16,051 research outputs found

    Geospatial Analysis of Rickettsial Species in Arkansas

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    Rickettsia species are obligate intracellular, arthropod-borne bacteria with a potential to cause multiple diseases including Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Fleas, mites, and ticks serve as vectors for Rickettsia, but ticks are the primary vector of interest. RMSF and other rickettsial diseases have continued to gain importance in both human and veterinary medicine as RMSF is the most common tick-borne disease within the United States according to the Lyme and Tick-Borne Disease Research Center. A statewide citizen science project was utilized to determine the prevalence of Spotted Fever Group (SFG) Rickettsia in Arkansas. This project yielded results in 64 of Arkansas’s 75 counties. Results were utilized to determine prevalence in each of the represented counties, and then compiled into a geospatial representation of the data. It was determined that 34.32% of the ticks sampled were carriers of one or more rickettsial species. As the samples were divided by county, multiple counties were shown to have concerningly high exposure risk for SFG Rickettsia. There were six species of ticks represented throughout this study with Amblyomma americanum being the most common. There were also six species of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia found within the samples. The small portion of ticks that underwent further analysis to determine the specific rickettsial species present, indicated that Rickettsia amblyommatis is likely the most common SFG Rickettsia in Arkansas

    Justice Reinvestment in Oklahoma: Analysis and Policy Framework

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    Summarizes findings from analyses of criminal justice, mental health, and substance abuse data and policy options for justice reinvestment, a data-driven strategy to contain corrections spending and reinvest part of the savings in improving public safety

    Salt Dissolution in the Permian Flowerpot and Blaine Formations Defines Limits of the Syracuse Basin in Western Kansas and Eastern Colorado

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    The Syracuse Basin is a large region of about 8,100 mi2 (21,000 km2) in western Kansas and eastern Colorado that is underlain by Permian-age salts in the Flowerpot and Blaine Formations of the Nippewalla Group. Originally thought to be a structural or depositional basin, detailed study around the perimeter of the basin shows that it is a dissolutional remnant wherein the salt beds are dissolved at all places around the basin’s margins. The two main salt units, the Flowerpot salt and the middle Blaine salt, consist mainly of displacive halite in red-brown shales and siltstones (mudstones). The Flowerpot salt is generally 200–300 ft (61–91 m) thick within the basin, but where most or all of the salt is dissolved outside of the basin, equivalent strata are 50–150 ft (15–46 m) thick. The younger middle Blaine salt is typically 45–60 ft (14–18 m) thick in the basin, and equivalent strata are 5–10 ft (1.5–3 m) thick where the salt is dissolved. Five areas selected for detailed study of the dissolution zone around the perimeter of the Syracuse Basin show that removal of about 250 ft (76 m) of Flowerpot salt occurs within horizontal distances ranging from about 930 ft (283 m) to as much as 14 mi (23 km). Structural cross sections show that sub-salt strata dip gently and uninterrupted beneath the dissolution zone, whereas strata above the salt are disrupted and are flexed down by an amount roughly equal to the amount of dissolved salt. This supports the thesis that the salt deposits are a dissolutional remnant and not a structural or depositional basin. In most areas, descending unsaturated groundwater dissolves the shallower middle Blaine salt first and then dissolves the deeper Flowerpot salt. But in two areas, unsaturated groundwater is sourced from a sub-salt aquifer, causing dissolution of the Flowerpot salt first and then the shallower middle Blaine salt. Salt dissolution occurred at different times in different parts of the Syracuse Basin. In most areas, it occurred mainly during the Pliocene–Pleistocene–Holocene Epochs, but locally it started before deposition of the Cretaceous or even from Late Permian through Early Cretaceous time. The original extent of the Flowerpot and middle Blaine salts went far beyond the current extent of the Syracuse Basin. Remnants of both salt units are present in six large regions that extend from the Denver Basin in northeast Colorado and western Nebraska on the north to the Anadarko and Palo Duro basins in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico on the south, a total area of about 115,800 mi2 (300,000 km2). In all these regions, the two salt units have dissolutional limits like those at the perimeter of the Syracuse Basin. Dissolution of subsurface salt units can cause problems when or if underground cavities become so large that the roof of the cavity collapses and the cavity rises to the land surface to form a sinkhole or an area of ground subsidence. Problems can also arise when seismic-reflection surveys cross a dissolution boundary and false images of phantom structures are created in strata below the dissolution zone. Also, drilling through salt units must be done with care so that unsaturated drilling muds and formation waters do not cause cavity development in the salt. Dissolution of salt also can affect the quality of groundwater: Salt-dissolution brine can migrate into fresh groundwater aquifers and even render the water unusable for most purposes

    The Atlantic Philanthropies' School Discipline Reform Portfolio

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    This report summarizes findings from a two-year evaluation of The Atlantic Philanthropies' school discipline reform portfolio. The portfolio, which ran from late 2009 to 2016 and invested over $47 million dollars in 57 grants to 38 different grantees, was created to improve educational outcomes for students by reducing the number of zero tolerance suspensions, expulsions, and arrests in schools, particularly for children of color, and enhancing the use of positive disciplinary practices that keep children in school and engaged in learning. Atlantic set a nationwide goal to reduce school suspensions by one half and reduce discipline disparities by one quarter

    State of Health Equity Movement, 2011 Update Part B: Catalog of Activities DRA Project Report No. 11-02

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    State of Health Equity Movement, 2011 Update Part B: Catalog of Activities DRA Project Report No. 11-0
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