1,852 research outputs found

    Inovação na diplomacia cultural: o caso da China

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    This study focuses on the innovation of China’s cultural diplomacy (CCD) by means of the Confucius Institute (CI). The main contents revolve around the following research goals: 1) to understand the strategic framework and practical path of CCD, and to clarify the context of its inheritance and innovation; 2) to analyze whether the CI, epitomized as a crucial innovation of CCD, has improved China’s national image in Portuguese-speaking countries (PSCs) and enhanced the attraction and international competitiveness of Chinese culture; and 3) to explore how China can better formulate its CD strategy in line with the exigencies of the modern era. The study combines the methods of literature review, case study, and questionnaire research to explore the topics from different perspectives to strengthen the scientific nature of the research results. In addition to the introduction and conclusion, the thesis is divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the connotation and value of CD. Chapter 2 expounds the development and innovation of CCD. Chapter 3 systematically summarizes China’s cultural interaction in its diplomatic process with PSCs. Chapter 4 elaborates on the CI in terms of its operation mode and diplomatic means. Chapter 5 forms the core of the study and involves empirical analysis of case-study and questionnaire data. It aims to investigate the functions, public image, influence, and practical means of CIs in the process of CD. Major findings indicate that CIs in PSCs have achieved ideal social feedback and play a positive role in shaping the image of China. However, according to the different continents where CIs are located, the survey results show distinct characteristics which are closely related to China’s different foreign policies towards Latin America, Europe, and Africa and are determined by the historical experiences and national conditions of the various countries. The future task for CCD is to clarify China’s institutional roots and the cultural genes behind its development by using cultural exchanges and China’s fluid culture to convey a message of China’s pursuit of peace, development, and cooperation.Este estudo tem como foco a inovação da Diplomacia Cultural da China (DCC) atravĂ©s do Instituto ConfĂșcio (IC). Os principais conteĂșdos giram em torno dos seguintes objetivos de investigação: 1) compreender o enquadramento estratĂ©gico e o percurso prĂĄtico da Diplomacia Cultural da China e clarificar o contexto da sua herança e inovação; 2) analisar se o IC, exemplo de inovação crucial da Diplomacia Cultural da China, melhorou a imagem nacional da China nos PaĂ­ses de LĂ­ngua Oficial Portuguesa (PALOP) e aumentou a atração e competitividade internacional da cultura chinesa; e 3) explorar como a China pode formular melhor a sua estratĂ©gia de Diplomacia Cultural, de acordo com as exigĂȘncias da era moderna. O estudo combina os mĂ©todos de revisĂŁo de literatura, estudo de caso e pesquisa de questionĂĄrio para explorar os tĂłpicos de diferentes perspetivas com o objetivo de fortalecer a natureza cientĂ­fica dos resultados de investigação. AlĂ©m da introdução e da conclusĂŁo, a tese estĂĄ dividida em cinco capĂ­tulos. O CapĂ­tulo 1 discute a conotação e o valor de Diplomacia Cultural (DC). O CapĂ­tulo 2 expĂ”e o desenvolvimento e a inovação da Diplomacia Cultural da China (DCC). O CapĂ­tulo 3 resume sistematicamente a interação cultural da China no seu processo diplomĂĄtico com os PaĂ­ses de LĂ­ngua Oficial Portuguesa (PALOP). O CapĂ­tulo 4 discorre sobre o papel do IC em termos do seu modo de operar e dos seus meios diplomĂĄticos. O CapĂ­tulo 5 constitui o nĂșcleo da tese e envolve a anĂĄlise empĂ­rica dos dados do estudo de caso e do questionĂĄrio. Tem como objetivo investigar as funçÔes, a imagem pĂșblica, a influĂȘncia e os meios prĂĄticos dos IC no processo de Diplomacia Cultural (DC). As principais descobertas indicam que os IC nos PALOP alcançaram o feedback social ideal e desempenham um papel positivo na formação da imagem da China. No entanto, de acordo com os diferentes continentes onde os IC estĂŁo situados, os resultados da pesquisa apresentam caraterĂ­sticas distintas que estĂŁo intimamente relacionadas com as diferentes polĂ­ticas externas da China para a AmĂ©rica Latina, a Europa e a África e sĂŁo determinadas pelas experiĂȘncias histĂłricas e pelas condiçÔes nacionais dos vĂĄrios paĂ­ses. A futura tarefa da Diplomacia Cultural da China (DCC) serĂĄ a de esclarecer as raĂ­zes institucionais da China e os genes culturais por trĂĄs do seu desenvolvimento, usando intercĂąmbios culturais e a cultura fluida da China para transmitir uma mensagem de busca de paz, de desenvolvimento e de cooperação por parte da China.Programa Doutoral em PolĂ­ticas PĂșblica

    Spectacular Pain:Violence and the White Gaze in American Commemorative Culture

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    Using case studies that range from the eighteenth to the twenty-first century in literature, photography, performance, and museums, this thesis examines how the white gaze has shaped commemorative representations of slavery and racial violence. Through mapping how visual representational tropes have rendered the Black body in pain a passive receptacle of violence to accommodate an audiences’ emotional engagement, I argue that the foundation of commemorative practice’s focus lies within white western notions of pain, power, and the body, which ultimately risks obfuscating African American lived and historical experience. Fundamentally, this study also considers how Black authors, artists, and activists have worked to respond to and challenge these representations. I begin with an explication of how anti-slavery authors and artists in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries perpetuated white modes of looking at Black pain, before proceeding to trace the thread of representations following slavery and abolition that focus primarily on Black pain to emotionally engage with audiences. I interrogate photographic representations of slavery and racial violence, including the famous image of “Gordon” and his scarred back, James Allen and John Littlefield’s Without Sanctuary collection, and the work of African American photographer J.P. Ball. I also examine reenactment performances including Colonial Williamsburg’s 1994 reenacted slave auction, Conner Prairie’s ‘Follow the North Star’ programme, Dread Scott’s ‘Slave Rebellion Reenactment’, and the Moore’s Ford lynching reenactment. This research draws from observational research conducted at key museum and memorial sites, including the Whitney Plantation (2014), the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African American History and Culture (2016), and the Equal Justice Initiative’s National Memorial to Peace and Justice and Legacy Museum: From Enslavement to Mass Incarceration (2018). As the most recently established sites, these institutions provide an illuminating record of how far commemorative practice has come, and hint at new directions for its future. Ultimately, I advocate for commemorative sites to establish and prioritise explicit connections between slavery, the foundation of the US, and the impact of racial violence on present-day racial inequality. To do so, I highlight the importance of how commemorative sites in the present can draw inspiration from Black embodied acts of counter-narrative production to re-humanise their historical representations of Black enslaved and Black suffering bodies and free them from the constraints of the white gaze

    The European Experience: A Multi-Perspective History of Modern Europe, 1500–2000

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    The European Experience brings together the expertise of nearly a hundred historians from eight European universities to internationalise and diversify the study of modern European history, exploring a grand sweep of time from 1500 to 2000. Offering a valuable corrective to the Anglocentric narratives of previous English-language textbooks, scholars from all over Europe have pooled their knowledge on comparative themes such as identities, cultural encounters, power and citizenship, and economic development to reflect the complexity and heterogeneous nature of the European experience. Rather than another grand narrative, the international author teams offer a multifaceted and rich perspective on the history of the continent of the past 500 years. Each major theme is dissected through three chronological sub-chapters, revealing how major social, political and historical trends manifested themselves in different European settings during the early modern (1500–1800), modern (1800–1900) and contemporary period (1900–2000). This resource is of utmost relevance to today’s history students in the light of ongoing internationalisation strategies for higher education curricula, as it delivers one of the first multi-perspective and truly ‘European’ analyses of the continent’s past. Beyond the provision of historical content, this textbook equips students with the intellectual tools to interrogate prevailing accounts of European history, and enables them to seek out additional perspectives in a bid to further enrich the discipline

    Life-writing in the History of Archaeology

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    Life-writing is a vital part of the history of archaeology, and a growing field of scholarship within the discipline. The lives of archaeologists are entangled with histories of museums and collections, developments in science and scholarship, and narratives of nationalism and colonialism into the present. In recent years life-writing has played an important role in the surge of new research in the history of archaeology, including ground-breaking studies of discipline formation, institutionalisation, and social and intellectual networks. Sources such as diaries, wills, film, and the growing body of digital records are powerful tools for highlighting the contributions of hitherto marginalised archaeological lives including many pioneering women, hired labourers and other ‘hidden hands’. This book brings together critical perspectives on life-writing in the history of archaeology from leading figures in the field. These include studies of archive formation and use, the concept of ‘dig-writing’ as a distinctive genre of archaeological creativity, and reviews of new sources for already well-known lives. Several chapters reflect on the experience of life-writing, review the historiography of the field, and assess the intellectual value and significance of life-writing as a genre. Together, they work to problematise underlying assumptions about this genre, foregrounding methodology, social theory, ethics and other practice-focused frameworks in conscious tension with previous practices

    TRANSEUNTIS MUNDI, A NOMADIC ARTISTIC PRACTICE

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    In this practice-led Ph.D. research, I investigate how an artistic practice can respond to the migration phenomena performed by human beings across the planet over millennia ¬– what I refer to as the millennial global human journey. Based on the idea of mobility, I chose to frame this research in the articulation of concepts deriving from the prefix trans: transculture, transhumance and transmediality. This research contributes to studies in art composition by developing the processes and concept of transmedial composition, mainly contributing to the field of New Media Art. This investigation resulted in the work Transeuntis Mundi (TM) Project – a nomadic artistic practice that encompasses: the TM Derive and manual, the TM Archive, the TM VR work Derive 01 and two forms for its notation. Transeuntis mundi (TM), from the Latin language, means the ‘passersby of the world’ and metaphorically personify in this work the millennial migrants and their global journeys. Based on proposals from the Realism art movement and the walking-based methodologies of Walkscapes and DĂ©rive, the TM Derive was created as a nomadic methodology of composition in response to the ideas of migration and ancestry. It is framed by the minimal stories ¬– the form of narrative of this work, captured from field recordings with 3D technology of everyday life worldwide. This material formed the TM Archive, presented in the TM VR work. The TM VR work Transeuntis Mundi Derive 01 is an immersive and interactive performative experience for virtual reality, that artistically brings together stories, sounds, images, people, and places worldwide, ÂŹas a metaphor of the millennial global human migration. This work happens as a VR application using 3D technology with 360Âș image and ambisonic sound, in order to promote an engaged experience through the immersion and interactivity of the participant. This thesis presents and contextualizes these creations: the scope, references, concepts, origin, collaborations, methodology, technologies, and results of this work. It is informed and accompanied by reflexive and critical writing, including an articulation with references of works across different artistic media and fields.UNIRIO Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeir

    Postcolonial Publics: Art and Citizen Media in Europe

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    Postcolonial Publics: Art and Citizen Media in Europe presents a collection of sixteen chapters that explore the themes of how migrants, refugees and citizens express and share their political and social causes and experiences through art and media. These expressions, which we term ‘citizen media’, arguably become a platform for postcolonial intellectuals as the studies pursued in this volume investigate the different ways in which previously excluded social groups regain public voice. The volume strives to understand the different articulations of migrants’, refugees’, and citizens’ struggle against increasingly harsh European politics that allow them to achieve and empower political subjectivity in a mediated and creative space. In this way, the contributions in this volume present case studies of citizen media in the form of ‘activistic art’ or ‘artivism’ (Trandafoiu, Ruffini, Cazzato & Taronna, Koobak & Tali, Negrón-Muntaner), activism through different kinds of technological media (Chouliaraki and Al-Ghazzi, Jedlowski), such as documentaries and film (Denić), podcasts, music and soundscapes (Romeo and Fabbri, Western, Lazzari, Huggan), and activisms through writings from journalism to fiction (Longhi, Concilio, Festa, De Capitani). The volume argues that citizen media go hand in hand with postcolonial critique because of their shared focus on the deconstruction and decolonisation of Western logics and narratives. Moreover, both question the concept of citizen and of citizenship as they relate to the nation-state and explores the power of media as a tool for participation as well as an instrument of political strength. The book forwards postcolonial artivism and citizen media as a critical framework to understand the refugee and migrant situations in contemporary Europe

    Photojournalism and the Revolution: Tactical Uses of Visual Media in the Making of the Republic of China (1905-1914)

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    This study shows that photography, despite its use in the colonial conquests of the second half of the nineteenth century, came to empower actors in East Asia and became one of the tactics that allowed them to contest and reverse unequal power structures. At the turn of the twentieth century, Chinese revolutionary movements envisioned photojournalism as one of the tools that would lead to their plan to transform the Chinese nation from a dynastic empire into a republic. A close reading of press photographs issued in the anarchist illustrated journal Le Monde (1907) and the Revolutionary Alliance-affiliated The True Record (1912-1913), edited and published in the Chinese language in the transcultural contexts of Paris and Shanghai, sheds light on the tactical uses of photography as a mean of resistance in the context of the 1911 Xinhai Revolution. Furthermore, by focusing on the images and artefacts developed and used by Sinophone actors including politicians Li Shizeng, Wu Hui, Wu Zhihui, and Zhang Jingjiang, and also by the prominent Lingnan artists Gao Jianfu, Gao Qifeng, and Chen Shuren, this dissertation remarks on the relevance of the photographic historian’s choice of sources. If the exclusive consultation of the colonial archive supports and perpetrates the perception of photography as a means of colonial violence, considering different visual archival sources and local uses of the camera uncovers a radically different story

    MY AUSCHWITZ STATE OF MIND: A study of the nature of emergence of a text in relation to Auschwitz

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    While this thesis is presented as divided into two parts (a creative, Knowing Auschwitz, and a critical, The Other Auschwitz), I ask the reader to read it as two movements that intersect in one hybrid-inclined text, a text that can only exist when the two parts are interpenetrated. Both parts are equally a documentation of my research by practice and the outcome of my research by practice. They are not so much de Certeau’s crossword decoding stencil, but a puzzle filled out in response to the question that I set myself at the start.This thesis uses practice-based research to ask how I can write a textual deep map from an investigation of Auschwitz-Birkenau. As a key part of the research, I made repeated visits to the environs of Auschwitz-Birkenau, walking and cycling extensively around the area in a search for contemporary fragments in the landscape, for example buildings, routes, sites, landmarks, place names, signposts and found objects. I used my own collection of guides, documents, textual, cartographic and photographic fragments and other ephemera related to the town and the Auschwitz museum in addition to support from the Auschwitz Museum itself and external archives such as the Arolsen Archives (“International Center on the Nazi Era - Arolsen Archives,” n.d.) and the Weiner Holocaust Library (“Home - The Wiener Holocaust Library” n.d.) in London. These all acted as points of departure as I embarked on making my deep map. The research translates into a complex textual map of my subject combining autoethnographic stories with tales from psychogeographical drift, non-fiction examinations of place and semi-fictionalised histories. The research is presented as two conjoined texts, one a form of creative non-fiction and the other a critical reflexion, which between them constitute an examination of how a place as imbued with meaning as Auschwitz can be written about in a new way. I refer to the writings of a variety of writers, philosophers and theorists, including Giorgio Agamben’s spatial grey area, or soglia , Walter Benjamin’s ‘alternative model for organising things in the field of knowledge’ and Charlotte Delbo‘s entrances, exits, boundaries and markers that delineate Birkenau. My process is deeply personal and predicated on a form of personal exposure to the landscape with few specific notions or processes of exploration. A process of constant sorting is fundamental to my production as I examine place as a series of complex, palimpsestic texts

    Urban Space, Genre and Subjectivity in African and Latin American Cinema

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    This project studies twelve African and Latin American films from a range of eras and countries, with an emphasis on their treatment of urban space, their manipulation of genre elements, and their approaches to character subjectivity. The analysis draws on major works of urban theory by Henri Lefebvre, Manuel Castells, David Harvey, Jane Jacobs, and others in order to investigate the relationship between cinema and the urban experience. As the films in the study are mostly set in cities that are not discussed by the theorists, the analysis entails testing their theories against the realities of these other settings, as depicted in the films. Furthermore, as these films depict places and people not usually featured in commercial cinema, this project will emphasize ways in which the films challenge dominant patterns of cinematic representation with regard to African and Latin American people, places and culture. Finally, this project will analyze important structural and stylistic nuances of each film in order to contribute to existing discussions of African and Latin American film and global film in general
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