39,881 research outputs found

    Analyzing Preschoolers Requirements to the Integration of Game Based Learning in Tanzania

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    The Tanzanian preschoolers’ experiences and skills of what they find pleasant and how they acquire knowledge in schools is a valuable source of inspiration for the blueprint of the language learning contents intended for them. In this paper, the researcher analyzes the preschoolers requirements that were gathered based on the available design of Tanzania Alphabetical Sound Quiz (TALSQ) prototype and the three approaches used in requirement gathering.  Active involvement of the Tanzanian preschoolers on the use of the game based alphabetical sound quiz prototype is also explored. From the requirements gathering, the inputs of the preschoolers’ capitulated constructive outcomes based on the graphical user interface and the contents of the English alphabetical sound articulation language learning settings under development. Further, issues related to the design association with preschoolers, particularly the preschoolers’ feelings of possession over the ultimate result have also been addressed. The results further revealed preschoolers enthusiasm to use the gamified sound quiz prototype in learning and that attitudes to gamification are not homogenous and depict particular relation to preschool educational setting. The features of digital inhabitants don’t apply to all preschoolers, which should be reflected in the subjects that employ the use of computers in preschools. Keywords: Preschoolers, Requirements, Sound articulation; User Interface, TALSQ prototyp

    幼児の自然認識の醸成に関する一考察 ―小学校教科への接続を意識した「落ち葉集め」と「たき火」の保育を事例に

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    This study examines what “memory elements” are connected, and how and when preschoolers use those elements to understand nature. Nature and how preschoolers understand it are relevant to elementary school subjects, such as Living Environment Science and Natural Science. Relying on White’s theory of memory elements (1988), this paper analyzes two case studies in which preschoolers brought various concepts of nature into their cognition and extracted relevant memory elements. The analysis clarifies how preschoolers cognize nature in and through their experiences. Findings from the study suggest that preschoolers’ original cognition settles into proto-experience when the obtained memory elements, such as images, motor skills, and episodes are enhanced by preschoolers’ relations with others, narratives of the situation, and their own emotional preference. The results also suggest the possibility that preschoolers’ improved cognition of nature helps them become capable of dealing with elementary school subjects as the structuring of their memory elements, and parts of their memory elements are verbalized and words are muttered, perhaps in the form of self-talk, and the memory elements are transformed into strings, propositions, and intellectual skills

    Parental socialization of emotion : how mothers respond to their children's emotions in Turkey

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    Several research studies suggest a link between parents’ emotion socialization and children’s social competence and behavior problems. Parents contribute to their children’s emotion socialization, more directly, through responses to their children’s emotions. Early emotion socialization experiences with parents establish patterns of emotion experience, expression, and regulation that children carry into their broader social circles. Few scales exist to document parents’ responses to children’s emotions. The aim of this study was to document mothers’ responses to their children’s sadness, anger, fear, and being overjoyed. A study sample of 868 mothers of preschoolers completed the questionnaire in Turkey. The validity and reliability properties of the Responses to Children’s Emotions (RCE) Questionnaire were also examined. We found that mothers in Turkey preferred to respond differently to children’s different emotions. Mothers’ responses generally did not differ according to the gender of their children; the only difference was found for sadness. Mothers’ responses to their children’s emotions related to the children’s and mothers’ ages, monthly family income, levels of mothers’ education, mothers’ employment status, birth order of children, and the city they lived in. This study is important in that it is the first to document mothers’ emotion socializationpeer-reviewe

    Revealing personal identity through conferences about short stories in low-ses preschoolers.

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    This paper reveals personal identity through conferences about short stories in low-SES (Socio Economic Status) preschoolers between four and five years old in a kindergarten from the ICBF (Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar) in Bogotá. This research project´s objective is to analyze low-Ses preschoolers´ personal identity through conferences about short stories, identify criteria that determine low-SES preschoolers´ personal identity and describe the relationship between personal identity criteria and low-SES preschoolers´ life experiences. To achieve this purpose, the researchers selected ten preschoolers between four and five years old, five girls and five boys. For the implementation there were seven sessions in total in which the researchers applied seven personal identity criteria by showing children different short stories. These stories were created by the researchers and tailored to be relevant to the children. Also, different reading comprehension strategies and activities were carried out, children then drew about their life experiences and answered multiple questions designed by the researchers which were called conferences. To collect the data, the researchers used field notes, children´s drawings and conferences. After the process, it was found that feeling like part of a family, building relationships, recognizing their bodies and abilities, absorbing their environment, using their imagination to solve problems and dreaming about their future were relevant aspects and are related to their personal identity

    Cultural variation in cognitive flexibility reveals diversity in the development of executive functions

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    Cognitive flexibility, the adaptation of representations and responses to new task demands, improves dramatically in early childhood. It is unclear, however, whether flexibility is a coherent, unitary cognitive trait, or is an emergent dimension of task-specific performance that varies across populations with divergent experiences. Three-to 5-year-old English-speaking U.S. children and Tswana-speaking South African children completed two distinct language-processing cognitive flexibility tests: the FIM-Animates, a word-learning test, and the 3DCCS, a rule-switching test. U.S. and South African children did not differ in word-learning flexibility but showed similar age-related increases. In contrast, U.S. preschoolers showed an age-related increase in rule-switching flexibility but South African children did not. Verbal recall explained additional variance in both tests but did not modulate the interaction between population sample (i.e., country) and task. We hypothesize that rule-switching flexibility might be more dependent upon particular kinds of cultural experiences, whereas word-learning flexibility is less cross-culturally variable

    Rural Families Choose Home-Based Child Care More Often Than Organized Care Facilities, Says New Carsey Institute Report

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    Intergenerational attitudes and experiences of older adults : a narrative analysis set within a retirement village participating in a intergenerational programme (IGP) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

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    iPlayed is an intergenerational programme (IGP) taking place between residents of a retirement village in Wellington, New Zealand and preschoolers at a childcare facility nearby. IGPs have been designed to address an increasingly age segregated society and have been shown to have multiple benefits for older people, including generativity (a need to nurture and guide younger people). As no research on the IGP experience of older adults exists in New Zealand, this research aimed to not only understand this, from the older adults’ perspective, but to also understand their views and experiences of IGPs in general, and about preschool aged children. In-depth interviews were conducted with eighteen retirement village dwelling older adults about their experiences and then analysed using narrative analysis. From the eight identified narratives the iPlayed experience was found to be a brief, life affirming experience and one in which they had to adopt certain roles in order to enhance enjoyment. Beyond this, no deeper meaning was assigned to it. The influence of ageing being a time of contribution back to society was evident, and, for some, iPlayed was positioned within this narrative as an option to accomplish this. iPlayed was also located within the context of a retirement village as a means to reclaim some of the social identity lost through moving to this environment. Deep meaning was ascribed to the role of great grandparent or grandparent and familial generative exchanges were identified as operating indirectly through the parents of the preschoolers and not via an exchange of cultural artefacts, wisdom or knowledge with the young child. With non-kin children, the traditional direction of generativity was challenged, with older adults implying that the younger person’s knowledge of modern technologies was of more benefit to them compared to what they had to offer. Participants identified that, in general, interacting with preschool aged children is stimulating and beneficial, but is not for all older people. In its current design iPlayed was queried, by those not participating in it, for how this might be impacting on its ability to provide an opportunity for older people to be generative or even as a means for people to contribute to the community they live within. These findings recognise a different social milieu in operation today, the experience of ageing in New Zealand and how intergenerational exchange fits within this. Set amongst the powerful social narrative to age ‘successfully’ active today, this research has identified that IGPs can carry out an important role within this structuring force. Building on from this study, researchers should aim to further understand the views and perceptions of older people on younger people which will, in turn, help policymakers and IGP developers harness the best of what both young and old have to offer each other. Finally, for those working in the IGP field, the concept of generativity between non-kin older people and preschoolers needs further exploration
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