13,988 research outputs found

    Towards the Formation of Genuine European Parties? Examining and Comparing the Cases of DiEM25 and Volt Europa

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    The 2019 European Parliament (EP) election saw the participation of two transnational parties: DiEM25 and Volt Europa. Both seek to democratise the European Union (EU) by engaging with European institutions and mobilising their supporters across member states, putting the EU's democratic deficit at the centre of their endeavour. They consider the European space as their primary field of appeal and mobilization, adopting a transnational conception of 'the people' as the source of democratic legitimacy. This paper explores the potential of genuine pan-European parties in increasing public contestation and inclusiveness at the European level and in democratising EU politics by treating DiEM25 and Volt as prototypical cases. Through a comparative analysis, we highlight the novelties of the two parties in relation to existing 'Europarties' and assess how these respond to deficiencies related to the democratic deficit. We conclude by reflecting upon what DiEM25 and Volt reveal about the potentials and challenges of 'transnationalising' EU politics

    BEYOND THE MYTH: Screenwriting Approaches to Biographical Films

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    This PhD submission comprises an original screenplay on the relationship between African American activist Paul Robeson and the mining community of south Wales titled Robeson: They Can’t Stop Us Singing, and the accompanying exegesis. The aim is to explore, by academic study (gnosis) and creative practice (praxis), the previously overlooked field of writing biographical films, or biopics, and to acknowledge the role of the screenwriter in telling a person’s life story on film. The script is the experiment; the exegesis is the analysis and methodology. The role of the screenwriter is underrepresented across cinema studies, but no more so than in the discussion of biopics. My exegesis begins by exploring what academic and popular writing already exists on English-language biopics, highlighting that amidst auteurist approaches prevalent in cinema studies, little credit has been afforded to screenwriters. I seek to address this by examining how screenwriters have responded to historiographical and socio-political contexts while balancing the needs of the audience with factual integrity (or sometimes not), before using the case studies of Abraham Lincoln and Charles Lindbergh to explore how American hero figures have been represented on screen. How does a script written on Lincoln in 1939, for example, differ in terms of tone and political philosophy to one delivered in the 21st century? Using historical approaches, the exegesis then examines the life of Paul Robeson and the Welsh miners he knew, to observe the meticulous choices required by the screenwriter researching and writing a biopic script. Using primary sources (interviews with living dramatic writers, including the BAFTA-nominated screenwriter of the biopic, Good Vibrations) and secondary sources (screenplays, films, audio, interviews, other academic writing), I question where and when to begin and end a biographical story, which parts of a person’s life to include or jettison, how to make a historical figure’s events pertinent to a contemporary audience, and how to utilise fictionalised elements in a drama while adhering to a central truth. My own screenplay on Robeson and Wales is the embodiment of this research. The script demonstrates the myriad artistic decisions that need to be made to present the qualities and flaws of the historical figure. It shows why fictionalised moments and composite characters contribute to an understanding of a real person’s motives and feelings in a way documentary and historical writing cannot. And it stands as a record of the screenwriter’s previously overlooked contribution to creating biographical films

    The development of the Kent coalfield 1896-1946

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    One of the unique features of the Kent Coalfield is that it is entirely concealed by newer rocks. The existence of a coalfield under southern England, being a direct link between those of South Wales, Somerset and Bristol in the west and the Ruhr, Belgium. and northern France in the east, was predicted by the geologist R. A. C. Godwin-Austen as early as 1856. It was, however, only the rapid increase in demand for Britain's coal in the last quarter of the nineteenth century that made it worth considering testing this hypothesis. The first boring was made in the years 1886-90, and although it discovered coal, this did not in itself prove the existence of a viable coalfield. This could be done only by incurring the heavy cost of boring systematically over a wide area. As the financial returns from such an undertaking were uncertain, it was not surprising that in the early years, around the turn of the century, a dominant role was played by speculators, who were able to induce numerous small investors to risk some of their savings in the expectation of high profits. As minerals in Britain were privately owned, the early pioneer companies not only had to meet the cost of the exploratory borines, but also, if they were not to see the benefit of their work accrue to others, lease beforehand the right to mine coal from local landowners in as much of the surrounding area as possible. This policy was pursued most vigorously by Arthur Burr, a Surrey land specula tor, who raised capital by creating the Kent Coal Conoessions Ltd. and then floating a series of companies allied to it. Burr's enterprise would probably have been. successful had it not been for the water problems encountered at depth in -v- the coalfield. As a result, the Concessions group found itself in control of most of the coalfield, but without the necessary capital to sink and adequately equip its 01ffi collieries. By 1910, however, the discovery of iron ore deposits in east Kent, coupled with the fact that Kent coal was excellent for coking purposes, began to attract the large steel firms of Bolckow, Vaughan Ltd. and Dorman, Long & Co. Ltd. in to the area. The First World War intervened, however, to delay their plans, and to provide an extended lease of life to the Concessions group, which, by the summer of 1914, was facing financial collapse. By the time Dorman, Lone & Co, in alliance with Weetman Pearson (Lord Cowdray), had acquired control over the greater part of the coalfield from the Concessions group, not only was the country's coal industry declining, but so was its steel industry, which suffered an even more severe rate of contraction during the inter-war years. As a result, Pearson and Dorman Long Ltd. was forced to concentrate just on coal production, and this in turn was hampered not only by the water problems, but also by labour shortages and the schemes introduced by the government in 1930 to restrict the country's coal output, in an attempt to maintain prices and revenue in the industry. Nevertheless, production did show a substantial increase between 1927 and 1935, after which it declined as miners left the coalfield to return to their former districts, where employment opportunities were improving in the late thirties. Supporting roles were played in the inter-war years by Richard Tilden Smith, a share underwriter turned industrialist with long standing interests in the coalfield, who acquired one of the Concessions group's two collieries, and by the Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Co. Ltd., which through subsidiary companies, took over the only colliery to be developed by a pioneer company outside the Concessions group. The impossibility of Kent coal, because of its nature, ever gaining more than token access to the more lucrative household market, and then the failure of the local steel industry to materialise meant that the -vi- companies had to develop alternative outlets for their growing outputs. Although nearness to industrial markets in the south-east of England did confer certain advantages were poor consolation for the hoped for developments of either the early pioneers or the later industrialists. Instead of the expected profits, the companies mostly incurred losses, and only the company acquired by Powell Duffryn ever paid a dividend to its shareholders in the years before nationalisation. From the point of view of the Kent miners, the shortage of labour in the coalfield, particularly in the years 1914-20 and 1927-35, was to an important extent responsible for their being amongst the highest paid in the industry. At the same time the more favourable employment opportunities prevailing in Kent compared with other mining districts enabled the Kent Nine Workers Association to develop into a well organised union, which on the whole was able to look after the interests of its members fairly successfully. Throughout the period 1896 to 1946 the Kent Coalfield existed very much at the margin of the British coal industry. Its failure to develop substantially along the lines envisaged by either the early pioneers or by the later industrialists meant that its importance in national terms always remained small

    Elite perceptions of the Victorian and Edwardian past in inter-war England

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    It is often argued by historians that members of the cultivated Elite after 1918 rejected the pre-war past. or at least subjected it to severe denigration. This thesis sets out to challenge such a view. Above all, it argues that inter-war critics of the Victorian and Edwardian past were unable to reject it even if that was what they felt inclined to do. This was because they were tied to those periods by the affective links of memory, family, and the continually unfolding consequences of the past in the present. Even the severest critics of the pre-war world, such as Lytton Strachey, were less frequently dismissive of history than ambivalent towards it. This ambivalence, it is argued, helped to keep the past alive and often to humanise it. The thesis also explores more positive estimation of Victorian and Edwardian history between the wars. It examines nostalgia for the past, as well as instances of continuity of practice and attitude. It explores the way in which inter-war society drew upon aspects of Victorian and Edwardian history both as illuminating parallels to contemporary affairs and to understand directly why the present was shaped as it was. Again, this testifies to the enduring power of the past after 1918. There are three parts to this thesis. Part One outlines the cultural context in which writers contemplated the Victorian and Edwardian past. Part Two explores some of the ways in which history was written about and used by inter-war society. Part Three examines the ways in which biographical depictions of eminent Victorians after 1918 encouraged emotional negotiation with the pas

    Animating potential for intensities and becoming in writing: challenging discursively constructed structures and writing conventions in academia through the use of storying and other post qualitative inquiries

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    Written for everyone ever denied the opportunity of fulfilling their academic potential, this is ‘Chloe’s story’. Using composite selves, a phrase chosen to indicate multiplicities and movement, to story both the initial event leading to ‘Chloe’s’ immediate withdrawal from a Further Education college and an imaginary second chance to support her whilst at university, this Deleuzo-Guattarian (2015a) ‘assemblage’ of post qualitative inquiries offers challenge to discursively constructed structures and writing conventions in academia. Adopting a posthuman approach to theorising to shift attention towards affects and intensities always relationally in action in multiple ‘assemblages’, these inquiries aim to decentre individual ‘lecturer’ and ‘student’ identities. Illuminating movements and moments quivering with potential for change, then, hoping thereby to generate second chances for all, different approaches to writing are exemplified which trouble those academic constraints by fostering inquiry and speculation: moving away from ‘what is’ towards ‘what if’. With the formatting of this thesis itself also always troubling the rigid Deleuzo-Guattarian (2015a) ‘segmentary lines’ structuring orthodox academic practice, imbricated in these inquiries are attempts to exemplify Manning’s (2015; 2016) ‘artfulness’ through shifts in thinking within and around an emerging PhD thesis. As writing resists organising, the verb thesisising comes into play to describe the processes involved in creating this always-moving thesis. Using ‘landing sites’ (Arakawa and Gins, 2009) as a landscaping device, freely creating emerging ‘lines of flight’ (Deleuze and Guattari, 2015a) so often denied to students forced to adhere to strict academic conventions, this ‘movement-moving’ (Manning, 2014) opens up opportunities for change as in Manning’s (2016) ‘research-creation’. Arguing for a moving away from writing-representing towards writing-inquiring, towards a writing ‘that does’ (Wyatt and Gale, 2018: 127), and toward writing as immanent doing, it is hoped to animate potential for intensities and becoming in writing, offering opportunities and glimmerings of the not-yet-known

    Gasificação direta de biomassa para produção de gás combustível

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    The excessive consumption of fossil fuels to satisfy the world necessities of energy and commodities led to the emission of large amounts of greenhouse gases in the last decades, contributing significantly to the greatest environmental threat of the 21st century: Climate Change. The answer to this man-made disaster is not simple and can only be made if distinct stakeholders and governments are brought to cooperate and work together. This is mandatory if we want to change our economy to one more sustainable and based in renewable materials, and whose energy is provided by the eternal nature energies (e.g., wind, solar). In this regard, biomass can have a main role as an adjustable and renewable feedstock that allows the replacement of fossil fuels in various applications, and the conversion by gasification allows the necessary flexibility for that purpose. In fact, fossil fuels are just biomass that underwent extreme pressures and heat for millions of years. Furthermore, biomass is a resource that, if not used or managed, increases wildfire risks. Consequently, we also have the obligation of valorizing and using this resource. In this work, it was obtained new scientific knowledge to support the development of direct (air) gasification of biomass in bubbling fluidized bed reactors to obtain a fuel gas with suitable properties to replace natural gas in industrial gas burners. This is the first step for the integration and development of gasification-based biorefineries, which will produce a diverse number of value-added products from biomass and compete with current petrochemical refineries in the future. In this regard, solutions for the improvement of the raw producer gas quality and process efficiency parameters were defined and analyzed. First, addition of superheated steam as primary measure allowed the increase of H2 concentration and H2/CO molar ratio in the producer gas without compromising the stability of the process. However, the measure mainly showed potential for the direct (air) gasification of high-density biomass (e.g., pellets), due to the necessity of having char accumulation in the reactor bottom bed for char-steam reforming reactions. Secondly, addition of refused derived fuel to the biomass feedstock led to enhanced gasification products, revealing itself as a highly promising strategy in terms of economic viability and environmental benefits of future gasification-based biorefineries, due to the high availability and low costs of wastes. Nevertheless, integrated techno economic and life cycle analyses must be performed to fully characterize the process. Thirdly, application of low-cost catalyst as primary measure revealed potential by allowing the improvement of the producer gas quality (e.g., H2 and CO concentration, lower heating value) and process efficiency parameters with distinct solid materials; particularly, the application of concrete, synthetic fayalite and wood pellets chars, showed promising results. Finally, the economic viability of the integration of direct (air) biomass gasification processes in the pulp and paper industry was also shown, despite still lacking interest to potential investors. In this context, the role of government policies and appropriate economic instruments are of major relevance to increase the implementation of these projects.O consumo excessivo de combustíveis fósseis para garantir as necessidades e interesses da sociedade conduziu à emissão de elevadas quantidades de gases com efeito de estufa nas últimas décadas, contribuindo significativamente para a maior ameaça ambiental do século XXI: Alterações Climáticas. A solução para este desastre de origem humana é de caráter complexo e só pode ser atingida através da cooperação de todos os governos e partes interessadas. Para isto, é obrigatória a criação de uma bioeconomia como base de um futuro mais sustentável, cujas necessidades energéticas e materiais sejam garantidas pelas eternas energias da natureza (e.g., vento, sol). Neste sentido, a biomassa pode ter um papel principal como uma matéria prima ajustável e renovável que permite a substituição de combustíveis fósseis num variado número de aplicações, e a sua conversão através da gasificação pode ser a chave para este propósito. Afinal, na prática, os combustíveis fósseis são apenas biomassa sujeita a elevada temperatura e pressão durante milhões de anos. Além do mais, a gestão eficaz da biomassa é fundamental para a redução dos riscos de incêndio florestal e, como tal, temos o dever de utilizar e valorizar este recurso. Neste trabalho, foi obtido novo conhecimento científico para suporte do desenvolvimento das tecnologias de gasificação direta (ar) de biomassa em leitos fluidizados borbulhantes para produção de gás combustível, com o objetivo da substituição de gás natural em queimadores industriais. Este é o primeiro passo para o desenvolvimento de biorrefinarias de gasificação, uma potencial futura indústria que irá providenciar um variado número de produtos de valor acrescentado através da biomassa e competir com a atual indústria petroquímica. Neste sentido, foram analisadas várias medidas para a melhoria da qualidade do gás produto bruto e dos parâmetros de eficiência do processo. Em primeiro, a adição de vapor sobreaquecido como medida primária permitiu o aumento da concentração de H2 e da razão molar H2/CO no gás produto sem comprometer a estabilidade do processo. No entanto, esta medida somente revelou potencial para a gasificação direta (ar) de biomassa de alta densidade (e.g., pellets) devido à necessidade da acumulação de carbonizados no leito do reator para a ocorrência de reações de reforma com vapor. Em segundo, a mistura de combustíveis derivados de resíduos e biomassa residual florestal permitiu a melhoria dos produtos de gasificação, constituindo desta forma uma estratégia bastante promissora a nível económico e ambiental, devido à elevada abundância e baixo custo dos resíduos urbanos. Contudo, devem ser efetuadas análises técnico-económicas e de ciclo de vida para a completa caraterização do processo. Em terceiro, a aplicação de catalisadores de baixo custo como medida primária demonstrou elevado potencial para a melhoria do gás produto (e.g., concentração de H2 e CO, poder calorífico inferior) e para o incremento dos parâmetros de eficiência do processo; em particular, a aplicação de betão, faialite sintética e carbonizados de pellets de madeira, demonstrou resultados promissores. Finalmente, foi demonstrada a viabilidade económica da integração do processo de gasificação direta (ar) de biomassa na indústria da pasta e papel, apesar dos parâmetros determinados não serem atrativos para potenciais investidores. Neste contexto, a intervenção dos governos e o desenvolvimento de instrumentos de apoio económico é de grande relevância para a implementação destes projetos.Este trabalho foi financiado pela The Navigator Company e por Fundos Nacionais através da Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT).Programa Doutoral em Engenharia da Refinação, Petroquímica e Químic

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis

    The temporality of rhetoric: the spatialization of time in modern criticism

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    Every conception of criticism conceals a notion of time which informs the manner in which the critic conceives of history, representation and criticism itself. This thesis reveals the philosophies of time inherent in certain key modern critical concepts: allegory, irony and the sublime. Each concept opens a breach in time, a disruption of chronology. In each case this gap or aporia is emphatically closed, elided or denied. Taking the philosophy of time elaborated by Giorgio Agamben as an introductory proposition, my argument turns in Chapter One to the allegorical temporality which Walter Benjamin sees as the time of photography. The second chapter examines the aesthetics of the sublime as melancholic or mournful untimeliness. In Chapter Three, Paul de Man's conception of irony provides an exemplary instance of the denial of this troubling temporal predicament. In opposition to the foreclosure of the disturbing temporalities of criticism, history and representation, the thesis proposes a fundamental rethinking of the philosophy of time as it relates to these categories of reflection. In a reading of an inaugural meditation on the nature of time, and in examining certain key contemporary philosophical and critical texts, I argue for a critical attendance to that which eludes those modes of thought that attempt to map time as a recognizable and essentially spatial field. The Confessions of Augustine provide, in the fourth chapter, a model for thinking through the problems set up earlier: Augustine affords us, precisely, a means of conceiving of the gap or the interim. In the final chapter, this concept is developed with reference to the criticism of Arnold and Eliot, the fiction of Virginia Woolf and the philosophy of cinema derived from Deleuze and Lyotard. In conclusion, the philosophical implications of the thesis are placed in relation to a conception of the untimeliness of death
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