108 research outputs found

    Deep Reef Benthos of Bermuda: Field Identification Guide

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    Deep Reef Benthos of Bermuda builds on the video and imagery data collected during Nekton’s Mission – the XL Catlin Deep Ocean Survey - and provides a photographic guide for the visual identification of many of the corals, marine plants and other common invertebrates that inhabit Bermuda’s outer deep reefs.This guide is designed to aid marine biologists, divers and naturalists with the identification of organisms as seen in underwater footage or live in the field.</div

    Davidson Seamount Taxonomic Guide

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    Davidson Seamount is one of the largest seamounts in U.S. waters and the first to be characterized as a “seamount.” In 2002 and 2006, the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) led two multi-institutional expeditions to characterize the geology and natural history of Davidson Seamount. Results from these expeditions to Davidson Seamount are adding to the scientific knowledge of seamounts, including the discovery of new species. In November 2008, the MBNMS boundary was expanded to include the Davidson Seamount. In addition, a management plan for Davidson Seamount was created to develop resource protection, education, and research strategies for the area. The purpose of this taxonomic guide is to create an inventory of benthic and mid-water organisms observed at the Davidson Seamount to provide a baseline taxonomic characterization. At least 237 taxa were observed and are presented in this guide; including 15 new or undescribed species (8 sponges, 3 corals, 1 ctenophore, 1 nudibranch, 1 polychaete, 1 tunicate) recently or currently being described by taxonomic experts. This is the first taxonomic guide to Davidson Seamount, and is intended to be revised in the future as we learn more about the seamount and the organisms that live there. (PDF has 145 pages.

    EVALUATION OF A NOVEL MATERIAL FOR RECYCLING TIRES INTO ARTIFICIAL REEFS SECOND YEAR ANNUAL REPORT

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    Four artificial reefs were placed off Broward County in 20 ft of water on 29 March 1993. The reefs were constructed of concrete aggregate tetrahedrons. Each reef contains 25 small ( 3ft/side) and 25 large (4 ft/side) tetrahedrons in a random configuration. Two types of concrete aggregate were used . One is a tire-concrete aggregate which uses tire shreds mixed into the concrete; the other is a standard gravel-concrete aggregate. Two reefs are composed of each type of aggregate . The purpose of the study is to evaluate the tire aggregate, in comparison to standard concrete, as a suitable reef building material . Specifically we are looking at the response of biological communities to the two types of reefs. The reefs are being monitored periodically ( intervals of one mounth or less) and the status of the biological communities assayed through various methodologies, i . e. visual census (fishes), uw- video taping and collection (invertebrates) . The reefs have acquired a diverse community of fishes and invertebrates. We have noted 90 species of fishes and 116 taxa of invertebrates to date; these numbers compare favorable with a similar study in Southern Florida . To this point, we have been unable to see significant differences among the biological communities between the two types of reefs that we can ascribe to difference in construction material . However, because we have only monitored the reefs for 17 months, the data are insufficient to draw valid conclusions concerning the suitability of the tire-concrete aggregate as an artificial reef construction material

    What\u27s In a Phrase?

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    We all use phrases without a second thought or glance. Many of these word liaisons, however, are host to a world of hidden words and hidden letter patterns. Some of these are now about to be exposed. The phrases under scrutiny here are mostly, but not exclusively, 2-word affairs

    The urban sanctuary: Algae and marine invertebrates of ricketts point marine sanctuary

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    &quot;This book has been designed to help keen naturalists, high-school students and university undergraduates identify the aquatic plants and invertebrates within Ricketts Point Marine Sanctuary&quot; -- page viii

    Tapping the archives: The sterol composition of marine sponge species, as determined non-invasively from museum preserved specimens, reveals biogeographical features

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    Over 8600 species are currently recorded in the phylum Porifera (sponges). They produce a large diversity of biochemical compounds including sterols, with more than 250 different sterols identified. Some of these sterols are of great interest, due to their use for fingerprinting in ecological and biomarker (molecular fossil) studies. As a large number of identified extant species from biodiversity surveys are housed in museum collections, preserved in ethanol, these present a potentially rich source of identified specimens for comparative lipid analyses. Here, we show that, in at least one species, sterol distributions obtained from the ethanol used to preserve specimens of sponges were representative, and comparable to the sterol distribution obtained from wet-frozen and from freeze-dried tissue from the same species. We employed both GC-MS and two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS), with an improved signal-to-noise ratio for even minor constituents. Analysis of two additional specimens of the same species, but of different provenance, resulted in detection of marked differences in sterol composition, which could be attributed to variations in geography, environmental conditions, microbial communities, diet or cryptic speciation. The possibility of using ethanol from identified, preserved museum sponges could drastically increase the number of available samples. This could enable the study of their sterol complements, and the detailed investigation of differences due to geographical and oceanographic, phylogenetic, and other factors in unprecedented detail

    An appraisal of the biological and biochemical diversity in sponges.

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    various chemicals elaborated by animals have an ecological bearing, sponges from different eco-proflles such as exposed, boring, burrowing and also those In relation to various types of simbiotlc relationships, have to be dealt with sepsirately for understanding the fundamental mechanism of ecological interactions. Hence, it is hoped that interdisciplinary studies between ecologists and chemists within the frame work based on ecological and evolutionary theories would be more meaningful in the field of Marine Product Chemistry

    AEIOUY Words

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    With the 30-year quest for AEIOU words now behind us, I have taken the opportunity to add the letter Y and repeat the exercise for AEIOUY words. Y acts as a vowel in words such as symbol and is referred to variously as the sixth vowel, a semi-vowel or a secondary vowel. The world of AEIOUY words, those in which the six vowels A, E, I, O, U, and Y each occur just once, takes us into largely unexplored territory. There are 720 permutations of the six vowels A, E, I , O , U, and Y, six times as many as for A, E, I, O, and U

    Invertebrate Identification Guide for ChesMMAP and NEAMAP Diet Analysis Studies

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    This is a compilation of identification resources for invertebrates found in stomach samples. By no means is it a complete list of all possible prey types. It is simply what has been found in past ChesMMAP and NEAMAP diet studies

    Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of five selected marine sponges against denaturation of protein-A pilot study

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    Background: Marine sponges are well renowned for producing bioactive secondary metabolites with drug leads. Screening of anti-inflammatory compounds from marine sponges is highly appreciated in the field of marine pharmacognosy due to their effectiveness and specificity over the most of synthetic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In vitro models to test anti-inflammatory activity are considered obligatory prior to pre-clinical studies. Objective: To evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of crude extracts of five marine sponge samples (N=5), collected from Dehiwala, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Methodology: Identification of sponge species were based on morphology, spicule and skeleton analysis, using light microscopy. Each sponge crude extract (SCE) was tested for selected zoo- chemicals and against the denaturation of albumin to assess the anti-inflammatory activity. Diclofenac sodium was used as the reference drug. Results: Sponge samples were identified as 1) Stylissa sp, 2) Stylissa carteri, 3) Axinella sp., 4) Phakellia sp. and 5) Family Axinellidae. Zoo-chemical analysis indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, and sterols in sponge extracts in varying degree. Heat induced egg albumin denaturation was inhibited by 4 SCEs specifying marked anti-inflammatory activity. Accordingly, the 3 sponge crude extracts were more potent (IC50 = 22.74 for Sp. 02, 3.98 for Sp. 03 and 63.665\u3bcgmL -1for Sp. 05) than the of standard reference drug, Diclofinac sodium (IC50=147.02 \u3bcg/mL). Conclusions: Thus, the present study for the first time investigated in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of crude extract of 5 selected marine sponge species from Sri Lanka, out of which 3 were more potent than the reference diclofenac sodium. Therefore, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds which are responsible for anti- inflammatory activity will lead to discover novel marine derived anti-inflammatory drugs in the future
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