11,297 research outputs found

    Highly cited publication performance in the ophthalmology category in the Web of Science database: a bibliometric analysis

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    AIM: To determine and evaluate the features of highly cited articles (HCAs) in the ophthalmology category in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) from 1991 to 2020. METHODS: The Web of Science Core Collection documents with at least 100 citations from their publication year until December 31, 2020, were evaluated as highly cited. The examined features were the distribution of yearly output and its average number of per publication, HCAs, authors, institutions, journals, and nations. The publication performance of nations and organizations was assessed using six publication indicators. The Y-index was employed to compare the research outputs of various authors. RESULTS: Publications that had cited the most references were highly published in high-impact factor journals. The United States of America came out on top across all six publication indicators, and it was home to eight of the top 10 most productive institutions. The articles written by Breivik et al (2006) and Farrar et al (2001) were highly cited and had a significant impact in 2020. The authors had a higher number of highly cited articles published as corresponding authors than as first authors. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study highlight the current scope of global research in ophthalmology. The findings can help policy-makers and advisory groups of research centers to develop future policies. In addition, the findings can guide researchers in this field

    Green Dental Environmentalism among Students and Dentists in Greece

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    Ηuman sustainability in dental enterprises, as in every workplace, is connected to air and water quality, eco-friendly and naturally designed working spaces, and the culture of the 4Rs. The purpose of this study was to assess pro-environmental behavior, as well as knowledge of preferences for circular economies and green building construction, among a sample of dental students and dentists in Greece. We further assessed the factors influencing their choices. Students (N1 = 93) and dentists (N2 = 126) filled in e-questionnaires from April to December 2022. The data revealed that both students and dentists lack knowledge about the circular economy (N1 = 67.74%, N2 = 68.25%), EU regulations on amalgam disposal (N1 = 64.51%, N2 = 58.73%), and plastic recycling (N1 = 76.34%, N2 = 76.98%); meanwhile, they do recycle at home (N1 = 80.64%, N2 = 82.54%) and have participated in voluntary environmental initiatives (N1 = 58.06%, N2 = 66.66%). Gender influences the importance of factors related to green dental practices, with women students being more likely to agree that increased costs for network changes (p = 0.02) and poor wastewater management (p = 0.01) are significant. Students from urban areas are more likely to give positive answers to questions related to the lack of state financial support (p = 0.02), low levels of green design in buildings (p = 0.03), the negligible direct financial benefits of green dental offices (p = 0.04), the negligible reputational benefits of green dental offices (p = 0.02), and the lack of continuing education training seminars on green dentistry (p = 0.05). For dentists, no significant relationships were observed, except for a weak positive relationship for the increases in costs due to changes related to utility networks (p = 0.08), while increases in waste energy (p = 0.12) and the waste of dental materials (p = 0.19) seemed significant only for dentists in urban areas. Women dentists were more likely to answer positively regarding wasting energy (p = 0.024) and the use of unapproved disinfection products (p = 0.036). The findings contribute ideas and solutions for green dental practice buildings and sustainable behaviors through educational activities and regarding the social aspects of factors such as age, experience in dentistry, gender, and urbanism. This study also provides a basis for future multi-disciplinary research on dental quality assurance, the psychology of environmentalism, economics, and behavioral science in dentistry

    Now You Can Take It with You: Effects of Occupational Credential Recognition on Labor Market Outcomes

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    Occupational credentials are typically not portable across geography. Using policy reforms by U.S. states, we show that the limited portability of occupational licenses constrains labor market activity and geographic mobility of licensed individuals. After states implement universal recognition, a policy that allows individuals with occupational licenses issued by other states to work without repeating a costly relicensing procedure, we find that the employment ratio increases by 0.98 percentage points among licensed individuals in the sample relative to unlicensed individuals. The employment effect is co-driven by additional labor market participation and a reduction in unemployment after the policy. With the employment effect, we also find some evidence of a decline in hourly wages among licensed individuals after the policy. Regarding geographic mobility, we show that migration into states with universal recognition increased by 0.77 percentage points or 48.4% among individuals with low portability licenses. Our findings suggest that universal recognition improves license portability and labor market efficiency

    Oral health, sugary drink consumption and the soft drink industry levy: using spatial microsimulation to understand tooth decay

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    Spatial microsimulation is a powerful tool for creating large-scale population datasets that can be used to assess spatial phenomena in health-related outcomes. Despite this, it remains underutilized within dental public health. This paper outlines the development of an oral health focused microsimulation model for Sheffield (UK, SimSheffield), and how this can be used to assess potential socio-spatial impacts of a sugar tax which was introduced in the United Kingdom in 2016 and is known as the Soft Drink Industry Levy (SDIL). Exploratory analysis showed areas paying more SDIL were not those with the highest tooth decay or deprivation scores as might be hoped (in the first case) and expected from the literature (in the second)

    An Exploration of the Suitability of Pharmacy Education in Saudi Arabia to Prepare Graduates to Meet Healthcare Needs: a Mixed-Methods Study

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    The key role of pharmacists within the health system, particularly in optimising safe, responsible and effective use of medicines, underpins the demand for a highly skilled and competent workforce. Therefore, developing the capacity of pharmacists to attain and maintain essential competencies relevant to the population’s health needs is required to ensure a high standard of patient care, thereby helping to improve patient and population health. In Saudi Arabia, little evidence exists regarding the assessment of national educational programmes’ structure and outcomes. Moreover, no national competency framework exists for pharmacists in any sector or stage of practice. In the absence of such core quality elements to inform pharmacy education assessment and development, the extent to which pharmacy schools in Saudi Arabia prepare competent pharmacists to address societal needs from pharmacy services is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the extent to which pharmacy education can prepare competent pharmacists to address the healthcare needs for pharmacy practice in Saudi Arabia. An exploratory sequential mixed methods research design was used to address the aim of this study in three phases: individual interviews and focus groups were employed with a purposively selected sample of pharmacy policy makers, pharmacists and the public to explore societal healthcare needs and the roles required of pharmacists to meet those needs; a national online survey of pharmacists and an online nominal group consensus method of pharmacy experts were used to identify competencies considered essential to develop a profession-wide national foundation level competency framework; and a case study in which curriculum mapping of two purposively selected Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) curricula was used to assess the extent to which the current pharmacy programme in Saudi Arabia meets the identified competencies of the developed national competency framework. Based on qualitative and quantitative analyses of societal healthcare needs, pharmacists’ roles, core competencies and curricular contents within the local context of Saudi Arabia, findings showed that there is a mismatch between initial education and real practice needs and expectations. While the country’s current needs from pharmacists are to optimise health system capacity and increase access to primary care services and medicines expertise in community pharmacies, the study indicated local education is product-oriented with a focus of curricular content and experiential training opportunities in most schools on preparing future pharmacists for hospital pharmacy practice. The study also identified several gaps between current initial education programmes and the competencies required to practise the expected roles, suggesting that current initial education might not prepare the students sufficiently to provide the full range of quality pharmaceutical services as per the country’s pharmacy practice needs. The study provided a new understanding of graduates’ readiness to practise as per the country’s pharmacy practice needs, the quality of educational programmes and pharmacists' professional development opportunities in Saudi Arabia. Findings maybe used to inform the development of competency-based education and maximise graduates’ capacity to deliver and develop pharmaceutical services effectively to best meet societal healthcare needs in Saudi Arabia

    Modeling, Simulation and Data Processing for Additive Manufacturing

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    Additive manufacturing (AM) or, more commonly, 3D printing is one of the fundamental elements of Industry 4.0. and the fourth industrial revolution. It has shown its potential example in the medical, automotive, aerospace, and spare part sectors. Personal manufacturing, complex and optimized parts, short series manufacturing and local on-demand manufacturing are some of the current benefits. Businesses based on AM have experienced double-digit growth in recent years. Accordingly, we have witnessed considerable efforts in developing processes and materials in terms of speed, costs, and availability. These open up new applications and business case possibilities all the time, which were not previously in existence. Most research has focused on material and AM process development or effort to utilize existing materials and processes for industrial applications. However, improving the understanding and simulation of materials and AM process and understanding the effect of different steps in the AM workflow can increase the performance even more. The best way of benefit of AM is to understand all the steps related to that—from the design and simulation to additive manufacturing and post-processing ending the actual application.The objective of this Special Issue was to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to exchange their latest achievements and identify critical issues and challenges for future investigations on “Modeling, Simulation and Data Processing for Additive Manufacturing”. The Special Issue consists of 10 original full-length articles on the topic

    COVID-19 Outbreak and Beyond

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    The COVID-19 pandemic drastically changed our lifestyle when, on 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease outbreak a public health emergency of international concern. Since then, many governments have introduced unprecedented containment measures, hoping to slow the spread of the virus. International research suggests that both the pandemic and the related protective measures, such as lockdown, curfews, and social distancing, are having a profound impact on the mental health of the population. Among the most commonly observed psychological effects, there are high levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic symptoms, along with boredom and frustration. At the same time, the behavioral response of the population is of paramount importance to successfully contain the outbreak, creating a vicious circle in which the psychological distress impacts the willingness to comply with the protective measures, which, in turn, if prolonged, could exacerbate the population’s distress. This book includes: i) original studies on the worldwide psychological and behavioral impact of COVID-19 on targeted individuals (e.g., parents, social workers, patients affected by physical and mental disorders); ii) studies exploring the effect of COVID-19 using advanced statistical and methodological techniques (e.g., machine learning technologies); iii) research on practical applications that could help identify persons at risk, mitigate the negative effects of this situation, and offer insights to policymakers to manage the pandemic are also highly welcomed

    Filling in the Gap: A quantitative analysis of dental restoration types among body donors of Asian descent at the Mann-Labrash Osteological Collection

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    The Mann-Labrash Osteological Collection at the University of Hawai’i John A. Burns School of Medicine houses over 230 skeletal remains amassed through the Willed Body Program. Of these donors, seventy-eight were of East and Southeast Asian American and Pacific Islander descent. This unique collection offers an exciting opportunity for skeletal analyses of these populations left understudied in the body of anthropological scientific literature. This thesis explores the dietary causes of dental disease and dental restorations from the past to the present. Additionally, macroscopic analyses and Chi-square statistical tests determined which sex cohorts utilized dental restorative prostheses in life. Also addressed are the socioeconomic determinants of dental care access among these underrepresented groups. Lastly, because of the marginal availability of East and Southeast Asian American and Pacific Islander skeletal remains in US reference collections, an examination of death ideologies and organ donor hesitancies held by these communities are reviewed

    Adolescent valuation of CARIES-QC-U: a child-centred preference-based measure of dental caries

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    Objectives: This study develops an adolescent value set for a child-centred dental caries-specific measure of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) based upon CARIES-QC (Caries Impacts and Experiences Questionnaire for Children). This study develops a new approach to valuing child health by eliciting adolescent preferences and anchoring these onto the 1-0 full health-dead QALY (quality adjusted life year) scale using ordinal adult preferences.Methods: Two online surveys were created to elicit preferences for the CARIES-QC classification system. The first comprised best-worst scaling (BWS) tasks for completion by adolescents aged 11-16 years. The second comprised discrete choice experiment tasks with a duration attribute (DCETTO) for completion by adults aged over 18 years. Preferences were modelled using the conditional logit model. Mapping regressions anchored the adolescent BWS data onto the QALY scale using adult DCETTO values, since the BWS survey data alone cannot generate anchored values.Results: 723 adolescents completed the BWS survey and 626 adults completed the DCE(TTO )survey. The samples were representative of UK adolescent and adult populations. Fully consistent and robust models were produced for both BWS and DCETTO data. BWS preferences were mapped onto DCETTO values, resulting utility estimates for each health state defined by the classification system.Conclusion: This is the first measure with predetermined scoring based on preferences to be developed specifically for use in child oral health research, and uses a novel technique to generate a value set using adolescent preferences. The estimates can be used to generate QALYs in economic evaluations of interventions to improve children's oral health
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