33,239 research outputs found

    Evaluation of economic loss caused by Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in agricultural land of district Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

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    The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200,and(29.8, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300 annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem

    Acoustic activity of bats at power lines correlates with relative humidity: a potential role for corona discharges

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    With the ever-increasing dependency on electric power, electrical grid networks are expanding worldwide. Bats exhibit a wide diversity of foraging and flight behaviours, and their sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors suggests this group is very likely to be affected by power lines in a myriad of ways. Yet the effects of power lines on bats remains unknown. Here we assessed the responses of insectivorous bats to very high voltage power lines (VHVPL; greater than 220 kV). We implemented a paired sampling design and monitored bats acoustically at 25 pairs, one pair consisting of one forest edge near to VHVPL matched with one control forest edge. Relative humidity mediates the effects of power lines on bats: we detected bat attraction to VHVPL at high relative humidity levels and avoidance of VHVPL by bats at low relative humidity levels. We argue that the former could be explained by insect attraction to the light emitted by VHVPL owing to corona discharges while the latter may be owing to the physical presence of pylons/cables at foraging height and/or because of electromagnetic fields. Our work highlights the response of bats to power lines at foraging habitats, providing new insight into the interactions between power lines and biodiversity

    Sullivan County Highlights 2022

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    Annual report of the officers of the town of Jackson, New Hampshire for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2022.

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    This is an annual report containing vital statistics for a town/city in the state of New Hampshire

    Causes of Cassava Post-Harvest Losses Among Farmers In Imo State, Nigeria

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    ABSTRACT The study examined farmers perception of post harvest cassava losses in Imo state. It specifically addressed the frequency of use of electronic sources of information on post harvest losses, perceived causes of cassava post-harvest losses and the involvement in cassava processing. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from 120 rural farmers selected at random. Data was analyzed using SPSS to obtain the mean, percentage and mean score. Findings from the study reveal that the frequency of use of the eight electronic sources of information on post harvest cassava losses listed has a grand mean of 1.7, an indication of low use of the sources. Mobile phone calls/SMS has the highest mean score(3.01). Age, education, household size, farm size, were important socioeconomic characteristics influencing the perceived causes of post harvest losses having been found significant at 5% level. Cassava farmers should be granted credit facilities and be encouraged to form cooperatives to help raise fund and get facility needed to reduce post-harvest losses. Farmers should be encouraged to use other electronic sources in order to enjoy those services and keep abreast of information on cassava post harvest losses. Keywords; post harvest cassava losses, E- information sources

    Diagnostic Survey of Honeybee Diseases, Pests and Predators in Bale Zone Southeast Oromia Region, Ethiopia

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    A cross-sectional study was conducted on parasitic honeybee diseases, pests and predators in Bale. For the study questionnaires and diagnostic survey were employed.  A sample of adult worker bees and brood for major honeybee diseases were taken and analyzed in veterinary laboratory of respective districts of the study. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage and chi-square. From the present study, the major challenge declared by beekeepers includes pests and predators, lack of bee forage, absconding and mass death of bee colonies. Regarding to honeybee pests and predators, the most important identified were honey badger, spiders ant, wax moth, bee-eater birds, small hive beetles and monkeys. The study indicated the overall mean prevalence of Nosema apis, Amoeba mellifera, Varro mites,  bee lice, wax moth, small hives beetles  were 79.17 %, 79.16%, 72.22%, 18.06%, 40.27% and 54.2 % respectively. However, the current diagnosis was not detected AFB, EFB, and trachea mites during laboratory sample analysis. Agro ecology and hive types were identified as risk factors for prevalence of honeybee diseases and pests.  Further study on prevalence of seasonal honeybee diseases and outbreak of honeybee diseases and pests is could be very important. Keywords: Honeybee, Nosema apis, Malpighamoeba mellificae, diagnostic, disease, pests DOI: 10.7176/JBAH/13-6-01 Publication date: April 30th 202

    Enhancing Access and Adoption of Improved Seed for Food Security of Ethiopia (A Review)

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    Increasing agricultural productivity is central to accelerate economic growth and improving the wellbeing of both rural and urban people in Ethiopia. Agriculture, particularly crop production, has a greater effect on both the rural and the urban poor who spend more than a half of their incomes on food. Therefore, generation and transfer of improved technologies are critical prerequisites for agricultural development particularly for an agrarian based economy such as of Ethiopian. Seed, especially that of improved varieties, are among the most important productive inputs which can take the lion`s share from other agricultural inputs in affecting productivity, livelihood and assuring food security in Ethiopia. The direct contribution of quality seed alone to the total production is estimated at 15 –20% depending upon the crop and it can be further raised up to 45% with efficient management of the other inputs. Despite the importance of improved seed in increasing crop productivity, their availability on the required amount, quality and time is still limited in Ethiopia. The unavailability of quality seed at the right place and time coupled with the poor promotion system is one key factor accounting for the limited use of improved seed, which further contributing to low crop productivity. Therefore, in order to access quality seed at the required time and amount to the farmers and increase the adoption of improved seed, there is a need to have a robust seed system which can strictly control seed outlets and a strong seed-related extension program. The present paper reviews about enhancing access and adoption of improved seeds for better food security in Ethiopia. Keywords: Adoption, food security, improved seed, seed access DOI: 10.7176/DCS/13-3-02 Publication date:March 31st 202

    Influence of the downwash airflow in Hexacopter Drone on the spray distribution pattern of boom sprayer

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    The spray characteristics of drone sprayers are significantly influenced by the downwash airflow produced by Drone multi-rotors. The present study aimed to study the influence of downwash airflow and the operational parameters of Drone sprayer, viz., flight height, travel speed, rotor configuration, payload and wind velocity on the spray distribution pattern for boom sprayer attachment to Drone. The boom type sprayer consisted of four numbers of flat fan nozzles placed at three different spacing viz., 30, 45 and 60 cm between each nozzle. The spray distribution pattern of the Hexacopter Drone was studied at three different operating pressures, viz., 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kg cm-2. A spray patternator of 5 m x 5 m was developed per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) standard to study the spray uniformity of volume distribution pattern. The best spray uniformity was found as 0.37 % CV value at 60 cm nozzle spacing and 4 kg cm-2 operating pressure. The optimised parameters viz., 60 cm of nozzle spacing and 4 kg cm-2 operating pressure, the influence of downwash airflow on the spray volume distribution of hexacopter Drone with boom spray attachment were studied. The Drone hovered at three different heights, viz., 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 m from the top of the patternator and spray operating pressure was maintained at 4 kg cm-2. It was observed that less volume of spray was collected at the middle portion when the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was hovered at 1.0 m height due to the direct impact of downwash airflow of rotors. The uniform spray volume distribution pattern was observed when Drone hovered from 1.0 m to 3.0 m height. A round vertex pattern of spray pattern was generated with boom type nozzles configuration due to the direct impact of downwash airflow of rotors. This study will be helpful in the configuration of nozzles attached to the drone sprayers, optimization of spray operational parameters, and revealing spray volume distribution pattern
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