9,593 research outputs found

    "Society of Hematologic Oncology (SOHO) State of the Art Updates and Next Questions"-Treatment of ALL.

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    The outcome of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has substantially improved by adopting pediatric-inspired regimens, and approximately half of the patients are nowadays cured. The evaluation of minimal residual disease currently represents the most important prognostic indicator, which drives treatment algorithms, which include allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) allocation. Indeed, for high-risk patients, allo-SCT should be pursued as soon as possible, whereas in standard-risk patients this procedure should be avoided also in light of related toxicity and because there are no significant benefits. Furthermore, better characterization of the molecular genetic events can drive therapeutic decisions: a historical example in this respect is represented by the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL; in the upcoming future, TKIs might be used also in other subgroups, such as breakpoint cluster region/Abelson 1-like cases and others with deregulated tyrosine kinases. Finally, the greatest progress is currently achieved with new immunotherapies targeting frequently expressed surface antigens in ALL. It is also a new chance for elderly ALL patients, so far spared from intensive chemotherapy and allo-SCT. These targeted therapies will substantially change this treatment algorithm and the great challenge is to find optimal sequence of the extended therapy options in an individual patient

    T-Lineage Lymphoblastic Lymphoma and Leukemia—a MASSive Problem

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    T cell precursor malignancies may present as T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) with marked enlargement of lymph nodes or acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with little lymph node enlargement. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Feng et al. show that dysregulation of BCL2, AKT signaling, and cell adhesion pathways are hallmarks of T-LBL

    A comprehensive microarray-based DNA methylation study of 367 hematological neoplasms

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    Background: Alterations in the DNA methylation pattern are a hallmark of leukemias and lymphomas. However, most epigenetic studies in hematologic neoplasms (HNs) have focused either on the analysis of few candidate genes or many genes and few HN entities, and comprehensive studies are required. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here, we report for the first time a microarray-based DNA methylation study of 767 genes in 367 HNs diagnosed with 16 of the most representative B-cell (n = 203), T-cell (n = 30), and myeloid (n = 134) neoplasias, as well as 37 samples from different cell types of the hematopoietic system. Using appropriate controls of B-, T-, or myeloid cellular origin, we identified a total of 220 genes hypermethylated in at least one HN entity. In general, promoter hypermethylation was more frequent in lymphoid malignancies than in myeloid malignancies, being germinal center mature B-cell lymphomas as well as B and T precursor lymphoid neoplasias those entities with highest frequency of gene-associated DNA hypermethylation. We also observed a significant correlation between the number of hypermethylated and hypomethylated genes in several mature B-cell neoplasias, but not in precursor B- and T-cell leukemias. Most of the genes becoming hypermethylated contained promoters with high CpG content, and a significant fraction of them are targets of the polycomb repressor complex. Interestingly, T-cell prolymphocytic leukemias show low levels of DNA hypermethylation and a comparatively large number of hypomethylated genes, many of them showing an increased gene expression. Conclusions/Significance: We have characterized the DNA methylation profile of a wide range of different HNs entities. As well as identifying genes showing aberrant DNA methylation in certain HN subtypes, we also detected six genes—DBC1, DIO3, FZD9, HS3ST2, MOS, and MYOD1—that were significantly hypermethylated in B-cell, T-cell, and myeloid malignancies. These might therefore play an important role in the development of different HNs

    No genetic evidence for involvement of Deltaretroviruses in adult patients with precursor and mature T-cell neoplasms

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    Background The Deltaretrovirus genus comprises viruses that infect humans (HTLV), various simian species (STLV) and cattle (BLV). HTLV-I is the main causative agent in adult T-cell leukemia in endemic areas and some of the simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses have been implicated in the induction of malignant lymphomas in their hosts. BLV causes enzootic bovine leukosis in infected cattle or sheep. During the past few years several new Deltaretrovirus isolates have been described in various primate species. Two new HTLV-like viruses in humans have recently been identified and provisionally termed HTLV-III and HTLV-IV. In order to identify a broad spectrum of Deltaretroviruses by a single PCR approach we have established a novel consensus PCR based on nucleotide sequence data obtained from 42 complete virus isolates (HTLV-I/-II, STLV-I/-II/-III, BLV). The primer sequences were based on highly interspecies-conserved virus genome regions. We used this PCR to detect Deltaretroviruses in samples from adult patients with a variety of rare T-cell neoplasms in Germany. Results: The sensitivity of the consensus PCR was at least between 10-2 and 10-3 with 100% specificity as demonstrated by serial dilutions of cell lines infected with either HTLV-I, HTLV-II or BLV. Fifty acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) samples and 33 samples from patients with various rare mature T-cell neoplasms (T-PLL, Sezary syndrome and other T-NHL) were subsequently investigated. There were no cases with HTLV-I, HTLV-II or any other Deltaretroviruses. Conclusions: The results rule out a significant involvement of HTLV-I or HTLV-II in these disease entities and show that other related Deltaretroviruses are not likely to be involved. The newly established Deltaretrovirus PCR may be a useful tool for identifying new Deltaretroviruses

    Pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with bulk extramedullary disease and chromosome 22 (EWSR1) rearrangement masquerading as Ewing sarcoma

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    We report a 2-year-old female with a subcutaneous tumor who was initially misdiagnosed as suffering from Ewing sarcoma with a positive EWSR1 rearrangement and EWS/FLI1 transcript. After finding lymphoblasts in peripheral blood, the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was established. This necessitated further analysis of the subcutaneous tumor. The tissue was positive for immature B-cell markers and an immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement, which confirmed the final diagnosis of common type acute lymphoblastic leukemia with bulk extramedullary disease. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and was in remission 30 months after the diagnosis

    The molecular basis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) arise from the malignant transformation of hematopoietic progenitors primed toward T cell development, as result of a multistep oncogenic process involving constitutive activation of NOTCH signaling and genetic alterations in transcription factors, signaling oncogenes, and tumor suppressors. Notably, these genetic alterations define distinct molecular groups of T-ALL with specific gene expression signatures and clinicobiological features. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of T-ALL

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children and Adolescents: Progress Through Effective Collaboration, Current Knowledge, and Challenges Ahead

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    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the fourth most common malignancy in children, has an even higher incidence in adolescents, and is primarily represented by only a few histologic subtypes. Dramatic progress has been achieved, with survival rates exceeding 80%, in large part because of a better understanding of the biology of the different subtypes and national and international collaborations. Most patients with Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma are cured with short intensive pulse chemotherapy containing cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, and high-dose methotrexate. The benefit of the addition of rituximab has not been established except in the case of primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. Lymphoblastic lymphoma is treated with intensive, semi-continuous, longer leukemia-derived protocols. Relapses in B-cell and lymphoblastic lymphomas are rare and infrequently curable, even with intensive approaches. Event-free survival rates of approximately 75% have been achieved in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas with various regimens that generally include a short intensive B-like regimen. Immunity seems to play an important role in prognosis and needs further exploration to determine its therapeutic application. ALK inhibitor therapeutic approaches are currently under investigation. For all pediatric lymphomas, the intensity of induction/consolidation therapy correlates with acute toxicities, but because of low cumulative doses of anthracyclines and alkylating agents, minimal or no long-term toxicity is expected. Challenges that remain include defining the value of prognostic factors, such as early response on positron emission tomography/computed tomography and minimal disseminated and residual disease, using new biologic technologies to improve risk stratification, and developing innovative therapies, both in the first-line setting and for relapse

    Benign TdT-positive cells in pediatric and adult lymph nodes: a potential diagnostic pitfall

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    Benign TdT-positive cells have been documented in a variety of non-hematopoietic tissues. Scant data are however available on their presence in non-neoplastic lymph nodes. This study is aimed to: (i) characterize the presence/distribution of benign TdT-positive cells in pediatric and adult reactive lymph nodes; (ii) define the phenotype and nature of such elements. This retrospective study considered 141 reactive lymph nodes from pediatric and adult patients without history of neoplastic disease. TdT-positive cells were characterized by immunohistochemical and morphometric analyses and their presence was correlated with the clinical-pathological features. The nature of TdT-positive cells was investigated by: (i) double immunostaining for early lymphoid cell markers; and (ii) assessment of TdT expression in fetal lymph nodes. Sparse TdT-positive cells were documented in all pediatric cases and in most (76%) adult lymph nodes. TdT-positive cell density was higher in children than adults (15.9/mm2 versus 8.6/mm2; P<.05). TdT positivity did not correlate with any clinical and histological parameter and double immunostaining disclosed a phenotype compatible with early lymphoid precursors (positivity for CD34, CD10 and variable expression of CD7). A very high TdT-positive cell density (802.4/mm2) was reported in all fetal lymph nodes. In conclusion, TdT-positive cells are a common finding in pediatric and adult lymph nodes. The interstitial distribution and low number of such cells allows for the differential diagnosis with precursor lymphoid neoplasms. The high density in fetal lymph nodes and the phenotype of such cells suggest their belonging to an immature lymphoid subset gradually decreasing with age

    New approaches to the management of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Traditional treatment regimens for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, including allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, result in an overall survival of about 40%, a figure hardly comparable with the extraordinary 80-90% cure rate currently reported in children. When translated to the adult setting, modern pediatric-type regimens improve the survival to about 60% in young adults. The addition of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive disease and the measurement of minimal residual disease to guide risk stratification and post-remission approaches has led to further improvements in outcomes. Relapsed disease and treatment toxicity - sparing no patient but representing a major concern especially in the elderly - are the most critical current issues awaiting further therapeutic advancement. Recently, there has been considerable progress in understanding the disease biology, specifically the Philadelphia-like signature as well as other high-risk subgroups. In addition, there are several new agents that will undoubtedly contribute to further improvement in the current outcomes. The most promising agents are new the monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulators, and chimeric antigen receptor T cells and, to a lesser extent, several new drugs targeting key molecular pathways involved in leukemic cell growth and proliferation. This review examines the evidence supporting the increasing role of the new therapeutic tools and treatment options in different disease subgroups, including frontline and relapsed/refractory disease. It is now possible to define the best individual approach based on to the emerging concepts of precision medicine
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