next three chapters. These themes are 1) preaching and soul care; 2) asceticism and angelic virtue; and 3) episcopal authority and management. Chapter 2 discusses preaching and its use in soul care and community building. After presenting a brief review of Chrysostom‚Äôs contributions to hermeneutics and preaching as noted in modern scholarship, it argues, from De sacerdotio and various exegetical homilies, that Chrysostom had a much broader definition of preaching than is usually recognised. His understanding and practice of it is better described as persuasive teaching. The discussion is then placed in the larger context of his understanding of the human soul and of ‚Äúsoul care‚ÄĚ. Since Chrysostom viewed the soul as embodied, soul sickness, which he often associated with heterodoxy and moral failure due to uncontrolled passions, can and often do have material causes. The natural ability to overcome the passions incited by physical and biological conditions rests in the intellect, a faculty of the soul. The intellect gives human beings the ability to discern, will, and argue. Persuasive teaching is the best remedy for sick souls, as it creates experience and offers content to reinforce, challenge, or even replace a person‚Äôs already held beliefs and ethics. Chrysostom exercised persuasive teaching for soul care and community building in several ways, including through preaching homilies, manipulating sacred spaces, conducting liturgical processions, and using exclusion for church discipline. I propose that contemporary theologians and church leaders should similarly expand their understanding of preaching, since one‚Äôs approach to preaching and its reception can qualitatively change if preaching is understood not only as the transmission of divine revelation but as a healthy exercise for the soul. Chapter 3 discusses Chrysostom‚Äôs pursuit of asceticism and how this influenced his concept and exercise of ‚Äúangelic virtue,‚ÄĚ a moral requirement for priests. Various studies on Chrysostom‚Äôs approach to virtue formation have noted his interaction with Greco-Roman values and his strategic use of rhetoric, exemplars, and liturgical rites to achieve his pastoral aims. These strategies can be brought into a cohesive whole by recognising Chrysostom‚Äôs presuppositions concerning the nature and destiny of human beings and the problem of sin and evil. Drawing primarily from Chrysostom‚Äôs homilies in Genesis and various monastic treatises, I argue that he viewed angelic life as that carefree life which prelapsarian humans were able to live because of God‚Äôs gratuitous and supernatural gifts. Because of sin, humanity lost God‚Äôs supernatural gifts and the angelic life, but Christ won these gifts back for them. Although the ultimate restoration of the angelic life is at a future resurrection, Christians are presently able to exercise angelic living through synergistic cooperation with the supernatural grace Christ obtained for them. This is angelic virtue. These soteriological presuppositions, along with early and memorable exposure to ministrycentric ascetic training, impacted Chrysostom‚Äôs perception of the society in which he lived, the kind of virtues he found commendable, and the ways he attempted to cultivate angelic virtue through the monastery, church, and household. The role of angelic virtue in virtue formation is further explained through Chrysostom‚Äôs use of the Christian concepts of rewards and the resurrection to spur his congregation to upright living. I then propose constructive ways that the same can be used to motivate contemporary Christian ministers toward a healthier and more balanced approach to ministry. Chapter 4 discusses episcopal authority and management. For Chrysostom, episcopal authority rests on Christological and apostolic continuity in the areas of orthodoxy, ministry, and the endorsement of other legitimate bishops. His reflections on said categories were necessitated by legitimacy issues in the episcopal situation in Antioch and useful when he ascended to the see of Constantinople as an outsider. His clear convictions about the limits and responsibilities of episcopal authority also impacted his interactions with political powers, his clergy, and various episcopal figures. Chrysostom‚Äôs theological ideals were often challenged by the harsh reality of ministry and further complicated by the political environment in Constantinople. While he clung to certain theological commitments, he had to abandon others, leading to choices that had both positive and negative impact on himself and the people under his care. Finally, since Chrysostom‚Äôs views on apostolic succession stem from his Christology, I compare his interpretation of Christ‚Äôs High Priesthood with that of the Christian priest. For Chrysostom, the priest represents Christ not at the level of being but in the act of ministry‚ÄĒa ministry characterised by condescension and mediation. Inspired by Chrysostom, I argue that it is therefore in the act of ministry that a priest arrives at a mystical identification with Christ, where theosis can be a present reality but also still a reality to come. This privilege also extends to lay ministers, if Chrysostom is right that lay ministry is an extension of priestly ministry. The appendix revisits and expands on four areas for contemporary reflection that were previously introduced. This includes appropriating what was learned from Chrysostom for rethinking the relationship between the laity and the ordained as conversation; exploring the natural and supernatural aspects of synergistic virtue formation in the context of the church; clarifying the interplay of individuality and community in the goals of church leadership; and rethinking the political impact of church leaders in contemporary society

    The Reputations of Sir Francis Burdett

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    Political Islam and grassroots activism in Turkey : a study of the pro-Islamist Virtue Party's grassroots activists and their affects on the electoral outcomes

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    This thesis presents an analysis of the spectacular rise of political Islam in Turkey. It has two aims: first to understand the underlying causes of the rise of the Welfare Party which -later became the Virtue Party- throughout the 1990s, and second to analyse how grassroots activism influenced this process. The thesis reviews the previous literature on the Islamic fundamentalist movements, political parties, political party systems and concentrates on the local party organisations and their effects on the party's electoral performance. It questions the categorisation of Islamic fundamentalism as an appropriate label for this movement. An exploration of such movements is particularly important in light of the event of 11`x' September. After exploring existing theoretical and case studies into political Islam and party activism, I present my qualitative case study. I have used ethnographic methodology and done participatory observations among grassroots activists in Ankara's two sub-districts covering 105 neighbourhoods. I examined the Turkish party system and the reasons for its collapse. It was observed that as a result of party fragmentation, electoral volatility and organisational decline and decline in the party identification among the citizens the Turkish party system has declined. However, the WP/VP profited from this trend enormously and emerged as the main beneficiary of this process. Empirical data is analysed in four chapters, dealing with the different aspects of the Virtue Party's local organisations and grassroots activists. They deal with change and continuity in the party, the patterns of participation, the routes and motives for becoming a party activist, the profile of party activists and the local party organisations. I explore what they do and how they do it. The analysis reveals that the categorisation of Islamic fundamentalism is misplaced and the rise of political Islam in Turkey cannot be explained as religious revivalism or the rise of Islamic fundamentalism. It is a political force that drives its strength from the urban poor which has been harshly affected by the IMF directed neoliberal economy policies. In conclusion, it is shown that the WP/VP's electoral chances were significantly improved by its very efficient and effective party organisations and highly committed grassroots activists

    Materialism: A Caring Obituary

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    The notion of materialism initially appears in the writings of its Christian opponents in late seventeenth-century England. Only in eighteenth-century France materialism is first posthumously claimed by a catholic priest, Meslier, and then by authors such as La Mettrie and d‚ÄôHolbach, at the risk of persecution and imprisonment: Diderot enjoys the hospitality of the fortress of Vincennes for rearranging the materialist stance within his sensualist multiverse. In the nineteenth century, Marx reshapes materialism as part of his critique to decontextualized knowledge. Stirner‚Äôs discontent with naturalistic objectivity anticipates Nietzsche‚Äôs rejection of matter in favour of practices: Engels‚Äô historical materialism and his ahistorical dichotomic construction of materialism versus idealism are instead embraced by Lenin via Plekhanov, and they are further simplified by Stalin. Nietzsche‚Äôs approach is recovered by Foucault, Deleuze, and Derrida, who challenge both political and theoretical representation. More recently, Barad recasts this challenge into a processual vocabulary, which renews the semantic constellation of realism, materialism, and materiality. Whilst not dismissing Barad‚Äôs new tools, the essay suggests raising the wager: it proposes to extend its own genealogical practice, which reconnects materialism (and matter) with its historical process of production, to any other theoretical object. This recomposition may not only disentangle us from the lexicon of entities ‚Äď including materialism and matter ‚Äď but it may also help to construct a novel and potentially hegemonic language of practices
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