123,307 research outputs found

    Un análisis de la agenda de seguridad Perú-Brasil: los mecanismos de seguridad y confianza mutua (2003-2018)

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    Las relaciones bilaterales entre Perú y Brasil han fluctuado entre el acercamiento y el cordial desinterés. Esta inconsistencia en la agenda entre ambos países impidió que se fortalezcan lazos en materia política, económico, cultural, ambiental, seguridad, entre otros temas, por mucho tiempo. No obstante, a inicios del nuevo milenio escenarios como el retorno de la democracia en Perú y la consolidación de Brasil como potencia regional (Mindreau 2006:18) permitieron un acercamiento entre ambas naciones. Como consecuencia de ello, se firmó una Asociación Estratégica (2003), que iba a suponer una profundización en sus relaciones bilaterales. Sin embargo, una década más tarde los resultados, a grandes rasgos, muestran lo contrario: escándalos de corrupción en torno a la construcción de megaproyectos licitados a empresas brasileñas en Perú y un déficit comercial con Brasil , que ascendió a 695 millones de dólares, en el año 2018. Por lo general los estudios acerca de las relaciones peruano-brasileñas han sido enfocados en el aspecto comercial. En vista de ello, la presente investigación se enfocará en la agenda de seguridad de mencionados países. Se tomará como caso de estudio los Mecanismos de Seguridad y Confianza Mutua, que son una serie de acuerdos a los cuales dos países se comprometen, con el único objetivo de incrementar y fomentar la confianza (Galindo 1994). Los Mecanismos de Seguridad y Confianza Mutua entre Perú y Brasil se han caracterizado por presentar dificultades en materia de desarrollo e implementación. Por ello, en la presente investigación se identificaran cuáles son los factores que afectan el desempeño de los Mecanismos de Seguridad y Confianza Mutua.Tesi

    Does international patent collaboration have an effect on entrepreneurship?

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    .Entrepreneurship is one of the main pillars of growth in any economy. Achieving a high rate of entrepreneurship in a region has become the priority objective of governments and firms. However, in many cases, new firm creation is conditioned by relations or collaboration in innovation with agents from other countries. Previous literature has analyzed the mechanisms that foster entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to shed light on the influence of international patent collaboration (IPC) on entrepreneurial activity at country level taking into account the timing of this relationship. An empirical study is proposed to verify whether IPC leads to greater entrepreneurship and to analyze the gestation period between international patenting actions and firm creation. Using the Generalized Method of Moments, the two hypotheses proposed were tested in a data panel of 30 countries for the period 2005–2017. Results show the influence of IPC in promoting entrepreneurship in the same year, but especially in the following year. The study offers implications for entrepreneurs and public agents. IPC affects the integration and interaction of international agents in a country, favors the production of new knowledge, and increases positive externalities in a territory. All this facilitates the creation of new companies with a high innovative component.S

    Del modelo del Plan Badajoz a la Declaración de Gredos. Dos modelos de desarrollo rural = From the Badajoz Plan model to the Gredos Declaration. Two models of rural development

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    El problema de la despoblación derivado de la falta de oportunidades económicas ha sido una constante en la España rural desde mediados del siglo XX. En este sentido, el plan Badajoz (1952) fue considerado como el primer ensayo español de planificación regional a través de la transformación de campos de secano a regadío y su posterior colonización con la creación de pueblos que permitieran un desarrollo económico de la zona. Transcurridos 67 años de la realización del plan, la despoblación en Extremadura ha seguido persistiendo e incluso se ha agravado en la última década pese al incremento poblacional en España. Entre las diferentes alternativas existentes, la declaración de Gredos (2019) pretende nuevamente la involucración de las diferentes administraciones públicas, tanto nacionales como supranacionales, al objeto de promover unas condiciones favorables que permitan el progreso social y económico de las diferentes regiones españolas, evitando no solamente la despoblación de las zonas rurales, sino también una distribución de la renta regional y personal más equitativa que la actualmente existente entre el campo y la ciudad. Si bien en la actualidad, la estructura socioeconómica del país es sustancialmente distinta a la que originó el plan Badajoz y por tanto las estrategias a seguir son radicalmente opuestas, los objetivos perseguidos siguen siendo los mismos, así como la necesidad de coordinar unas políticas públicas encaminadas al logro de dicho fin. El objetivo de esta investigación será comparar ambos planes, analizando los errores cometidos en el plan Badajoz y su posible traslación a las nuevas estrategias de desarrollo desde una perspectiva de la planificación estratégica

    How Does Reciprocity Affect Undergraduate Student Orientation towards Stakeholders?

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    5987Nowadays, students are more aware of the impact of companies on their stakeholders and the need for properly handling their expectations to operationalize corporate social responsibility. Nevertheless, little is known about how certain individual traits may relate to their stance on the issue. This exploratory research contributes to stakeholder theory by analysing the e ect of the individual’s decision-making process, including the consideration of their social preferences, on their orientation toward stakeholder management. Here, we draw upon a theoretical model for resource-allocation decision-making consisting of reciprocal and non-reciprocal components. Our data, from undergraduate students enrolled in di erent degrees, were collected through a questionnaire and two social within-subject experiments (ultimatum and dictator games). Thus, our results show that the presence of a reciprocal component when decisions are made is positively linked to an instrumental orientation toward stakeholders. In addition, a greater non-reciprocal component in the decision-making process corresponds to a more normative orientation.S

    Introduction to Special Issue “Advances in Sustainability-Oriented Innovations”

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    8836This Special Issue focuses on the study of Sustainability-Oriented Innovations (SOIs). Our purpose is to shed light on the SOIs literature regarding their determining factors, implications and new challenges for the future. In this editorial, we are delighted to present the three papers included in this Special Issue. Each of them tackles di erent issues related to SOIs having important academic and managerial implications. Two papers analyze the influence of SOIs on urban development and resource productivity, respectively, and the third studies SOIs determinants, in particular, cooperation networks. Moreover, two of the papers analyze SOIs considering territory (cities or countries) as their unit of analysis while the third focuses on firms. This denotes that SOIs’ actions are important whatever the level of analysis and as either a determinant or a consequence.S

    The Art of Crafting Useful Citizens: Disability, Charity and the State (1870-1970)

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    During the period 1870 to 1970 popular conceptions of disabled children and adults changed significantly, and the practices and policies established to understand, reform and manage the disruptive disabled body evolved accordingly. Beginning in 1870, when the introduction of compulsory schooling provided the impetus for the development of charitable schools for 'crippled' children, this thesis examines key pieces of educational and employment legislation directed towards disabled adults and children, as well as a number of charitable interventions, over a period of a hundred years. It analyses the shifting relationship between disabled people, charity and the state, and the role played by arts and crafts in different educational, therapeutic and occupational contexts, to consider how these worked to extend, or deny, the rights of citizenship to disabled people throughout this period. It analyses practices associated with arts and crafts, as well as a number of case studies which include: Chailey Heritage Craft School for Crippled Children, The National Spastics Society and the Mouth and Foot Painting Artists Association. It uses these to chart the variable charitable, educational, political frameworks which have redefined, or reaffirmed, the expectations established for disabled children and adults, particularly in areas concerned with their education and employment. The study focuses principally upon disabled children to argue that the early institutions established on their behalf situated the 'crippled' child within the productive realm of adulthood through a work-based approach to education which affirmed their responsibility to be active, productive citizens. It demonstrates how this gradually changed through increased state intervention which progressively worked to redefine the boundaries of disabled children's childhoods and establish their dependency upon the state. Key to these developments were the evolving attitudes and values assigned to disabled people, education and work. Whilst the adult cripple of the nineteenth century was understood to be work-shy, weak and physically unproductive, the working contributions of disabled citizens during the Second World War were acknowledged via the passage of The Disabled Persons (Employment) Act (1944) which affirmed their status as workers. Concurrently, educational policy gradually included more significantly impaired children, which meant educational practice, including arts and crafts, necessarily evolved to consider more holistically the individual needs and development of the disabled child. This thesis argues that this established a broader distinction between the disabled adult and the disabled child, and that this is evident in the educational and occupational expectations established for both following the Second World War. Ultimately this thesis demonstrates how and why 'The Art of Crafting Useful Citizens' came to be an enterprise taken up both by charities and the state at different times, and in different ways. It argues that these approaches reflected the cultural anxieties and values of the time, and thus changed in meaning, form and intended recipient. The frameworks, practices and policies established by charities and the state successively worked to reexamine, recategorise and reform the disabled body, which this thesis argues worked to affirm the dependency of the disabled child, whilst simultaneously reasserting the expectations and rights of disabled adults to engage more completely in their own embodied citizenship through work

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    South Yorkshire low carbon energy supply chains: hydrogen sector summary

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    Structural and Attitudinal Barriers to Bicycle Ownership and Cycle-Based Transport in Gauteng, South Africa

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    Policies that aim to facilitate and promote non-motorised transport (NMT), and in particular cycling, have been developed by many high-income countries facing increasingly congested roads and saturated public transport systems. Such policies are also emerging in many low- and middle-income settings where high rates of urbanisation have led to similar problems with motorised transport. The aim of the present study was to better understand the potential structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport in one such context: South Africa’s Gauteng Province, the industrial powerhouse of sub-Saharan Africa that has recently made a firm commitment to NMT. The study focussed on demographic and socioeconomic variation in bicycle and car ownership, and related this to: (1) the reported use of motorised and non-motorised transport (both private and public); and (2) perceived ‘problems’ with cycling. The analyses drew on interviews with key respondents from n = 27,490 households conducted in 2013 as part of the third Quality of Life survey undertaken by the Gauteng City Regional Observatory. The survey contained items on three outcomes of interest: household vehicle ownership (bicycles and cars); modes of transport used for the “trips” most often made; and respondents’ “single biggest problem with… cycling”. Respondent- and household-level demographic and socioeconomic determinants of these outcomes were examined using descriptive and multivariable statistical analyses, the latter after adjustment for measured potential confounders identified using a theoretical causal path diagram (in the form of a directed acyclic graph). Of the n = 26,469 households providing complete data on all of the variables examined in the present study, only n = 8722 (32.9%) owned a car and fewer still (n = 2244; 8.4%) owned a bicycle. The ownership of these assets was commonest amongst wealthier, economically active households; and those that owned a car had over five times the odds of also owning a bicycle, even after adjustment for potential confounding (OR 5.17; 95% CI 4.58, 5.85). Moreover, of household respondents who reported making ‘trips’ during the preceding month (n = 18,209), over two-thirds of those whose households owned a car (70.1%) reported private car-based transport for such trips, while only 3.2% of those owning a bicycle reported cycling. Amongst the specific responses given to the item requesting the “single biggest problem with… cycling” by far the commonest was “Don’t know how to cycle” (32.2%), less than half as many citing “Vehicle accident risk” (15.9%), and fewer still: “Destination is too far” (13.9%); “Crime” (10.3%); “Too much effort” (9.2%); or “Lack of good paths” (4.6%). While the first of these reasons was commonest amongst poorer households, concerns about risk and effort were both most common amongst better educated, economically active and wealthier/better serviced households. In contrast, concerns over (cycle) paths were only common amongst those owning bicycles. The low prevalence of household bicycle ownership, and the disproportionate number of households owning bicycles that also owned cars, might explain the very small proportion of the ‘the trips most often made’ that involved cycle-based transport (0.3%), and the preferential use of cars amongst households owning both bicycles and cars. Low levels of bicycle ownership might also explain why so many respondents cited “Don’t know how” as the “single biggest problem with… cycling”; although risk and effort were also substantial concerns (presumably for many who did, and some who did not, know how to cycle); the lack of suitable cycle lanes being only primarily a concern for those who actually owned bicycles. Structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport limit the use of cycle-based transport in Gauteng, not only amongst the vast majority of household respondents who lack the means to cycle (and the means to learn how), but also amongst those dissuaded from learning to cycle, purchasing a bicycle and/or using a bicycle they own by: the risks and effort involved; the lack of suitable cycle paths; and/or because they also own a car and prefer to drive than cycle

    Paradoxes in the Management of Timebanks in the UK’s Voluntary Sector: Discursive Bricolage and its Limits

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    This paper contributes to our understanding of volunteer management by charting some important challenges associated with the governance of one of the UK’s largest timebanking networks. While timebanking is often treated as a form of volunteering, many timebank advocates are keen to distinguish it sharply from traditional volunteering. We suggest that this tension generates a fundamental ‘performance paradox’ in the management of timebanks in the voluntary sector. We draw on political discourse theory to characterise and evaluate associated challenges, suggesting that, when viewed against a host of context-specific organisational and policy pressures, the progressive potential of timebanking cannot be realised as a distinct community economy without adequate support. Instead of taking up a position alongside more traditional forms of volunteering, timebanking is more likely to be subsumed by them
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