19,249 research outputs found

    Machine Learning Applications in Studying Mental Health Among Immigrants and Racial and Ethnic Minorities: A Systematic Review

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    Background: The use of machine learning (ML) in mental health (MH) research is increasing, especially as new, more complex data types become available to analyze. By systematically examining the published literature, this review aims to uncover potential gaps in the current use of ML to study MH in vulnerable populations of immigrants, refugees, migrants, and racial and ethnic minorities. Methods: In this systematic review, we queried Google Scholar for ML-related terms, MH-related terms, and a population of a focus search term strung together with Boolean operators. Backward reference searching was also conducted. Included peer-reviewed studies reported using a method or application of ML in an MH context and focused on the populations of interest. We did not have date cutoffs. Publications were excluded if they were narrative or did not exclusively focus on a minority population from the respective country. Data including study context, the focus of mental healthcare, sample, data type, type of ML algorithm used, and algorithm performance was extracted from each. Results: Our search strategies resulted in 67,410 listed articles from Google Scholar. Ultimately, 12 were included. All the articles were published within the last 6 years, and half of them studied populations within the US. Most reviewed studies used supervised learning to explain or predict MH outcomes. Some publications used up to 16 models to determine the best predictive power. Almost half of the included publications did not discuss their cross-validation method. Conclusions: The included studies provide proof-of-concept for the potential use of ML algorithms to address MH concerns in these special populations, few as they may be. Our systematic review finds that the clinical application of these models for classifying and predicting MH disorders is still under development

    Apparel of the Reformation: The Significance of Fashion in Tudor England

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    This paper compiles research that addresses the importance of fashion in Tudor England. Specifically, it describes the important relationship clothing had to Catholicism and Protestantism and how the differentiation of ideologies could be seen in the construction and design of garments along with the specific adornments worn. The significance of these questions can be seen within the importance of micro-histories in this discipline. Something as simple and overlooked as fashion and fabric can really shed light on how people lived in a religiously divided Tudor England and how fractured their religious and social structures were. The paper aims to show how the importance of one’s Christian sect affiliation permeated deeply into the everyday lives and wardrobe of Tudor subjects and how this display of affiliation through fashion was a decisive choice which furthered the already growing conflict between Catholic and Protestant ideals.No embargoAcademic Major: HistoryAcademic Major: PhilosophyAcademic Major: Philosophy, Politics and Economic

    People make Places

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    For centuries Glasgow, as a bucolic fishing village and ecclesiastical centre on the banks of the River Clyde, held little of strategic significance. When success and later threats came to the city, it was as a consequence of explosive growth during the industrial era that left a significant civic presence accompanied by social and environmental challenges. Wartime damage to the fabric of the city and the subsequent implementation of modernist planning left Glasgow with a series of existential threats to the lives and the health of its people that have taken time to understand and come to terms with. In a few remarkable decades of late 20th century regeneration, Glasgow began to be put back together. The trauma of the second half of the 20th century is fading but not yet a distant memory. Existential threats from the climate emergency can provoke the reaction “what, again?” However, the resilience built over the last 50 years has instilled a belief that a constructive, pro-active and creative approach to face this challenge along with the recognition that such action can be transformational for safeguarding and improving people’s lives and the quality of their places. A process described as a just transition that has become central to Glasgow’s approach. Of Scotland’s four big cities, three are surrounded by landscape and sea only Glasgow is surrounded by itself. Even with a small territory, Glasgow is still the largest of Scotland’s big cities and by some margin. When the wider metropolitan area is considered, Glasgow is – like Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool – no mean city. People make Places begins with a review of the concept and complexities of place, discusses why these matter and reviews the growing body of evidence that place quality can deliver economic, social and environmental value. The following chapters focus on the history and evolution of modern Glasgow in four eras of 19th and early 20th century industrialisation, de- industrialisation and modernism in mid 20th century, late 20th century regeneration and a 21st century recovery towards transition and renaissance, and document the process, synthesis and the results of a major engagement programme and to explore systematic approaches to place and consensus building around the principal issues. The second half of the work reflects on a stocktaking of place in contemporary Glasgow, looking at the city through the lenses of an international, metropolitan and everyday city, concluding with a review of the places of Glasgow and what may be learned from them revealing some valuable insights presented in a series of Place Stories included. The concluding chapter sets out the findings of the investigation and analysis reviewing place goals, challenges and opportunities for Glasgow over the decades to 2030 and 2040 and ends with some recommendations about what Glasgow might do better to combine place thinking and climate awareness and setting out practical steps to mobilise Glasgow’s ‘place ecosystem’

    BEYOND THE MYTH: Screenwriting Approaches to Biographical Films

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    This PhD submission comprises an original screenplay on the relationship between African American activist Paul Robeson and the mining community of south Wales titled Robeson: They Can’t Stop Us Singing, and the accompanying exegesis. The aim is to explore, by academic study (gnosis) and creative practice (praxis), the previously overlooked field of writing biographical films, or biopics, and to acknowledge the role of the screenwriter in telling a person’s life story on film. The script is the experiment; the exegesis is the analysis and methodology. The role of the screenwriter is underrepresented across cinema studies, but no more so than in the discussion of biopics. My exegesis begins by exploring what academic and popular writing already exists on English-language biopics, highlighting that amidst auteurist approaches prevalent in cinema studies, little credit has been afforded to screenwriters. I seek to address this by examining how screenwriters have responded to historiographical and socio-political contexts while balancing the needs of the audience with factual integrity (or sometimes not), before using the case studies of Abraham Lincoln and Charles Lindbergh to explore how American hero figures have been represented on screen. How does a script written on Lincoln in 1939, for example, differ in terms of tone and political philosophy to one delivered in the 21st century? Using historical approaches, the exegesis then examines the life of Paul Robeson and the Welsh miners he knew, to observe the meticulous choices required by the screenwriter researching and writing a biopic script. Using primary sources (interviews with living dramatic writers, including the BAFTA-nominated screenwriter of the biopic, Good Vibrations) and secondary sources (screenplays, films, audio, interviews, other academic writing), I question where and when to begin and end a biographical story, which parts of a person’s life to include or jettison, how to make a historical figure’s events pertinent to a contemporary audience, and how to utilise fictionalised elements in a drama while adhering to a central truth. My own screenplay on Robeson and Wales is the embodiment of this research. The script demonstrates the myriad artistic decisions that need to be made to present the qualities and flaws of the historical figure. It shows why fictionalised moments and composite characters contribute to an understanding of a real person’s motives and feelings in a way documentary and historical writing cannot. And it stands as a record of the screenwriter’s previously overlooked contribution to creating biographical films

    A Walk Down Memory Lane: Racial Injustice in Lewis Nkosi’s Mating Birds

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    Using as a stepping stone Mating Birds by the late South African novelist Lewis Nkosi, I take a trip down memory lane to grapple with the issue of justice in apartheid era South Africa. The paper argues that the scales of the judiciary under the system of institutionalized racism was heavily weighted in favour of the white minority who ruled the roost in South Africa from 1948 to the early 1990s. Underpinned by a racist ideology that foregrounded the supposed purity of Afrikanerdom, the steamroller of the judicial system under apartheid denied any rights to South African blacks and coloured alike to the point of forefending love across the colour bar. The lead character in Mating Birds, to wit Sibiya, knows only too well the strictures of an unfair administration of justice. Sentenced to death by hanging for allegedly raping a white girl, his dogged impassioned denials fails to pack a punch as the laws of his country make it a crime for a black man to even have designs (no matter how sincere) on a white girl. Tapping into a methodology based on philosophical, sociological, psychoanalytic, psychological perspectives, the paper brings to light the multifaceted cruelty of race-spiked injustice as evidenced by Sidiya’s plight

    The Artist as Surveillant: The Use of Surveillance Technology in Contemporary Art

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    Artists have long been called observers, voyeurs, and watchers, and with a particular interest in human behavior and society, they frequently use unknowing passersby as their subjects for works. Curators and scholars explored how artists put citizens under surveillance with photography and videography, which dates back to the early 1900s, years before governments deployed surveillance systems. Since the 1980s, artists have explicitly explored surveillance technology and theory to alert viewers to the rise of surveillance. Today, this genre is called artveillance, a term coined by Andrea Mubi Brighenti in 2010 to categorize art that explicitly deals with surveillance. This genre developed parallel to the rise of mass surveillance which created the current-day surveillance state. Since artveillance dominates the contemporary art scene, I was interested in the history of surveillance technology and themes in art. Although that history is brief, there is a wealth of artworks and studies on the topic. This thesis explores artists who use surveillance technology, specifically close-circuit video, in their practice and how this work has changed over time compared to the rise of government surveillance systems. To properly examine the artwork, each artwork’s technological history and broader cultural context is considered, with careful attention to the artists’ intentions. The thesis starts in the 1970s with Bruce Nauman and Peter Campus’s closed-circuit video installations. The artists did not aim to create a surveillance area but wanted to explore the viewer’s identity with their moving image. In Chapter 2, Julia Scher and Lynn Hershman Leeson’s work from the 1980s and early 1990s is discussed. Created when state surveillance was on the rise, the artists’ work used surveillance technology to critique the systems. The third chapter explores surveillance in a post-9/11 state through Jill Magid and Laura Poitras’s work. The artists exploited and exposed government systems to show how the public’s privacy is invaded. Finally, the paper concludes with an investigation into the public’s relationship with video surveillance, which resembles an apathetic acceptance

    Original oder SchĂŒler? Einsatzmöglichkeiten KĂŒnstlicher Intelligenz bei Zuschreibungsfragen am Beispiel des Rembrandt Research Projects

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    KĂŒnstliche Intelligenz (KI) wird von Kunsthistorikern bisher kaum genutzt, um Kunstwerke zu analysieren. In der vorliegenden Studie erörtern wir zunĂ€chst einige der GrĂŒnde dafĂŒr. Vor allem aber zeigen wir, wie die Methoden und Verfahren des Maschinellen Lernens, einem Teilgebiet der KĂŒnstlichen Intelligenz, neben anderen Analysetechniken in diesem Wissenschaftszweig, die Experten bei ihrer Arbeit unterstĂŒtzen können. Zu diesem Zweck haben wir ein Ensemble aus Konvolutionalen Neuronalen Netzen (Convolutional Neural Networks, CNNs) mit 2.258 Werken von Rembrandt und 14 SchĂŒlern dieses barocken Werkstattmalers trainiert. Mit diesem Modell haben wir exemplarisch 15 Entscheidungen des Rembrandt Research Projects (RRP) ĂŒberprĂŒft, einer ĂŒber Jahrzehnte andauernden interdisziplinĂ€ren Forschungsarbeit von zahlreichen Kunst-Experten. Dabei haben wir eine Evaluationsmetrik angewandt, die sicherstellt, dass die Vorhersagen des Modells nur dann akzeptiert werden, wenn sie sehr eindeutig sind. Dies fĂŒhrt dazu, dass dieses Modell in etwa einem Drittel der FĂ€lle keine Aussage trifft, die Vorhersage in den ĂŒbrigen zwei Dritteln der FĂ€lle jedoch deutlich sicherer ist und ernst genommen werden sollte. Insgesamt konnten wir mit dieser Vorgehensweise die meisten der Entscheidungen des RRP bestĂ€tigen. In zwei FĂ€llen gibt das Modell klare Hinweise auf höchstwahrscheinlich falsche Abschreibungen von Rembrandt Originalen. In einem weiteren Fall, der unseres Wissens nicht vom RRP ĂŒberprĂŒft wurde, sollte eine Zuschreibung ernsthaft erwogen werden. Zudem haben wir einen Ansatz entwickelt, mit dem sich die Genauigkeit von Kunsthistorikern bei der Zu- und Abschreibung von Werken aus dem Umfeld Rembrandts evaluieren lĂ€sst – vor allem, um eine Vorstellung von der QualitĂ€t der Labels zu bekommen, die mit den Daten assoziiert sind, also von der Sicherheit der Zuschreibungen zu einzelnen KĂŒnstlern. Es geht uns in der vorliegenden Arbeit explizit nicht um den generell ĂŒblichen und aus unserer Sicht sinnlosen Vergleich zwischen menschlicher und KĂŒnstlicher Intelligenz. Stattdessen zeigen wir auf, wie die Ergebnisse von KI-Verfahren Kunstexperten Hinweise auf mögliche weitere Untersuchungen geben können, selbst wenn diese Ergebnisse nicht völlig eindeutig sind. Hierzu wenden wir exemplarisch weitere Analysemethoden und Algorithmen aus dem Bereich Computer Vision auf einzelne Beispielbilder an. Dieses Paper richtet sich explizit nicht nur an KI-Experten, sondern auch an Kunsthistoriker und andere Interessierte. Aus diesem Grund werden einige Vorgehensweisen und Prinzipien des Maschinellen Lernens ausfĂŒhrlicher behandelt, als dies in Publikationen dieses Fachgebietes normalerweise ĂŒblich ist

    Community engagement in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis research in Brazil, Ethiopia, and Sri Lanka: A decolonial approach for global health.

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    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic skin disease endemic in at least 88 countries where it presents an urgent, albeit often "neglected" public health problem. In this paper, we discuss our model of decolonial community engagement in the ECLIPSE global health research program, which aims to improve physical and mental health outcomes for people with CL. The ECLIPSE program has four interlinked phases and underpinning each of these phases is sustained and robust community engagement and involvement that guides and informs all activities in ECLIPSE. Our decolonial approach implies that the model for community engagement will be different in Brazil, Ethiopia and Sri Lanka. Indeed, we adopt a critical anthropological approach to engaging with community members and it is precisely this approach we evaluate in this paper. The data and material we draw on were collected through qualitative research methods during community engagement activities. We established 13 Community Advisory Groups (CAGs): in Brazil ( = 4), Ethiopia ( = 6), and Sri Lanka ( = 3). We identified four overarching themes during a thematic analysis of the data set: (1) Establishing community advisory groups, (2) CAG membership and community representation, (3) Culturally appropriate and context-bespoke engagement, and (4) Relationships between researchers and community members. During our first period of ECLIPSE community engagement, we have debunked myths (for instance about communities being "disempowered"), critiqued our own practices (changing approaches in bringing together CAG members) and celebrated successes (notably fruitful online engagement during a challenging COVID-19 pandemic context). Our evaluation revealed a gap between the exemplary community engagement frameworks available in the literature and the messy, everyday reality of working in communities. In the ECLIPSE program, we have translated ideal(istic) principles espoused by such community engagement guidance into the practical realities of "doing engagement" in low-resourced communities. Our community engagement was underpinned by such ideal principles, but adapted to local sociocultural contexts, working within certain funding and regulatory constraints imposed on researchers. We conclude with a set of lessons learned and recommendations for the conduct of decolonial community engagement in global health research. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2022 Polidano, Parton, Agampodi, Agampodi, Haileselassie, Lalani, Mota, Price, Rodrigues, Tafere, Trad, Zerihun and Dikomitis.

    Elite perceptions of the Victorian and Edwardian past in inter-war England

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    It is often argued by historians that members of the cultivated Elite after 1918 rejected the pre-war past. or at least subjected it to severe denigration. This thesis sets out to challenge such a view. Above all, it argues that inter-war critics of the Victorian and Edwardian past were unable to reject it even if that was what they felt inclined to do. This was because they were tied to those periods by the affective links of memory, family, and the continually unfolding consequences of the past in the present. Even the severest critics of the pre-war world, such as Lytton Strachey, were less frequently dismissive of history than ambivalent towards it. This ambivalence, it is argued, helped to keep the past alive and often to humanise it. The thesis also explores more positive estimation of Victorian and Edwardian history between the wars. It examines nostalgia for the past, as well as instances of continuity of practice and attitude. It explores the way in which inter-war society drew upon aspects of Victorian and Edwardian history both as illuminating parallels to contemporary affairs and to understand directly why the present was shaped as it was. Again, this testifies to the enduring power of the past after 1918. There are three parts to this thesis. Part One outlines the cultural context in which writers contemplated the Victorian and Edwardian past. Part Two explores some of the ways in which history was written about and used by inter-war society. Part Three examines the ways in which biographical depictions of eminent Victorians after 1918 encouraged emotional negotiation with the pas

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences
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