13 research outputs found

    Efficacy and Safety of Weekly Somatrogon vs Daily Somatropin in Children With Growth Hormone Deficiency: A Phase 3 Study

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    Context: Somatrogon is a long-acting recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in development for once-weekly treatment of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Objective: We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of once-weekly somatrogon with once-daily somatropin in prepubertal children with GHD. Methods: In this 12-month, open-label, randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 study, participants were randomized 1:1 to receive once-weekly somatrogon (0.66 mg/kg/week) or once-daily somatropin (0.24 mg/kg/week) for 12 months. A total of 228 prepubertal children (boys aged 3-11 years, girls aged 3-10 years) with GHD, impaired height and height velocity (HV), and no prior rhGH treatment were randomized and 224 received ≥1 dose of study treatment (somatrogon: 109; somatropin: 115). The primary endpoint was annualized HV at month 12. Results: HV at month 12 was 10.10 cm/year for somatrogon-treated subjects and 9.78 cm/year for somatropin-treated subjects, with a treatment difference (somatrogon-somatropin) of 0.33 (95% CI: -0.24, 0.89). The lower bound of the 2-sided 95% CI was higher than the prespecified noninferiority margin (-1.8 cm/year), demonstrating noninferiority of once-weekly somatrogon vs daily somatropin. HV at month 6 and change in height standard deviation score at months 6 and 12 were similar between both treatment groups. Both treatments were well tolerated, with a similar percentage of subjects experiencing mild to moderate treatment-emergent adverse events in both groups (somatrogon: 78.9%, somatropin: 79.1%). Conclusion: The efficacy of once-weekly somatrogon was noninferior to once-daily somatropin, with similar safety and tolerability profiles. (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT02968004).ope

    Natural Medicinal Plants

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    This book, Natural Medicinal Plants is a comprehensive overview of drugs derived from medicinal plants and their use in treating human illnesses such as cancer. Chapters include scientific evidence on flora rich in active ingredients

    Polymers Enhancing Bioavailability in Drug Delivery

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    This Special Issue provides an update on the state of the art and current trends in polymeric drug-delivery systems specifically designed for improving drug bioavailability. The multiple contributions received further strengthen the role of polymers in modern drug delivery and targeting, illustrating the different approaches possible and unveiling what the future may bring

    Usefulness and Potential Pitfalls of Long-Acting Growth Hormone Analogs

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    Daily recombinant human GH (rhGH) is currently approved for use in children and adults with GH deficiency (GHD) in many countries with relatively few side-effects. Nevertheless, daily injections can be painful and distressing for some patients, often resulting in non-adherence and reduction of treatment outcomes. This has prompted the development of numerous long-acting GH (LAGH) analogs that allow for decreased injection frequency, ranging from weekly, bi-weekly to monthly. These LAGH analogs are attractive as they may theoretically offer increased patient acceptance, tolerability, and therapeutic flexibility. Conversely, there may also be pitfalls to these LAGH analogs, including an unphysiological GH profile and differing molecular structures that pose potential clinical issues in terms of dose initiation, therapeutic monitoring, incidence and duration of side-effects, and long-term safety. Furthermore, fluctuations of peak and trough serum GH and IGF-I levels and variations in therapeutic efficacy may depend on the technology used to prolong GH action. Previous studies of some LAGH analogs have demonstrated non-inferiority compared to daily rhGH in terms of increased growth velocity and improved body composition in children and adults with GHD, respectively, with no significant unanticipated adverse events. Currently, two LAGH analogs are marketed in Asia, one recently approved in the United States, another previously approved but not marketed in Europe, and several others proceeding through various stages of clinical development. Nevertheless, several practical questions still remain, including possible differences in dose initiation between naïve and switch-over patients, methodology of dose adjustment/s, timing of measuring serum IGF-I levels, safety, durability of efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Long-term surveillance of safety and efficacy of LAGH analogs are needed to answer these important questions

    The Tumor Microenvironment of High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

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    The Special Issue on high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and the contribution of the tumor microenviroment (TME) consists of reviews contributed by leaders in the OC field. As HGSOC metastases have a highly complex TME, there is an urgent need to better understand the TME in general, its distinct components in particular, and the role of the TME in the context of disease recurrence and development of chemoresistance. The Special Issue incorporates the current understanding of the different parts of thd TME components, including the cancer cells themselves, the cells surrounding the cancer cells or stromal cells, and the cells of the immune system, which are attracted to the site of metastases. In addition to these cells of the TME, the role of various cellular factors made by the cells of the TME are also the subject of the reviews. In addition, reviews in this Special Issue cover the complex relationships between the molecular mechanisms of HGSOC progression, including genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic changes and changes in the immune cell landscape, as these may provide attractive new molecular targets for HGSOC therapy

    Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on biomarkers of GH action in children and adults

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    Objective The Growth Hormone Research Society (GRS) convened a Workshop in 2017 to evaluate clinical endpoints, surrogate endpoints and biomarkers during GH treatment of children and adults and in patients with acromegaly. Participants GRS invited 34 international experts including clinicians, basic scientists, a regulatory scientist and physicians from the pharmaceutical industry. Evidence Current literature was reviewed and expert opinion was utilized to establish the state of the art and identify current gaps and unmet needs. Consensus process Following plenary presentations, breakout groups discussed questions framed by the planning committee. The attendees re-convened after each breakout session to share the group reports. A writing team compiled the breakout session reports into a document that was subsequently discussed and revised by participants. This was edited further and circulated for final review after the meeting. Participants from pharmaceutical companies were not part of the writing process. Conclusions The clinical endpoint in paediatric GH treatment is adult height with height velocity as a surrogate endpoint. Increased life expectancy is the ideal but unfeasible clinical endpoint of GH treatment in adult GH-deficient patients (GHDA) and in patients with acromegaly. The pragmatic clinical endpoints in GHDA include normalization of body composition and quality of life, whereas symptom relief and reversal of comorbidities are used in acromegaly. Serum IGF-I is widely used as a biomarker, even though it correlates weakly with clinical endpoints in GH treatment, whereas in acromegaly, normalization of IGF-I may be related to improvement in mortality. There is an unmet need for novel biomarkers that capture the pleiotropic actions of GH in relation to GH treatment and in patients with acromegaly