19,052 research outputs found

    Aligning Strategy, Governance, and People Management in Public Organizations: Lessons from the 14th Region Labor Court - RO/AC

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    How does the alignment between strategy, governance, and people management occur in a public organization? When devising a strategy, many organizations have sought to place it at the center of their management models in order to ensure that the adopted strategy reaches all levels of the organization and is widely shared. However, more often than not, most organizations attempt to generate synergy, but in a fragmented and uncoordinated manner and do not perceive alignment as a management process. This study evaluated the alignment of strategy, governance, and people management in a public organization, based on the people management strategy adopted by the organization and the perceptions of employees versus strategic managers. It is a theoretical-empirical research, adopting a pragmatic philosophical conception, using quantitative and qualitative research strategies, consisting of survey, documentary research, and a single case study, using quantitative and qualitative research methods for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. As a conclusion of the study, actions implemented by the institution were identified that demonstrate the existence of practices aligned with strategy, focused on governance and people management. However, according to the perception of employees, many practices were initiated but not completed or only partially applied in the organization, confirming the difficulty of organizations in sharing the strategy and defining coherent and aligned objectives among all those involved in implementing the strategy so that expected results can be achieved

    Testing the nomological network for the Personal Engagement Model

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    The study of employee engagement has been a key focus of management for over three decades. The academic literature on engagement has generated multiple definitions but there are two primary models of engagement: the Personal Engagement Model of Kahn (1990), and the Work Engagement Model (WEM) of Schaufeli et al., (2002). While the former is cited by most authors as the seminal work on engagement, research has tended to focus on elements of the model and most theoretical work on engagement has predominantly used the WEM to consider the topic. The purpose of this study was to test all the elements of the nomological network of the PEM to determine whether the complete model of personal engagement is viable. This was done using data from a large, complex public sector workforce. Survey questions were designed to test each element of the PEM and administered to a sample of the workforce (n = 3,103). The scales were tested and refined using confirmatory factor analysis and then the model was tested determine the structure of the nomological network. This was validated and the generalisability of the final model was tested across different work and organisational types. The results showed that the PEM is viable but there were differences from what was originally proposed by Kahn (1990). Specifically, of the three psychological conditions deemed necessary for engagement to occur, meaningfulness, safety, and availability, only meaningfulness was found to contribute to employee engagement. The model demonstrated that employees experience meaningfulness through both the nature of the work that they do and the organisation within which they do their work. Finally, the findings were replicated across employees in different work types and different organisational types. This thesis makes five contributions to the engagement paradigm. It advances engagement theory by testing the PEM and showing that it is an adequate representation of engagement. A model for testing the causal mechanism for engagement has been articulated, demonstrating that meaningfulness in work is a primary mechanism for engagement. The research has shown the key aspects of the workplace in which employees experience meaningfulness, the nature of the work that they do and the organisation within which they do it. It has demonstrated that this is consistent across organisations and the type of work. Finally, it has developed a reliable measure of the different elements of the PEM which will support future research in this area

    Tietoperustaisuus perusopetuksen digitaalisen transformaation hallinnassa ‚Äď Systeeminen n√§k√∂kulma tietoperustaisuuden rakentumiseen

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    Digitalisaatio muovaa perustavanlaatuisesti opetuksen ja oppimisen todellisuutta suomalaisissa peruskouluissa. Huomiot erityisesti kuntien ja koulujen välisten erojen kasvamisesta digitalisaation mahdollisuuksien hyödyntämisessä paineistavat kiinnittämään huomiota digitaalisen transformaation hallintaan. Perusopetuksen digitaalisen transformaation tutkimus hallinnon tutkimuksen näkökulmasta on ollut vähäistä. Näkökulma digitaalisesta transformaatiosta johtamisen institutionaalisena sekä systeemisenä tietoperustaisuushaasteena on lisäksi puuttunut. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena on avata ja jäsentää perusopetusjohtajien antamien merkitysten ja tulkintojen avulla hallinnan rakenteisiin ja sisältöihin liittyvää institutionaalista ja organisaatiotason todellisuutta. Tutkimus lisää tietämystä digitaalisen transformaation hallinnan rakentumisen yksilö- ja organisaatiotason sekä institutionaalisen tason kompleksisuudesta sekä tämän kompleksisuuden vaikutuksista tietoperustaisen hallinnan rakentumiseen. Tutkimustehtävänä hallinnan rakentumisen ja muutoksen analyysi institutionaalisesta näkökulmasta on edellyttänyt monitieteisen sekä järjestelmäteoreettisen lähestymistavan valintaa tutkittavaan ilmiöön. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys rakentuu Bungen (2003) järjestelmäontologian sekä digitaalisen transformaation, informaatiohallinnon sekä julkisen johtamisen tutkimuksen näkökulmien yhdistämisen pohjalle. Tutkimustehtävän toteutusta ohjasivat seuraavat tutkimuskysymykset: 1) missä ulottuvuuksissa digitaalisen transformaation hallinnan tietoperustaisuus rakentuu perusopetusorganisaation tasolla sekä 2) millaisina tietoperustaisuuden rakentumisen ja tietoperustaisen hallinnan systeemiset edellytykset perusopetusinstituution tasolla näyttäytyvät. Tutkimuksen aineisto koostui yhdeksästätoista (19) perusopetusjohtajien eli rehtoreiden sekä sivistystoimenjohtajien tai toimialajohtajien yksilöhaastattelusta. Puolistrukturoitujen haastatteluiden analyysi perustui Bungen (2003) analyysi-synteesi-lähestymistapaa soveltavaan sisällönanalyysiin. Tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella tietoperustaisuus digitaalisen transformaation hallinnan osa-alueella rakentuu yksilö-, organisaatio- sekä institutionaalislähtöisten tekijöiden seurauksena. Hallinnan rooleja, vastuita ja sisältöjä määrittelevä lainsäädäntö, kuntien paikallista hallintaa korostava institutionaalisen ohjauksen arvo-orientaatio sekä perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteet tulkinnanvaraisena institutionaalisen ohjauksen välineenä luovat perusopetuksen digitaalisen transformaation ilmiasua. Analyysin perusteella perusopetusjohtajan rooli digitaalisen transformaation tietoperustaisen hallinnan organisaatiotason rakentumisen mahdollistajana ja edellytysten luojana on keskeinen. Digitaalisen transformaation hallinnan tietoperustaisuuden rakentumista organisaatiotasolla tukee perusopetusjohtajan pedagoginen johtajuus, kehittyneet yhteistyökäytänteet sekä opetuksen uudistamiskulttuurin vakiinnuttaminen. Tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella digitaalisen transformaation hallinta tarvitsee tuekseen institutionaalisen tason linjauksia, jotka luovat ensisijaisesti hallinnan pedagogisia tavoitteita täsmentämällä prosessuaalista pohjaa organisaatiotason yhteistyökäytänteiden kehittymiselle sekä teknologiavalinnoille. Lisäksi poliittisen päätöksenteon on suositeltavaa tukea kuntien samatahtisempaa kehittymistä vahvistamalla hallinnan taloudellisia ja kulttuurisia edellytyksiä.Digitalisation is fundamentally shaping the reality of teaching and learning in Finnish comprehensive schools. Growing disparities have been observed in the use of digitalisation opportunities, especially between different municipalities and schools. This is creating pressure to pay attention to the management of digital transformation. Only a small amount of administrative research exists on the digital transformation of basic education. The perspective of digital transformation as an institutional and systemic knowledge- based administrative challenge has also been lacking. The aim of this study is to open up and structure the institutional and organisational reality of governance structures and contents through the meanings and interpretations assigned to them by basic education leaders. This study will increase understanding of the individual, organisational, and institutional level complexities of digital transformation management and the implications of these complexities on the construction of knowledge-based governance. As a research task, analysing the change and construction of governance from an institutional perspective has required the choice of a multidisciplinary and systems-theoretical approach to the phenomenon under study. The theoretical framework of the study is based on Bunge’s (2003) systems ontology and a combination of the perspectives of digital transformation, information governance, and public management research. The research task was guided by the following research questions: 1) in which dimensions is the knowledge base of digital transformation management built at the level of a basic education organisation, and 2) what are the systemic conditions of knowledge base building and knowledge base management at the level of a basic education institution. The data for the study consisted of nineteen (19) individual interviews with basic education leaders, i.e. primary school principals, directors of education, and departmental heads. The analysis of the semi-structured interviews was based on content analysis, using Bunge’s (2003) analysis-synthesis approach. Based on the results of the study, the knowledge base in the area of digital transformation management is built as a result of individual, organisational, and institutional factors. Legislation defining the roles, responsibilities and content of governance, the value orientation of institutional administration emphasising local control by municipalities, and the basic education curriculum as an instrument of institutional administration open to interpretation dictate the appearance that digital transformation takes in basic education. Based on the analysis, the role of a basic education leader is central to the process by enabling the organisation-level construction of the knowledge-based management of digital transformation and creating its prerequisites. Building the knowledge base for digital transformation management at an organisational level is supported by the pedagogical leadership of the basic education leader, developing collaborative practices, and establishing a culture of educational reform. Based on the results of the study, the management of digital transformation needs to be supported by policies at an institutional level, which primarily create pedagogical objectives for administration by specifying the procedural basis for the development of cooperation practices and technology choices at an organisational level. It is also advisable for policy makers to support a more synchronised development of municipalities by strengthening the economic and cultural conditions for governance

    Elite perceptions of the Victorian and Edwardian past in inter-war England

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    It is often argued by historians that members of the cultivated Elite after 1918 rejected the pre-war past. or at least subjected it to severe denigration. This thesis sets out to challenge such a view. Above all, it argues that inter-war critics of the Victorian and Edwardian past were unable to reject it even if that was what they felt inclined to do. This was because they were tied to those periods by the affective links of memory, family, and the continually unfolding consequences of the past in the present. Even the severest critics of the pre-war world, such as Lytton Strachey, were less frequently dismissive of history than ambivalent towards it. This ambivalence, it is argued, helped to keep the past alive and often to humanise it. The thesis also explores more positive estimation of Victorian and Edwardian history between the wars. It examines nostalgia for the past, as well as instances of continuity of practice and attitude. It explores the way in which inter-war society drew upon aspects of Victorian and Edwardian history both as illuminating parallels to contemporary affairs and to understand directly why the present was shaped as it was. Again, this testifies to the enduring power of the past after 1918. There are three parts to this thesis. Part One outlines the cultural context in which writers contemplated the Victorian and Edwardian past. Part Two explores some of the ways in which history was written about and used by inter-war society. Part Three examines the ways in which biographical depictions of eminent Victorians after 1918 encouraged emotional negotiation with the pas

    Fat politics as a constituent of intersecting intimacies

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    Coloniality and the Courtroom: Understanding Pre-trial Judicial Decision Making in Brazil

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    This thesis focuses on judicial decision making during custody hearings in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The impetus for the study is that while national and international protocols mandate the use of pre-trial detention only as a last resort, judges continue to detain people pre-trial in large numbers. Custody hearings were introduced in 2015, but the initiative has not produced the reduction in pre-trial detention that was hoped. This study aims to understand what informs judicial decision making at this stage. The research is approached through a decolonial lens to foreground legacies of colonialism, overlooked in mainstream criminological scholarship. This is an interview-based study, where key court actors (judges, prosecutors, and public defenders) and subject matter specialists were asked about influences on judicial decision making. Interview data is complemented by non-participatory observation of custody hearings. The research responds directly to Aliverti et al.'s (2021) call to ‚Äėdecolonize the criminal question‚Äô by exposing and explaining how colonialism informs criminal justice practices. Answering the call in relation to judicial decision making, findings provide evidence that colonial-era assumptions, dynamics, and hierarchies were evident in the practice of custody hearings and continue to inform judges‚Äô decisions, thus demonstrating the coloniality of justice. This study is significant for the new empirical data presented and theoretical innovation is also offered via the introduction of the ‚Äėanticitizen‚Äô. The concept builds on Souza‚Äôs (2007) ‚Äėsubcitizen‚Äô to account for the active pursuit of dangerous Others by judges casting themselves as crime fighters in a modern moral crusade. The findings point to the limited utility of human rights discourse ‚Äď the normative approach to influencing judicial decision making around pre-trial detention ‚Äď as a plurality of conceptualisations compete for dominance. This study has important implications for all actors aiming to reduce pre-trial detention in Brazil because unless underpinning colonial logics are addressed, every innovation risks becoming the next lei para ingl√™s ver (law [just] for the English to see)

    Philosophy (and Wissenschaft) without Politics? Schlick on Nietzsche, German Idealism, and Militarism

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    With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, there emerged two controversies related to the responsibility of philosophical ideas for the rise of German militarism. The first, mainly journalistic, controversy concerned the influence that Nietzsche‚Äôs ideas may have had on what British propagandists portrayed as the ruthlessly amoral German foreign policy. This soon gave way to a second controversy, waged primarily among academics, concerning the purportedly vicious political outcomes of German Idealism, from Kant through to Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. During the autumn of 1914, and at the cusp between the two controversies, Moritz Schlick was to deliver a lecture series on Nietzsche‚Äôs life and work at the University of Rostock. Responding to both debates, Schlick penned an introduction in which he sought to defend philosophy against all those who would embroil it in warfare. Schlick offers a series of arguments defending Nietzsche against his accusers. He also argues that, though their contributions to the History of Philosophy often amounted to no more than ‚Äėbeautiful nonsense‚Äô, the German Idealists‚Äô philosophical views cannot be held responsible for the rise of German nationalism. Finally, Schlick mounts a general defense of the search for truth, both in philosophy and in Wissenschaft, as a type of activity which presupposes peace. Though Schlick‚Äôs metaphilosophical views change, as this paper shows, he remains constant both in his favourable appraisal of Nietzsche, as well as his separation between politics on the one hand, and both philosophy and Wissenschaft on the other hand

    TOWARDS AN UNDERSTANDING OF EFFORTFUL FUNDRAISING EXPERIENCES: USING INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN FUNDRAISING RESEARCH

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    Physical-activity oriented community fundraising has experienced an exponential growth in popularity over the past 15 years. The aim of this study was to explore the value of effortful fundraising experiences, from the point of view of participants, and explore the impact that these experiences have on people’s lives. This study used an IPA approach to interview 23 individuals, recognising the role of participants as proxy (nonprofessional) fundraisers for charitable organisations, and the unique organisation donor dynamic that this creates. It also bought together relevant psychological theory related to physical activity fundraising experiences (through a narrative literature review) and used primary interview data to substantiate these. Effortful fundraising experiences are examined in detail to understand their significance to participants, and how such experiences influence their connection with a charity or cause. This was done with an idiographic focus at first, before examining convergences and divergences across the sample. This study found that effortful fundraising experiences can have a profound positive impact upon community fundraisers in both the short and the long term. Additionally, it found that these experiences can be opportunities for charitable organisations to create lasting meaningful relationships with participants, and foster mutually beneficial lifetime relationships with them. Further research is needed to test specific psychological theory in this context, including self-esteem theory, self determination theory, and the martyrdom effect (among others)

    Political Islam and grassroots activism in Turkey : a study of the pro-Islamist Virtue Party's grassroots activists and their affects on the electoral outcomes

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    This thesis presents an analysis of the spectacular rise of political Islam in Turkey. It has two aims: first to understand the underlying causes of the rise of the Welfare Party which -later became the Virtue Party- throughout the 1990s, and second to analyse how grassroots activism influenced this process. The thesis reviews the previous literature on the Islamic fundamentalist movements, political parties, political party systems and concentrates on the local party organisations and their effects on the party's electoral performance. It questions the categorisation of Islamic fundamentalism as an appropriate label for this movement. An exploration of such movements is particularly important in light of the event of 11`x' September. After exploring existing theoretical and case studies into political Islam and party activism, I present my qualitative case study. I have used ethnographic methodology and done participatory observations among grassroots activists in Ankara's two sub-districts covering 105 neighbourhoods. I examined the Turkish party system and the reasons for its collapse. It was observed that as a result of party fragmentation, electoral volatility and organisational decline and decline in the party identification among the citizens the Turkish party system has declined. However, the WP/VP profited from this trend enormously and emerged as the main beneficiary of this process. Empirical data is analysed in four chapters, dealing with the different aspects of the Virtue Party's local organisations and grassroots activists. They deal with change and continuity in the party, the patterns of participation, the routes and motives for becoming a party activist, the profile of party activists and the local party organisations. I explore what they do and how they do it. The analysis reveals that the categorisation of Islamic fundamentalism is misplaced and the rise of political Islam in Turkey cannot be explained as religious revivalism or the rise of Islamic fundamentalism. It is a political force that drives its strength from the urban poor which has been harshly affected by the IMF directed neoliberal economy policies. In conclusion, it is shown that the WP/VP's electoral chances were significantly improved by its very efficient and effective party organisations and highly committed grassroots activists
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