575,088 research outputs found

    A plant disease extension of the Infectious Disease Ontology

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    Plants from a handful of species provide the primary source of food for all people, yet this source is vulnerable to multiple stressors, such as disease, drought, and nutrient deficiency. With rapid population growth and climate uncertainty, the need to produce crops that can tolerate or resist plant stressors is more crucial than ever. Traditional plant breeding methods may not be sufficient to overcome this challenge, and methods such as highOthroughput sequencing and automated scoring of phenotypes can provide significant new insights. Ontologies are essential tools for accessing and analysing the large quantities of data that come with these newer methods. As part of a larger project to develop ontologies that describe plant phenotypes and stresses, we are developing a plant disease extension of the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDOPlant). The IDOPlant is envisioned as a reference ontology designed to cover any plant infectious disease. In addition to novel terms for infectious diseases, IDOPlant includes terms imported from other ontologies that describe plants, pathogens, and vectors, the geographic location and ecology of diseases and hosts, and molecular functions and interactions of hosts and pathogens. To encompass this range of data, we are suggesting inOhouse ontology development complemented with reuse of terms from orthogonal ontologies developed as part of the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry. The study of plant diseases provides an example of how an ontological framework can be used to model complex biological phenomena such as plant disease, and how plant infectious diseases differ from, and are similar to, infectious diseases in other organism

    Plant Diseases

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    Plant pathogens, the causal agent of infectious plant diseases, influence our lives more than just as an economic impact through yield lost. The study of plant pathogens has given rise to the development of new sciences, new technologies for plant breeding, and the agrochemical industry for pesticide developments. Yet, all our actions and efforts to suppress or eradicate them constantly pressures these various organisms to evolve and adapt for survival. Therefore today, when facing climate changes, accelerated transport of plants and plant products, and world population growth, we have to ask quo vadis phytopathology. Like Alice in Wonderland “If we wish to go anywhere we must run twice as fast as that” so we need to constantly broaden our knowledge. However, today’s literature abounds with knowledge about plant pathogens. Hence, this book intends to present to the reader all the latest material and knowledge about plant pathogens, changes or refinements in plant disease epidemiology, and new approaches and materials used for plant pathogen control. Hopefully, this book will be of interest to those working within the field and looking for an up-to-date introduction. We hope it also interests students and thereby, will influence the future development of phytopathology and our better coexistence with plant pathogens

    Plant Diseases

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    Every gardener has put in plants with hopes for wonderful flowers, fruits, or vegetables, only to have those hopes dashed as the plants get sick and die. Plants that die are considered diseased. Many things can cause plants to become diseased, including living agents, other factors (nonliving), or a combination of the two. This chapter focuses only on living agents—fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, and parasitic plants. Nonliving factors, such as nutrient deficiencies, lack of water, temperature stress, and these problems in combination as they relate to specific types of plants, are discussed elsewhere

    Control of corn diseases in Illinois

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    "In cooperation with Office of Cereal Crops and Diseases, Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    COBRA: a new European research project for organic plant breeding

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    Development of organic plant breeding and seed production will have a valuable impact on organic plant production. Breeding of plant material adapted for organic agriculture is crucial in order to cope with stresses such as climate change, weeds and seed borne diseases. Conventional varieties may not meet the specific needs of organic agriculture. The use of plant material adapted to conditions of organic agriculture will have a positive effect on the productivity and sustainability of organic crop production

    Plant Health and the Science of Pests and Diseases

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    The health/disease duality has developed alongside human history either as a struggle for survival or as a challenge of the human being to effectively get to know himself. To speak about pests and diseases of plants may not be as exciting as when speaking of human beings; however, entomology and phytopathology hold methodological similarities to conventional medicine, which, thus, allow for correlations among them. After all, plant protection and human medical science are based under common epistemological principles of modern scientific thought. Hence, the goal of this essay is to disclose certain disagreements of the disciplines of phytopathology and entomology with agroecological based science; yet, giving way to a discussion according to ecological principles. This is a theoretical essay, based on bibliographical research and on the direct experience of the authors with family farmers in the South of Brazil during the last 20 years

    Control of seed borne diseasees in organic seed propagation

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    Introduction The key control measure of plant diseases in organic agriculture is crop rotation, mixed cropping and moderate fertilization. A wide range of plant diseases can be controlled or minimized in this way. However, at least one group of plant diseases, the seed borne diseases, cannot. The seed borne diseases are not transmitted through the soil, and crop rotation is therefore an insufficient tool. Mixed cropping is impractical in seed propagation, where seed purity according to the seed legislation is imperative. The fertilization level primarily has an impact on facultative saprophytes, and not on the specialized seed pathogens. Seed borne diseases were the first plant pathogens to be controlled by pesticides. Heavy metals has been used as seed treatments for more than 200 years, and for almost 100 years, the seed borne diseases has been controlled exclusively and very effectively by chemical seed treatments. On this background, research in control of seed borne diseases has had practically no priority in research programs during the last century. Compared with other agricultural topics, the control of seed borne diseases in organic agricultural therefore suffers from the largest lack of knowledge, as we are 100 years behind in research. International seed legislation does with a few exceptions not define minimum quality standards for seed infections with pathogens, as seed sold on the international market normally are treated with fungicides. Surveys show that for some crops, the nationally recommended thresholds for seed pathogens are regularly exceeded in organic seed-lots, and some years the majority of organic seed lots are discarded due to seed borne diseases in propagation systems, where seed health is assessed on a routine basis. To ensure the availability of organic seed for the organic farmers, control measures for seed borne diseases are imperative, and an international system to ensure seed health in organic seed lots should be implemented. Methods to control seed borne diseases in organic agriculture exist. Resistant varieties exist in many cases, and could be used to a wider extent. Different heat treatment can control most seed borne diseases, and new technologies can make this opportunity practical to implement. Technology to separate seed exists, and could be used as a tool to promote the propagation of seed in mixed cropping systems to decrease plant pathogens, including seed pathogens in propagation. Heavy and large seed are generally less infected than small and light seed. The separation and removal of the latter can therefore reduce the infection level in a seed lot. Some seed amendments of natural origin can be used in organic agriculture to replace synthetic pesticides. Ongoing projects Agrologica is currently involved in several projects on control of seed pathogens. This includes 1)heat treatments of cereals by drum-dryer, (Pyrenophora teres, Tilletia tritici, Ascochyta pisi, Fusarium ssp) 2)heat treatments of vegetables seed with steam and ultrasound, (Altanaria radicina, A. petroselini, Cladosporium sp, Septoria Petro, Stemphylium ssp, Phoma lingam, Botrytis ssp, Xantomonas compestris) 3)seed dressings, including plant extracts, smoke, natural chemicals and biological control, 4)physical cleaning of seeds to remove pathogens and infected seeds from seed lots (Ustilago nuda, Pyrenophora graminea, P. teres, T. tritici, Fusarium ssp). 5)integrated control of common bunt (T. tritici) in spelta-wheat (Triticum spelta), 6)preventive cropping methods to reduce build-up of pathogenic fungi during propagation (mixed cropping, early harvest), 7)determining threshold values for organic cereals related to the susceptibility of the individual varieties (P. graminea, P. teres, T. tritici, Ascochyta ssp, Fusarium ssp). Conclusions and recommendations Research during the last two decades has shown that progress can be achieved and that solutions exist. Based on this, it can be concluded that seed borne diseases can be controlled in organic agriculture. However, extension and research to refine methods are urgently needed to do so

    A Computational Approach for Identifying Plant-Based Foods for Addressing Vitamin Deficiency Diseases

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    Vitamins are nutrients that are essential to human health, and deficiencies have been shown to cause severe diseases. In this study, a computational approach was used to identify vitamin deficiency diseases and plant-based foods with vitamin content. Data from the United States Department of Agriculture Standard Reference (SR27), National Library of Medicine\u27s Medical Subject Headings and MEDLINE, and Wikipedia were combined to identify vitamin deficiency diseases and vitamin content of plant-based foods. A total of 41,584 vitamin-disease associations were identified from MEDLINE-indexed articles as well as from entries in Wikipedia. The SR27 identified 1912 foods that contained at least one vitamin, with an average of 1276 foods per vitamin. Vitamin B12 and D contained the fewest number of foods (n=135 and 70, respectively). The results of this study establish the foundation for developing a process to link vitamin deficiency diseases to vitamin-rich foods

    Plant Diseases [2016]

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    Anyone who has ever planted a garden knows not only the rewards of beautiful flowers, fruit, and/ or vegetables, but also the disappointment when plants become diseased or damaged. Many factors cause plants to exhibit poor vigor, changes in appearance, or even death. Both abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors can negatively impact plant heath. Disorders that result from non-living factors (such as nutrient deficiencies, over/under watering, temperature stress, and chemical damage) are discussed in subsequent chapters. This chapter focuses on those living organisms that cause disease: fungi, water molds, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, and parasitic plants

    Dry Bean Pest Scouting Report

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    A survey of dry bean pests was conducted on farms throughout Vermont during the 2016 season. Plant diseases and insect pests were scouted on five Vermont farm locations in the towns of Alburgh, Cambridge, Danby, Glover, and North Ferrisburg. Unknown disease and insect samples were taken and identified with assistance from the UVM Plant Diagnostic Laboratory (PDC)
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