410 research outputs found

    Helminths found in common species of the herpetofauna in Ukraine

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    Only a few comprehensive studies have been carried out on parasites in amphibians and reptiles in Ukraine. This has resulted in identifying over 100 helminth species across these vertebrate groups. However, most of the studies were performed in the 20th century and the taxonomy of many parasites and their hosts has changed ever since, in addition to the discovery of new species and registrations of species that had not been previously known for Ukraine. In recent decades, there have been very few publications on helminths from amphibian or reptile hosts in this region. Notably, just one of these recent studies is a faunistic study, providing a list of helminths found in two species of green frogs – Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771) and Pelophylax esculentus (Linnaeus, 1758). Therefore, it is clear that publishing datasets of modern records of helminths in these vertebrate groups, based on modern taxonomy, is an essential step in further studies of their parasitic diversity. Additionally, such study is important in terms of global climate change, the growing number of possibilities of invasion of alien species (both hosts and parasites) that might potentially become a threat to native biota and growing anthropogenic pressure on local populations of hosts that affect the parasites as well. In future, this study is planned to be used for the creation of a checklist of helminths of the herpetofauna of Ukraine. The present dataset is an inventory of various species of helminths parasitising common species of the herpetofauna in central, northern, western and southern Ukraine recorded during field studies in the 2021-2023 period.The dataset is the first one to represent the up-to-date and unified data on helminths of reptiles and amphibians of Ukraine. Previously, records of this group of organisms with reference to their hosts were presented as several separate records within the country. Currently, this is the largest dataset presenting geocoded records of non-human-related helminths in the fauna of Ukraine. It reports helminth species from 15 hosts (205 individuals), including eight amphibians and seven reptilian species found in various Ukrainian regions. A total of 47 helminth species have been documented in the research and during 2021-2023 period on the territory of northern (Kyiv and Zhytomyr), western (Lviv, Zakarpattia Ivano-Frankivsk), central (Vinnytsia, Dnipropetrovsk, Cherkasy, Zaporizhzhia and Poltava) and southern (Odesa) regions of Ukraine. The identified helminth species belong to the following phyla: Acanthocephala (Centrorhynchidae (2), Echinorhynchidae (2)); Nematoda (Acuariidae, Anisakidae, Cosmocercidae (3), Dioctophymatidae, Gnathostomatidae (1), Kathlanidae (1), Molineidae (7), Onchocercidae (1), Pharyngodonidae (1), Rhabdiasidae (6), Strongyloididae); Platyhelminthes (Diplodiscidae (1), Diplostomidae (2), Encyclometridae (1), Haematoloechidae (1), Leptophallidae (2), Macroderidae (1), Mesocestoididae, Opisthorchiidae (2), Plagiorchiidae (3), Pleurogenidae (2), Polystomatidae (3), Proteocephalidae (1), Strigeidae (1) and Telorchiidae (3)). Only some helminths in the dataset were not identified to species level. Material is stored in the collection of the department of Parasitology of the I. I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology NAS of Ukraine

    Diversity of cercariae emergent from Heleobia parchappii (Gastropoda) in streams from the northeast of Buenos Aires Province

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    Estudiar la biodiversidad de un ambiente es importante para comprender el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas. Los ambientes dulceacuícolas de Argentina poseen una fauna variada de invertebrados, siendo los digeneos componentes muy importantes. Entre los hospedadores intermediarios de digeneos, el gasterópodo Heleobia parchappii se encuentra ampliamente distribuido y posee relevancia ecológica, sin embargo el conocimiento sobre su diversidad parasitaria en muchos de los ambientes que habita requiere ser ampliado. El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir al conocimiento de la diversidad de digeneos parasitando a H. parchapii en arroyos del noreste bonaerense, mediante la caracterización morfológica de las cercarias que de ellos emergen. Entre 2015 y 2022 se colectaron 11589 ejemplares de H. parchappii en los arroyos Martín, Carnaval y Buñirigo (La Plata, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina), los cuales se transportaron al laboratorio y se mantuvieron en acuarios. Posteriormente se expusieron a luz directa, y se evaluó la emergencia de cercarias, las cuales fueron estudiadas morfológicamente y clasificadas en morfotipos. Se calculó el índice de emergencia (número de caracoles de los que emerge el morfotipo i/número total de caracoles observados), así como la riqueza de morfotipos emitidos en cada arroyo. Se identificaron 12 morfotipos de cercarias que se clasificaron en diez familias. Los resultados alcanzados permiten incrementar el registro de cercarias conocidas para H. parchappii en los arroyos estudiados, donde se puede asumir la existencia de una fauna diversa acorde a las características del ambiente. Además, se observó que el índice de emergencia fue mayor en el arroyo Buñirigo. Este trabajo evidencia la necesidad de realizar nuevos estudios para evaluar en mayor profundidad la diversidad de larvas de digeneos y los efectos ambientales y temporales sobre su comunidad.Researching the biodiversity of an environment is important to understand the ecosystems functioning. The freshwater environments of Argentina have varied fauna, being the digeneans very important components. Among the digeneans’ intermediate hosts, the gastropod Heleobia parchappii is widely distributed and has ecological relevance; however, knowledge about its parasitic diversity in many of the environments it inhabits needs to be expanded. The objective of this research is to contribute to the knowledge of the diversity of digeneans parasitizing H. parchapii in streams of northeastern Buenos Aires, through the morphological characterization of the cercariae that emerge from them. Between 2015 and 2022, 11589 specimens of H. parchappii were collected in the Carnaval, Martín, and Buñirigo streams (La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina), transported to the laboratory and kept in aquariums. Subsequently, they were exposed to direct light, the emergence of cercariae was evaluated, which were studied morphologically and classified according to morphotypes. The Emergence Index (number of snails from which morphotype i emerges/total number of snails observed) was calculated, as well as the morphotype richness for each stream. Twelve cercariae morphotypes were identified and classified into ten families. The results achieved allow increasing the record of known cercariae in H. parchappii in the studied streams, where the existence of a diverse fauna can be assumed according to the characteristics of the environment. In addition, it was observed that the Emergence Index was higher in Buñirigo stream. This study shows the need to carry out new studies to evaluate in greater depth the diversity of digenean larvae and the environmental and temporal effects on their community.Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de VectoresAsociación Parasitológica Argentin

    Trematode parasites of mollusc hosts from marginal seas and their sensitivity to warming

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    Parasites, like the diverse Digenean trematodes, are crucial to ecosystems, influencing everything from ecological speciation to food webs and host behavior. However, knowledge deficits persist regarding their biodiversity, life cycles, and geographical distribution, which complicates our broader understanding of ecosystems and response to the crisis in biodiversity. Some parasites risk extinction before they are discovered, especially in rapidly warming Marginal Seas such as the Persian Gulf and Baltic Sea, as a result of the ongoing global warming accelerated by human activity. Therefore, it is imperative to investigate the effects of warming on host-parasite systems in these regions and to comprehend the thermal performance of parasites. This is especially true as basic information such as parasite biodiversity is still missing in some regions, while the impact of environmental change on parasite performance remains largely unknown even in well-studied areas. Within four chapters, this thesis aimed to explore the yet unknown trematode biodiversity in the Persian and Oman Gulfs via molecular identification of trematodes infecting the most abundant mud snail Pirenella cingulata. Next, we investigate the thermal sensitivity of two prevalent trematodes (Acanthotrema tridactyla and Cyathocotylidae gen. sp) infecting P. cingulata. Lastly, this thesis investigates the combined effect of warming and parasitism on mussel performance using Renicola roscovita infecting Mytilus edulis as the host-parasite system in the Baltic Sea

    Diversidad de helmintos parásitos de aves silvestres de la Argentina: ¿cuánto conocemos?

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    El primer registro de una especie de helminto parasitando aves silvestres de la Argentina fue realizado en 1906, desde entonces se han publicado cerca de 200 trabajos en esta temática. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el estado actual del conocimiento de los helmintos en este grupo de hospedadores en Argentina. A partir de los trabajos publicados desde 1906 hasta mediados de 2018, se evaluó el número de especies, las relaciones hospedador–parásito y su distribución. Se han reportado 209 especies nominales de helmintos y 331 relaciones hospedador–parásito. Las curvas de acumulación de especies y de relaciones hospedador–parásito a través del tiempo, muestran un fuerte incremento a partir del año 2000; sin embargo, están lejos de alcanzar la asíntota.Asociación Parasitológica Argentin

    Intercontinental distributions, phylogenetic position and life cycles of species of Apharyngostrigea (Digenea, Diplostomoidea) illuminated with morphological, experimental, molecular and genomic data

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    When subjected to molecular study, species of digeneans believed to be cosmopolitan are usually found to consist of complexes of species with narrower distributions. We present molecular and morphological evidence of transcontinental distributions in two species of Apharyngostrigea Ciurea, 1924, based on samples from Africa and the Americas. Sequences of cytochrome c oxidase I and, in some samples, internal transcribed spacer, revealed Apharyngostrigea pipientis (Faust, 1918) in Tanzania (first known African record), Argentina, Brazil, USA and Canada. Sequences from A. pipientis also match previously published sequences identified as Apharyngostrigea cornu (Zeder, 1800) originating in Mexico. Hosts of A. pipientis surveyed include definitive hosts from the Afrotropic, Neotropic and Nearctic, as well as first and second intermediate hosts from the Americas, including the type host and type region. In addition, metacercariae of A. pipientis were obtained from experimentally infected Poecilia reticulata, the first known record of this parasite in a non-amphibian second intermediate host. Variation in cytochrome c oxidase I haplotypes in A. pipientis is consistent with a long established, wide-ranging species with moderate genetic structure among Nearctic, Neotropic and Afrotropic regions. We attribute this to natural dispersal by birds and find no evidence of anthropogenic introductions of exotic host species. Sequences of CO1 and ITS from adult Apharyngostrigea simplex (Johnston, 1904) from Egretta thula in Argentina matched published data from cercariae from Biomphalaria straminea from Brazil and metacercariae from Cnesterodon decemmaculatus in Argentina, consistent with previous morphological and life-cycle studies reporting this parasite—originally described in Australia—in South America. Analyses of the mitochondrial genome and rDNA operon from A. pipientis support prior phylogenies based on shorter markers showing the Strigeidae Railliet, 1919 to be polyphyletic.Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y MuseoCentro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectore

    Concepts in Animal Parasitology: Master Bibliography

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    Master bibliography for the open educational resource/open access textbook Concepts in Animal Parasitology, Scott L. Gardner and Sue Ann Gardner, editors, published by Zea Books, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States, 2023. This includes the references from literature cited and suggested supplemental reading

    Primer registro del género Choledocystus (Trematoda: Plagiorchiidae) para anfibios de la región del Chaco en Argentina

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    Los estudios sistemáticos proporcionan la base para el conocimiento de la biodiversidad y de la salud del ecosistema. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo es proporcionar información morfológica adicional y una caracterización molecular de trematodes del género Choledocystus. Este es el primer registro de las especies Choledocystus incurvatum y Ch. elegans en anfibios argentinos recolectados en dos localidades de la región del Chaco.Asociación Parasitológica Argentin

    Raccoons contraband – The metazoan parasite fauna of free-ranging raccoons in central Europe

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    The invasive raccoon (Procyon lotor) is an abundant carnivore and considered as an important potential vector of infectious diseases and parasites in Europe. Raccoons show a broad, opportunistic, omnivorous food spectrum. Food supply and habitat quality in urban areas are very attractive for the generalist raccoon. This inevitably leads to increased interaction with humans, domestic animals and livestock, making the raccoon a potentially suitable zoonosis vector. In its autochthonous range, especially in the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the raccoon has been studied very intensively since the beginning of the 20th century. Whereas, basic field biology and parasitology studies in Germany and Europe are lacking and have only been conducted sporadically, regionally and on small sample sizes. In the presented study 234 raccoons from central Germany were comprehensively examined for their metazoan parasite fauna. The present study shows for the first time an extremely diverse parasite fauna in raccoons outside their native range and proves their essential role as intermediate hosts and hosts for ecto- and endoparasites. A total of 23 different parasite species were identified, five of which are human pathogens, 14 of which are new for the parasite fauna of raccoons in Europe. The human pathogenic raccoon roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis is the most common parasite species in this study, with a prevalence of up to 95%. The digenetic trematode Plagiorchis muris, another human pathogenic parasite species, was detected for the first time in raccoons. The ongoing spread of invasive carnivores and the associated spread and transmission of their parasites and other pathogens increases the potential health risk of wild and farmed animals as well as humans. An increase in parasitic diseases in humans (e.g. raccoon roundworm) is to be expected, especially in urban areas, where raccoons are becoming more and more abundant

    Digeneos larvales de Heleobia parchappii y de Heleobia australis en ambientes dulceacuícolas y estuariales de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

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    El examen parasitológico de ejemplares de Heleobia parchappii (d’Orbigny, 1835) y de Heleobia australis (d’Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca, Cochliopidae), en ambientes dulceacuícolas y estuariales de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina), reveló la presencia de 7 nuevos estadios larvales de digeneos (cercarias) para estos hospedadores moluscos. Se describen estos estadios larvales que incluyen dos xiphidiocercarias, que no pudieron ser identificadas a nivel de familia, y cinco cercarias pertenecientes a las familias Acanthostomidae, Schistosomatidae, Aporocotylidae, Heterophyidae y Haploporidae.Parasitological examination of specimens of Heleobia parchappii (d’Orbigny, 1835) and Heleobia australis (d’Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca, Cochliopidae), from freshwater and estuarine environments of the Buenos Aires province (Argentina), revealed the presence of 7 new larval stages of digeneans (cercariae) for these molluscan hosts. These larval stages of digeneans include two xiphidiocercariae, and 5 cercariae belonging to the families Acanthostomidae, Schistosomatidae, Aporocotylidae and Haploporidae, respectively.Asociación Parasitológica Argentin

    Análise parasitológica de tratos digestivos de tartarugas verdes juvenis (Chelonia mydas) provenientes do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina VeterináriaAtualmente, seis das sete espécies de tartarugas marinhas estão ameaçadas de extinção, segundo a IUCN (2021). A necessidade de estratégias de conservação para estas espécies tem vindo a ganhar importância e a ser motivo de preocupação. A tartaruga verde (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758) é a maior das tartarugas marinhas de carapaça dura. Na costa brasileira é a espécie de tartaruga marinha mais prevalente. No Rio de Janeiro são encontradas principalmente tartarugas verdes juvenis. A fauna parasitária das tartarugas verdes juvenis é ainda pouco conhecida. Este estudo teve como objetivo a realização de uma análise parasitológica do trato gastrointestinal de 28 tartarugas verdes juvenis encontradas ao longo da costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Todas as tartarugas analisadas encontravam-se parasitadas com helmintes (100%). No total, 14 802 trematodes pertencentes a 30 espécies e 5 famílias, incluindo Microscaphidiidae, Plagiorchiidae, Pronocephalidae, Spirorchiidae e Telorchiidae e 3 larvas de nematodes foram recuperados. A riqueza média de espécies encontradas foi de 7,86 ± 3,83 DP e a intensidade média de infeção foi 528,64 ± 627,52 DP. A investigação efetuada nesta localização apresenta ainda novos registos geográficos para as espécies Angiodictyum posterovitellatum, Microscaphidium aberrans, Microscaphidium warui, Octangium hyphalum, Octangium sagitta, Enodiotrema reductum e Pleurogonius laterouterus. As nossas descobertas sugerem que a região norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro apresenta uma particularidade que as demais regiões já estudadas não apresentam. Acreditamos que sejam resultado da existência de um sistema de ressurgência costeira mais intenso nesta área, da presença de vários rios que desaguam no mar na região analisada e/ou ainda um acontecimento normal das tartarugas desta região. O presente estudo fornece informações úteis sobre a fauna parasitária de uma fase ainda pouco conhecida do ciclo de vida das tartarugas verdes.ABSTRACT - Parasitological analysis of digestive tracts of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - Currently, six of the seven species of sea turtles are threatened with extinction, according to the IUCN (2021). Thus, the need for conservation strategies for these species has been gaining importance and being a matter of concern. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758) is considered the largest of the hard-shelled sea turtles. On the Brazilian coast, it is the most prevalent species and juvenile green turtles are mostly found in Rio de Janeiro. The helminth fauna of juvenile green turtles is still poorly known. This study aimed to offer a parasitological analysis of 28 juvenile green turtles found stranded on the north coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All analyzed turtles were infected with helminths (100%). In total, 14 802 trematodes belonging to 30 species and 5 families including Microscaphidiidae, Plagiorchiidae, Pronocephalidae, Spirorchiidae and Telorchiidae and 3 nematode larvae were recovered. Mean species richness was 7.86 ± 3.83 SD and the mean intensity of infection was 528.64 ± 627.52 SD. The research performed on this location also presents new geographical records for Angiodictyum posterovitellatum, Microscaphidium aberrans, Microscaphidium warui, Octangium hyphalum, Octangium sagitta, Enodiotrema reductum and Pleurogonius laterouterus. Our findings suggest that the northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro has a peculiarity that the other regions did not present. We believe that they are the result of the existence of a more intense coastal upwelling system in this area, the presence of several rivers that flow into the sea in the analyzed region and/or even a normal occurrence of the turtles in this region. The present study provides useful information on the parasite fauna of a poorly known stage in the life cycle of green turtles.N/
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