44,368 research outputs found

    Fuentes externas de informaci√≥n para el desarrollo de innovaciones: un an√°lisis de la evidencia en Europa y Espa√Īa

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    p. 181-238La creciente complejidad y dinamismo que caracterizan los entornos actuales han obligado a las empresas a complementar su base interna de conocimientos con otros procedentes del exterior. As√≠, entre las diversas alternativas existentes, la cooperaci√≥n con clientes y usuarios en materia de innovaci√≥n se perfila como una de las m√°s importantes fuentes de ideas innovadoras. Por este motivo, el presente trabajo profundiza en el an√°lisis de distintas fuentes de informaci√≥n utilizadas por empresas europeas y espa√Īolas para el desarrollo de innovaciones, resaltando la importancia de las aportaciones realizadas por estos agentes. La investigaci√≥n se completa con un estudio emp√≠rico en el que se compara la influencia de cuatro tipos de cooperaci√≥n (con clientes, proveedores, universidades y expertos/ firmas consultoras) sobre la intensidad de la actividad innovadora en un conjunto de veinte sectores productivos espa√Īoles. De √©l se desprende que la colaboraci√≥n con clientes para el desarrollo de innovaciones incide significativamente sobre dicha intensidad y que es un buen indicador de la importancia que la organizaci√≥n otorga a estas actividades.S

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis

    Carbon dioxide removal potential from decentralised bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) and the relevance of operational choices

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    Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) technology is expected to support net-zero targets by supplying low carbon energy while providing carbon dioxide removal (CDR). BECCS is estimated to deliver 20 to 70 MtCO2 annual negative emissions by 2050 in the UK, despite there are currently no BECCS operating facility. This research is modelling and demonstrating the flexibility, scalability and attainable immediate application of BECCS. The CDR potential for two out of three BECCS pathways considered by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios were quantified (i) modular-scale CHP process with post-combustion CCS utilising wheat straw and (ii) hydrogen production in a small-scale gasifier with pre-combustion CCS utilising locally sourced waste wood. Process modelling and lifecycle assessment were used, including a whole supply chain analysis. The investigated BECCS pathways could annually remove between ‚ąí0.8 and ‚ąí1.4 tCO2e tbiomass‚ąí1 depending on operational decisions. Using all the available wheat straw and waste wood in the UK, a joint CDR capacity for both systems could reach about 23% of the UK's CDR minimum target set for BECCS. Policy frameworks prioritising carbon efficiencies can shape those operational decisions and strongly impact on the overall energy and CDR performance of a BECCS system, but not necessarily maximising the trade-offs between biomass use, energy performance and CDR. A combination of different BECCS pathways will be necessary to reach net-zero targets. Decentralised BECCS deployment could support flexible approaches allowing to maximise positive system trade-offs, enable regional biomass utilisation and provide local energy supply to remote areas

    A pragmatist case for thoughtfulness and experimentation in corporate governance

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    Despite interminable debate, ethical perspectives have sought to stem the abuse of corporate power by focusing on the split between utility-focused attention to shareholder value, including the ‚Äėenlightened‚Äô kind, and duty-focused imperatives in stakeholder theory. Through thought experiments, this chapter builds a case for a different approach. Ethics scholars including Brandt (1959) and Frankena (1963) highlight contrasting approaches to both utility and duty, separating formation of general rules from examination of individual acts. Act-based ethics points us toward the pragmatism of James (1907/1955) and Dewey (1930) and ‚Äėwhat works.‚Äô In the context of boards that means connecting duty and consequences and encouraging a fullness of thought: board-level thoughtfulness. This approach has echoes of Werhane‚Äôs (2002, 2008) concept of moral imagination and Rorty‚Äôs (2006) more radical call to reject recipes and seek new solutions

    A new index of resilience applicable to external pulse-disturbances that considers the recovery of communities in the short term

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    .Resilience is a key concept in the study of the recovery of ecosystems affected by disturbances. Currently, there are numerous indices to measure resilience, but many of them do not show the accuracy of the resilience value or the behaviour of ecological parameters in the face of disturbances. New approaches and technologies enable large amounts of information to be obtained, facilitating the proposal of new resilience indices that work consistently and intuitively for a wide variety of ecological response variables under different scenarios after pulse-disturbances. In this study, we propose and verify a new resilience index, comparing its performance with others previously published. We validated the performance of the new index using real data based on field measurements of changes in soil bacterial OTUs diversity and abundance after a wildfire. The new resilience index provided an automatic and robust functional classification of the behaviour of ecosystems after disturbances, supported by a bootstrap analysis. We identified 5 scenarios of ecosystem resilience performance according to their behaviour after a pulse-disturbance: resilient, non-resilient, recovering, rebound, and continuing.S

    Machine learning based adaptive soft sensor for flash point inference in a refinery realtime process

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    In industrial control processes, certain characteristics are sometimes difficult to measure by a physical sensor due to technical and/or economic limitations. This fact is especially true in the petrochemical industry. Some of those quantities are especially crucial for operators and process safety. This is the case for the automotive diesel Flash Point Temperature (FT). Traditional methods for FT estimation are based on the study of the empirical inference between flammability properties and the denoted target magnitude. The necessary measures are taken indirectly by samples from the process and analyzing them in the laboratory, this process implies time (can take hours from collection to flash temperature measurement) and thus make it very difficult for real-time monitorization, which in fact results in security and economical losses. This study defines a procedure based on Machine Learning modules that demonstrate the power of real-time monitorization over real data from an important international refinery. As input, easily measured values provided in real-time, such as temperature, pressure, and hydraulic flow are used and a benchmark of different regressive algorithms for FT estimation is presented. The study highlights the importance of sequencing preprocessing techniques for the correct inference of values. The implementation of adaptive learning strategies achieves considerable economic benefits in the productization of this soft sensor. The validity of the method is tested in the reality of a refinery. In addition, real-world industrial data sets tend to be unstable and volatile, and the data is often affected by noise, outliers, irrelevant or unnecessary features, and missing data. This contribution demonstrates with the inclusion of a new concept, called an adaptive soft sensor, the importance of the dynamic adaptation of the conformed schemes based on Machine Learning through their combination with feature selection, dimensional reduction, and signal processing techniques. The economic benefits of applying this soft sensor in the refinery's production plant and presented as potential semi-annual savings.This work has received funding support from the SPRI-Basque Gov- ernment through the ELKARTEK program (OILTWIN project, ref. KK- 2020/00052)


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    Biogas decomposes organic waste by bacteria through an anaerobic fermentation process that produces manageable methane gas. The purpose of this study was to determine the temperature, pressure, mass and flame duration of biogas produced from a mixture of cow dung and tofu waste liquid waste using a batch type digester. The digester uses a volume capacity of 30 liters with a volume of stuffing raw material as much as of the volume of the digester. This study uses three variations of the volume ratio of the mixture of cow dung and tofu waste liquid waste, namely S1 (50%: 50%), S2 (70%: 30%), and S3 (90%: 10%) with the addition of 2.5 liters of water for each variation. Data collection was carried out for 30 days at 11.00 WITA and 17.00 WITA. Based on the results of the study, it is known that the mixed variation of 50%: 50% is the best variation compared to the variations of 70%: 30%, and 90%: 10%. The results of the daily average environmental temperature variation of the S1 mixture are 30.19¬įC, and the average substrate temperature are 27.06¬įC. The average daily yield of biogas pressure are 0.039 bar with a total mass of biogas are 57.8 grams. Based on the measurement results of biogas flame duration comparasion with LPG on the total mass of biogas with the variation of the S1 mixture, it is obtained that biogas flame duration are 4.38 minutes while the combustion of LPG gas with the same total mass are 49 seconds
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