42,112 research outputs found

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    Structural and Attitudinal Barriers to Bicycle Ownership and Cycle-Based Transport in Gauteng, South Africa

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    Policies that aim to facilitate and promote non-motorised transport (NMT), and in particular cycling, have been developed by many high-income countries facing increasingly congested roads and saturated public transport systems. Such policies are also emerging in many low- and middle-income settings where high rates of urbanisation have led to similar problems with motorised transport. The aim of the present study was to better understand the potential structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport in one such context: South Africa‚Äôs Gauteng Province, the industrial powerhouse of sub-Saharan Africa that has recently made a firm commitment to NMT. The study focussed on demographic and socioeconomic variation in bicycle and car ownership, and related this to: (1) the reported use of motorised and non-motorised transport (both private and public); and (2) perceived ‚Äėproblems‚Äô with cycling. The analyses drew on interviews with key respondents from n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ27,490 households conducted in 2013 as part of the third Quality of Life survey undertaken by the Gauteng City Regional Observatory. The survey contained items on three outcomes of interest: household vehicle ownership (bicycles and cars); modes of transport used for the ‚Äútrips‚ÄĚ most often made; and respondents‚Äô ‚Äúsingle biggest problem with‚Ķ cycling‚ÄĚ. Respondent- and household-level demographic and socioeconomic determinants of these outcomes were examined using descriptive and multivariable statistical analyses, the latter after adjustment for measured potential confounders identified using a theoretical causal path diagram (in the form of a directed acyclic graph). Of the n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ26,469 households providing complete data on all of the variables examined in the present study, only n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ8722 (32.9%) owned a car and fewer still (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2244; 8.4%) owned a bicycle. The ownership of these assets was commonest amongst wealthier, economically active households; and those that owned a car had over five times the odds of also owning a bicycle, even after adjustment for potential confounding (OR 5.17; 95% CI 4.58, 5.85). Moreover, of household respondents who reported making ‚Äėtrips‚Äô during the preceding month (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ18,209), over two-thirds of those whose households owned a car (70.1%) reported private car-based transport for such trips, while only 3.2% of those owning a bicycle reported cycling. Amongst the specific responses given to the item requesting the ‚Äúsingle biggest problem with‚Ķ cycling‚ÄĚ by far the commonest was ‚ÄúDon‚Äôt know how to cycle‚ÄĚ (32.2%), less than half as many citing ‚ÄúVehicle accident risk‚ÄĚ (15.9%), and fewer still: ‚ÄúDestination is too far‚ÄĚ (13.9%); ‚ÄúCrime‚ÄĚ (10.3%); ‚ÄúToo much effort‚ÄĚ (9.2%); or ‚ÄúLack of good paths‚ÄĚ (4.6%). While the first of these reasons was commonest amongst poorer households, concerns about risk and effort were both most common amongst better educated, economically active and wealthier/better serviced households. In contrast, concerns over (cycle) paths were only common amongst those owning bicycles. The low prevalence of household bicycle ownership, and the disproportionate number of households owning bicycles that also owned cars, might explain the very small proportion of the ‚Äėthe trips most often made‚Äô that involved cycle-based transport (0.3%), and the preferential use of cars amongst households owning both bicycles and cars. Low levels of bicycle ownership might also explain why so many respondents cited ‚ÄúDon‚Äôt know how‚ÄĚ as the ‚Äúsingle biggest problem with‚Ķ cycling‚ÄĚ; although risk and effort were also substantial concerns (presumably for many who did, and some who did not, know how to cycle); the lack of suitable cycle lanes being only primarily a concern for those who actually owned bicycles. Structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport limit the use of cycle-based transport in Gauteng, not only amongst the vast majority of household respondents who lack the means to cycle (and the means to learn how), but also amongst those dissuaded from learning to cycle, purchasing a bicycle and/or using a bicycle they own by: the risks and effort involved; the lack of suitable cycle paths; and/or because they also own a car and prefer to drive than cycle

    The Time Devil runs amok: How I improved my creative practice by adopting a multimodal approach for a specific audience.

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    This research illustrates how teacher-writers can improve their craft and pedagogy by writing for a specific audience, namely school children. It also illustrates why they might do so. It interrogates what was learnt from an innovative collaboration between a university teacher-education department, an inner-city secondary school and the United Kingdom‚Äôs National Maritime Museum (NMM). Multimodality (Barnard 2019) inspired the project: local spaces, institutional settings, historical objects, photographs, pictures, time-travelling films and narratives motivated the teacher-writer and participants to read and respond imaginatively to the world. The author found that the project caused him to ‚Äúremediate‚ÄĚ his own practice: to transfer ‚Äúexisting skills in order to tackle new genres‚ÄĚ (Barnard 2019: 121). This process enabled him to become a more effective writer and teacher. The research shows that the problem of multimodal overload ‚Äď having too much choice regarding what to write about and the many forms writing can take ‚Äď can be circumnavigated if participants are given both autonomy and constraints. It illustrates in some depth how the concept of reciprocity is vital to adopt if writers are to improve their craft

    Metodología de intervención para trabajar ODS. Educación a través de las artes

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    La Agenda 2030 presenta 17 Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS), con sus metas e indicadores universales que los pa√≠ses miembros de la ONU emplean para enmarcar sus pol√≠ticas. Entre las metas del ODS 4 ‚Äúeducaci√≥n de calidad‚ÄĚ encontramos: ‚Äúasegurar que todos los alumnos adquieran los conocimientos te√≥ricos y pr√°cticos necesarios para promover el desarrollo sostenible, entre otras cosas mediante la educaci√≥n para el desarrollo sostenible y los estilos de vida sostenibles, los derechos humanos, la igualdad de g√©nero, la promoci√≥n de una cultura de paz y no violencia, la ciudadan√≠a mundial y la valoraci√≥n de la diversidad cultural y la contribuci√≥n de la cultura al desarrollo sostenible‚ÄĚ. La educaci√≥n, se considera el motor de la Agenda 2030 porque, adem√°s de representar el centro del ODS 4, desempe√Īa tambi√©n un papel notable en la implementaci√≥n de los dem√°s, mejorando su alcance y efectividad. As√≠ pues, entre las disciplinas que sustentan este trabajo se escogi√≥ la Educaci√≥n para el Desarrollo Sostenible y la Ciudadan√≠a Global como marco de acci√≥n y punto de partida en la formaci√≥n de los ciudadanos de un futuro viable, equitativo y habitable. Se continu√≥ investigando las oportunidades del desarrollo de la Competencia Intercultural en las relaciones humanas, aquello que diferencia a unas personas de otras puede aportar al conjunto de la sociedad y c√≥mo la educaci√≥n permitir√≠a su aprovechamiento. Con todo ello, se plante√≥ el marco did√°ctico de interacci√≥n en el cual se implement√≥ la interculturalidad en el ejercicio educativo. Se estudi√≥ as√≠ el poder de las artes como medio de motivaci√≥n e inspiraci√≥n a la hora de transmitir de la manera m√°s eficaz posible los valores considerados m√°s arriba. El objetivo del presente estudio se centra en demostrar el potencial de las artes para fomentar las competencias comunicativas, sociales, interculturales, emocionales, de ciudadan√≠a y sostenibilidad. Para ello, se ha realizado una investigaci√≥n aplicada que deriva en una propuesta concreta de intervenci√≥n con un programa educativo destinado a la ense√Īanza de lenguas, tanto primera como extranjera, en distintos niveles de la educaci√≥n formal en Mali y en Espa√Īa, aplicando un m√©todo hol√≠stico basado en el paradigma interpretativo. A trav√©s de la pintura, la literatura y el cine, se plantean una serie de actividades ideadas para crear un entorno educativo integrador, favorecer el empoderamiento del alumnado y promover el pensamiento cr√≠tico, la empat√≠a, la resiliencia, la comunicaci√≥n, la cooperaci√≥n y la educaci√≥n intercultural, como competencias esenciales para la consecuci√≥n de los 17 ODS, la construcci√≥n de un mundo transcultural sostenible y el desarrollo de una ciudadan√≠a global preparada para los retos del siglo XXI. En la metodolog√≠a de este proceso educativo innovador, multidisciplinar, flexible y adaptable, se ha empleado un an√°lisis del proceso de investigaci√≥n para monitorizarlo adecuadamente (DAFO). Cada una de las propuestas presenta una recogida de datos cualitativos (observaci√≥n, r√ļbricas) y cuantitativos (encuestas, entrevistas) y se ofrece un an√°lisis de contraste de los resultados finales. Con todo, se espera facilitar la exigente tarea que supone hacer consciente a la sociedad de base (desde la misma infancia; desde los niveles m√°s bajos de la misma y en todos los niveles de la educaci√≥n formal) de en qu√© consisten los ODS y su relevancia para hacer de todas las personas corresponsables directas en su consecuci√≥n para garantizar un futuro sostenible para toda la ciudadan√≠a global.The 2030 Agenda presents 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with their universal targets and indicators that UN member countries use to frame their policies. Among the targets of SDG 4 ‚Äúquality education,‚ÄĚ we find the one that seeks: ‚Äúto ensure that all students acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to promote sustainable development, among other things through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, the promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, world citizenship and the appreciation of cultural diversity and the contribution of culture to sustainable development‚ÄĚ. Education is considered the engine of the 2030 Agenda because, in addition to representing the centre of SDG 4, it also plays a notable role in the implementation of the others, improving their scope and effectiveness. Among the disciplines that support this research, Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship sets the framework for action and represents a starting point in the formation of citizens for a viable, equitable and habitable future. Global citizenship implies human relations and those and intrinsically shaped by culture. Intercultural Education and, more specifically, the development of Intercultural Competence needed to be considered. What differentiates some people from others can contribute to society as a whole and education is the means to explore and understand. For the design of a didactic framework of interaction, the power of the arts was studied as a means of motivation and inspiration when transmitting the values considered above in the most effective way possible. The objective of this study focuses on proving the potential of the arts to promote communicative, social, intercultural, emotional, citizenship and sustainability skills. For this, the theoretical research derived in a concrete intervention proposal with an educational program in language teaching, both first and foreign languages, at different levels of formal education in Mali and Spain, applying a holistic method based on the interpretive paradigm. Through painting, literature and cinema, a series of activities were designed to create an inclusive educational environment, favour the empowerment of students and promote critical thinking, empathy, resilience, communication, cooperation and intercultural education, as essential skills for the achievement of the 17 SDGs, the construction of a sustainable transcultural world and the development of global citizenship prepared for the challenges of the 21st century. In the methodology of this innovative, multidisciplinary, flexible and adaptable educational process, an analysis of the research process has been used to adequately monitor it (SWOT). Each of the proposals presents a collection of qualitative data (observation, rubrics) and quantitative data (surveys, interviews) and contrast analysis of the final results is offered. All in all, it is expected to facilitate the demanding task of making basic society aware (from childhood itself, from its lowest levels and at all levels of formal education) of what the SDGs consist of and their relevance to make all people directly co-responsible in its achievement to guarantee a sustainable future for all global citizens

    The labour supply and retirement of older workers: an empirical analysis

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    This thesis examines the labour supply of older workers, their movement into retirement, and any movement out of retirement and back into work. In particular the labour force participation, labour supply and wage elasticity and other income elasticity of work hours are estimated for older workers and compared to younger workers. The thesis goes on to look at the movement into retirement for older workers as a whole by examining cohorts by gender, wave and age. The thesis also presents a descriptive and quantitative ‚ÄĘ examination of the changes in income and happiness that occur as an individual retires. Finally the thesis examines the reasons why an individual may return to work from v . retirement. The results of the findings suggest: that younger workers are significantly more responsive to wage and household income changes than older worker

    The company she keeps : The social and interpersonal construction of girls same sex friendships

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    This thesis begins a critical analysis of girls' 'private' interpersonal and social relations as they are enacted within two school settings. It is the study of these marginal subordinated worlds productivity of forms of femininity which provides the main narrative of this project. I seek to understand these processes of (best) friendship construction through a feminist multi-disciplinary frame, drawing upon cultural studies, psychoanalysis and accounts of gender politics. I argue that the investments girls bring to their homosocial alliances and boundary drawing narry a psychological compulsion which is complexly connected to their own experiences within the mother/daughter bond as well as reflecting positively an immense social debt to the permissions girls have to be nurturant and ; negatively their own reproduction of oppressive exclusionary practices. Best friendship in particular gives girls therefore, the experience of 'monogamy' continuous of maternal/daughter identification, reminiscent of their positioning inside monopolistic forms of heterosexuality. But these subcultures also represent a subversive discontinuity to the public dominance of boys/teachers/adults in schools and to the ideologies and practices of heterosociality and heterosexuality. By taking seriously their transmission of the values of friendship in their chosen form of notes and diaries for example, I was able to access the means whereby they were able to resist their surveillance and control by those in power over them. I conclude by arguing that it is through a recognition of the valency of these indivisiblly positive and negative aspects to girls cultures that Equal Opportunities practitioners must begin if they are serious about their ambitions. Methods have to be made which enable girls to transfer their 'private' solidarities into the 'public' realm, which unquestionably demands contesting with them the causes and consequences of their implication in the divisions which also contaminate their lives and weaken them

    Self-help/mutual aid groups in mental health : ideology, helping mechanisms and empowerment

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    In the last quarter of the twentieth century, self-help/mutual aid groups for mental health issues started to emerge in growing numbers, mainly in Western societies, offering and/or advocating for alternative non-traditional forms of support, and attracted the attention of many researchers and clinicians for their unique characteristics. Among the subjects of interest are typologies of groups, helping mechanisms and benefits from participation. However, there is lack of systematic research in the area and existing studies have been largely confined to the therapeutic value of these groups instead of acknowledging their socio-political meaning and subsequent psychosocial benefits for their members like personal empowerment. The present study was conducted during the transitional years from a Conservative to a newly elected Labour Government (1996 -1998), with subsequent policy shifts taking place in the welfare sector. The purpose of the study was to explore the potential of self-help groups as part of a broader new social movement, the service user movement, focussing on the English scene. It addressed this issue examining the relevance of a group typology based on political ideology and focus of change. To test the validity of this classification for members, a set of individual characteristics and group mechanisms as well as their change through time were examined. The sample consisted of fourteen mental health selfhelp/mutual aid groups from London and South East England, with a variety of structural and organisational features. The methodology used was a combination of both quantitative (self-completion questionnaires) and qualitative techniques (analysis of written material, participant observation and interviews). Measurements were repeated after a one-year interval (Time 1N=67, Time 2 N=56). Findings showed that, indeed, political ideology of self-help/mutual aid groups provided the basis of a meaningful typology and constitutes a comprehensive way of categorising them. Group ideology was related to specific helping mechanisms and aspects of personal empowerment. Specifically, conservative and combined group members reported more expressive group processes like sharing of feelings and self-disclosure, while radical group members were more empowered and optimistic. Group identification was also associated with specific helping activities and aspects of empowerment in the three group categories. The psychosocial character of group types and the beneficial outcomes for members remained stable through time. In general, prolonged participation was reflected in greater member identification with the group and resulted in improved mental wellbeing, increased social support, companionship and optimism for the future

    La educación como motor de la transformación productiva de los países

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    La investigaci√≥n tiene como finalidad analizar el efecto de la educaci√≥n, medida tanto por cantidad y calidad educativa, diferenciada por el nivel socioecon√≥mico, sobre la complejidad econ√≥mica de los pa√≠ses representada por medio del √ćndice de Complejidad Econ√≥mica; utilizando como proxy de cantidad a√Īos de educaci√≥n y de calidad una base comparable de m√©tricas de aprendizaje asociados al conocimiento y habilidades del capital humano para 165 pa√≠ses obtenidas por medio de pruebas internacionales , a partir de un modelo que toma como referencia la teor√≠a desarrollada por Hidalgo & Hausmann (2009) para datos de panel con efectos fijos. Las estimaciones muestran que el efecto de la educaci√≥n sobre la complejidad econ√≥mica de los pa√≠ses es diferente seg√ļn su nivel de ingreso. En primer lugar, tanto la cantidad como la calidad educativa tienen un efecto positivo y significativo sobre la complejidad econ√≥mica de aquellos pa√≠ses catalogados como de ingresos altos, mientras que los resultados para los pa√≠ses de niveles socioecon√≥micos bajos no son concluyentes debido a que diferentes proxys de educaci√≥n conducen a resultados diferentes. Por lo anterior se construyen tres hip√≥tesis que podr√≠an explicar los resultados: i) ‚ÄúFuga de cerebros‚ÄĚ, ocurre cuando los trabajadores calificados perciben en su pa√≠s bajas productividades y gobernanzas deficientes y por ende, deciden emigrar a pa√≠ses desarrollados, resultando en la p√©rdida de capacidades e ideas para el pa√≠s de origen; ii) problemas con la medici√≥n de los datos de calidad, puesto que la base de datos utilizada cuenta con un n√ļmero reducido de periodos que no permite la construcci√≥n de rezagos superiores a los ocho a√Īos y iii) la diferencia en la medici√≥n de las mismas competencias en las pruebas internacionales, que conllevan a resultados poco correlacionados entre estas.This study investigates the impacts of education, measured by quantity and quality, divided by socio-economic level, on economic complexity represented by the Economic Complexity Index, employing years of schooling as quantity proxy and a database of learning metrics associated with knowledge and human capital skills for 165 countries taken from international tests as quality proxy, which refer to a theory developed by Hidalgo & Hausmann (2009) through a panel data estimation with fixed effects. Our estimations show that the education effect on the economic complexity of a country varies according to their income level. In the first place, educational quality and quantity have a significant positive impact on the economic complexity of high-income countries, while the results for low-income counties are not conclusive because different educational proxies lead to different outcomes. Therefore, three hypothesis were raised to explain the results: i) ‚ÄúBrain drain‚ÄĚ, happens when skilled workers perceived low productivities and weak governances in their country and decide to emigrate to developed countries, resulting in the loss of ideas and capacities for the home country; ii) problems with the measurement of quality data, since the database has a limited number of periods that inhibit the establishment of lags greater than eight years and iii) the difference in the measurement of the same competencies in international tests, which lead to poorly correlated results between them
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