60,517 research outputs found

    Language Dynamism: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Political Discourse

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    Politicians constantly strive to manipulate language in a way that communicates their intentions without upsetting their audience. The present study is a political discourse analysis of the inaugural speeches of political leaders- Presidents and Prime Ministers of four countries selected from three continents across the world. The selected countries are Nigeria, Liberia, United States of America, and United Kingdom, and the selected speeches are that of Presidents Olusegun Obasanjo and Muhammadu Buhari of Nigeria, Presidents Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and George Weah of Liberia, Presidents Barack Obama and Donald Trump of the United States of America, and Prime Ministers David Cameron and Theresa May of the United Kingdom. The study is a qualitative and quantitative survey text analytical research. It utilizes inaugural speeches as primary data and literature in the field of political discourse as secondary data. Meaning was analyzed using Fairclough’s (2010) CDA approach as well as Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar. Furthermore, analysis was done in the three dimensions of Description (text analysis), Interpretation (processing analysis), and Explanation (social analysis). Research findings showed that the speeches communicated the messages of the leaders based on their sociocultural and sociopolitical reality. It however also reveals some general features of political discourse which cut across cultures, countries and continents. Although there were trends that were peculiar to each country, there were more features such as, context, personality, gender, state of the nation, etc. that served to individually distinguish speakers. In conclusion, the research submits that the combination of different approaches to language analysis facilitated a wholesome interpretation of the considered speeches, including the discourse and sociocultural practices. In addition, context is of immense importance when analyzing content

    The Attitude of the Presidents of the United States Toward Education as Revealed in Their Messages to Congress

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    This thesis is undertaken with the intention of studying the attitude of the Presidents of the United States toward education as revealed in their messages to Congress. The writer chose this subject because he felt that the messages and speeches reflect their attitude toward education and to some extent at least reflect the national attitude. Since this group has included some of America’s ablest leaders, education may find in their works arguments of great weight. Since the study was restricted to the messages of Presidents, naturally Richardson’s “Messages and Papers of the Presidents of the Presidents to 1908” is the most used reference. Not only does this thesis summarize the messages, but it attempts discern the philosophy of education at the time of the message was written, the personal training that might have influenced the President, and the trends of the public thought at the time that might have played a part. For this purpose secondary sources, pamphlets, reports and newspapers have been used. The writer has found no other study on this subject, and he has attempted to collect in readable form a summary of the views of our chief officials

    Veto messages of the Presidents of the United States, with the action of Congress thereon

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    Veto Messages of Presidents of the U.S. [2451] Tyler on Cherokee certificates in 1843; Grant on Indian trust funds, and sale of Indian lands in 1876

    Veto messages of the Presidents of the United States, with the action of Congress thereon

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    49-2Veto Messages of Presidents of the U.S. [2451] Tyler on Cherokee certificates in 1843; Grant on Indian trust funds, and sale of Indian lands in 1876.1886-25

    McGovern, International Trade Regulation

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    International Trade Regulation is a work with many strengths and few weaknesses. One could nitpick about certain aspects of its organization, but basically the organization is sufficiently logical overall that the book could be read cover to cover and be a coherent introduction to the subject of international trade regulation for a novice in the field. At the same time, within each section, the exposition of the basic international rules, followed by a discussion of the related United States and EEC rules, works well

    Civil Liberty and National Security: The Implications of the Debate for the United States Intelligence Community

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    For years, the US Intelligence Community has worked to maintain the thin and often wavering line between civil liberty and national security in its attempts to protect the American people while simultaneously preserving their constitutional rights. However, this line has often shifted with the course of American history, including events such as the Alien and Sedition Acts, the establishment of the Church Committee, and the publication of the NSA’s data collection program. One of the most significant of these factors was the passage and eventual amendment of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, which opened the door to later constitutional controversies. In the midst of this ever-changing national landscape, how is the US Intelligence Community to strike a balance between protecting the American people and ensuring their civil freedoms? The Intelligence Community must remember that it has a responsibility to protect both the American people and their constitutional freedoms. The Intelligence Community faces the unique challenge of reconciling the freedom of the American people to live safely and the freedom of the US government, embodied by the executive branch, to lead. In recent history, it has done a remarkable job of instituting measures of oversight and enacting greater controls on itself as part of the executive branch to avoid the unconstitutional missteps it has taken in the past. Intelligence agencies in the present and future must continue to prioritize not only on the safety of the United States and its people but also on the maintenance of the liberties guaranteed to them under the US Constitution

    The Rise of Presidential Power Before World War II

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    A joint text mining-rank size investigation of the rhetoric structures of the US Presidents’ speeches

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    © 2019 Elsevier Ltd This work presents a text mining context and its use for a deep analysis of the messages delivered by politicians. Specifically, we deal with an expert systems-based exploration of the rhetoric dynamics of a large collection of US Presidents’ speeches, ranging from Washington to Trump. In particular, speeches are viewed as complex expert systems whose structures can be effectively analyzed through rank-size laws. The methodological contribution of the paper is twofold. First, we develop a text mining-based procedure for the construction of the dataset by using a web scraping routine on the Miller Center website – the repository site collecting the speeches. Second, we explore the implicit structure of the discourse data by implementing a rank-size procedure over the individual speeches, being the words of each speech ranked in terms of their frequencies. The scientific significance of the proposed combination of text-mining and rank-size approaches can be found in its flexibility and generality, which let it be reproducible to a wide set of expert systems and text mining contexts. The usefulness of the proposed method and of the speeches analysis is demonstrated by the findings themselves. Indeed, in terms of impact, it is worth noting that interesting conclusions of social, political and linguistic nature on how 45 United States Presidents, from April 30, 1789 till February 28, 2017 delivered political messages can be carried out. Indeed, the proposed analysis shows some remarkable regularities, not only inside a given speech, but also among different speeches. Moreover, under a purely methodological perspective, the presented contribution suggests possible ways of generating a linguistic decision-making algorithm

    Exiting Congressional-Executive Agreements

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    Commentators have argued that, even if the president has the unilateral authority to terminate Article II treaties concluded with the Senate’s advice and consent, the president lacks the unilateral authority to terminate “congressional-executive agreements” concluded with majority congressional approval, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This Article challenges that claim. If one accepts a presidential authority to terminate Article II treaties, this Article contends, there is no persuasive reason to conclude differently with respect to congressional-executive agreements. Congressional-executive agreements have become largely interchangeable with Article II treaties as a matter of domestic law and practice. For example, either instrument can be used to address matters relating to international commerce and trade. Moreover, while presidents cannot unilaterally terminate statutes, congressional-executive agreements are not mere statutes. They are, like Article II treaties, binding international instruments that can be concluded by the United States only through presidential action. These agreements also typically contain withdrawal clauses similar to those contained in Article II treaties, which presidents have long invoked unilaterally, and Congress has never indicated that presidents have less withdrawal authority for such agreements. Indeed, in its trade legislation, Congress appears to have accepted that presidents may invoke such clauses unilaterally
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