66 research outputs found

    Hand book on Aquafarming: Aquaculture Feed

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    Feed is one of the most essential inputs in aquaculture. The recent development in technology of manufacture of good quality feed has opened up a new dimension in fish production. Therefore, it was decided by the Organising Committee of "INDAQUA" - the First Aquaculture Show in India to bring out a handbook on Aquaculture Feed. The sincere effort taken by Dr. M. Paulraj, CMFRI to bring out this handbook is well appreciated. Dr. G. Santhana Krishnan, Shri D. Vincent and Shri M. Shaji have coordinated this publication. I am sure that this handbook will be very useful to all fish/prawn farmers in India

    Proceedings of the summer institute in recent advances in finfish and shellfish nutrition

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    Recognising the importance of nutrition in aquaculture the Indian Council of Agricultural Research sanctioned a Summer Institute which was held at the CMFRI, Cochin from 11 to 30th May 1987. Tvventy nine candidates sponsored by the Heads of various research, education and development organizations dealing with aquaculture in the country were the participants. The Institute comprised of lectures, practicals, demonstrations, field visits, group discussions covering the latest developments and recent advances in the field of aquaculture nutrition

    Studies on lipid nutrition in larvae and juveniles of the Indian white prawn Penaeus indicus H. Milne Edwards

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    Nutrition is the process of providing nourishment to the living organism for its healthy upkeep, growth and reproduction. Nutrient substances for this purpose are provided by food. An individuals nutritional status is\ud dependent on the provision of sufficient nutrient substances, and good utilization of these nutrients. Poor .status of nutrition may be caused by eating food that is inadequate in amount or kind or due to failure in assimilation and utilization of nutrients from the ingested food. The chief function of food is to supply nutrient material to meet the physiological needs of the organisms. such as to supply energy. to build and maintain the cells and tissues, and to regulate body processes. In general, there are two types of nutrients - energy nutrients (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates) and non-energy nutrients (vitamins and minerals). Among the energy nutrients. carbohydrates and lipids form chief sources of energy, but protein, primarily, is utilized for growth. In formulated feeds both energy nutrients and non-energy nutrient. should be found in adequate levels and in balanced proportions

    Feasibility of Using Biofuel By-Products as a Sustainable Nutritional Resource for Aquaculture Production of Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Many different algal species can provide an acceptable protein ingredient, with good digestibility, for shrimp feeds. Compared to fish meal, similar protein, carbohydrate, and lipid levels can be found in select algal species. Traditional shrimp diets in aquaculture rely on fish meal and fish oil from pelagic fish fisheries. A reduction or elimination of these ingredients would reduce the dependency of shrimp aquaculture on offshore fisheries and increase economic competiveness. Biofuel production produces algal by-products of potential use to aquaculturists that might reduce or eliminate the need for fisheries products in shrimp feed. Established uses for by-products from biofuel production include fertilizer for crops, fodder for swine and poultry, and production of methane and alcohol fuels. However, using biofuel production by-products as a protein and carbohydrate source for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, has not been investigated. Therefore, a series of feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate if the algae used to produce biofuel could be a suitable main protein source in formulated diets for L. vannamei. The feasibility of substituting biofuel algae by-product for fish meal in the juvenile L. vannamei (0.0306 ± 0.0011 g) diet was evaluated, and an adequate substitution ratio was determined. Eighteen experimental diets were evaluated using 60, 80, and 100% fish meal substitution levels. Chaetoceros calcitrans, Nannochloropsis salina, and Pavlova sp. were chosen as the algae sources as they have potentially high use in biodiesel production due to their high lipid content and each has been included in established larval shrimp aquaculture operations. Each diet varied the level of fish meal substitution (60, 80, or 100%) and either contained dried algal biomass or, alternatively, dried algal biomass with reduced lipid content to simulate algal biomass post-biodiesel production. The diets were compared, relative to their effect on weight gain in juvenile L. vannamei, to each other and to a commercially available diet (CONTROL) and a diet formulated using the ingredients used in all of the experimental diet formulations but without algal biomass (BASAL). The shrimp were held individually in 355-ml Styrofoam cups filled with 200-ml seawater with a salinity of 32 parts per thousand (ppt) salinity under a 12:12 light:dark photoperiod. Water exchange was 90% per day for six days and 100% on the seventh day when weights were taken. Each of the twenty diets was presented daily to seven replicate cups, each cup containing a single shrimp, for six weeks. Food was presented once per day to satiation, which was determined by the shrimp refusing additional feed. Each animal was weighed weekly. After six weeks, the shrimp were harvested and final weights were taken. The analysis of differences between strains, levels, and lipids indicated there was a significant difference between all of the algal-based diets and the control. Overall, significantly better growth rates were observed in the diets with less fish protein replacement. The 60% fish meal replaced diets outperformed the diets that had 80 or 100% fish meal replacement. There were no significant differences in nutritional value among the algal species. Survival rates, from an aquaculture perspective, were acceptable for all treatments (\u3e71%). Results from these studies demonstrated that formulated diets using algal biomass from biodiesel production can be the primary protein source for L. vannamei postlarvae

    Health management in aquaculture

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    A textbook on diseases of cultured warmwater fish and shrimps in the Philippines. Eleven chapters cover essential information on the basic principles of disease causation, major diseases of cultured fish and crustaceans, particularly shrimps, and methods of prevention and control. Emphasis is made on major diseases that occur in the Philippines and other countries in the Asian region. Included also are topics on harmful algae, immunology and molecular biological diagnostic techniques.1st Ed

    Nutritional value of fresh processed and formulated diets for the green mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles

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    Among the crustacean candidate species for aquaculture, mud crabs of the genus Scylla are gaining importance as alternative to tiger shrimp especially in the Asian scenario, in the context of consecutive white spot disease outbreaks rendering shrimp culture, a risky affair. Literature currently available on mud crab culture has scanty information on the nutritional requirement of the species, and little scientific basis on feed management. Currently a number of locally available fresh or semiprocessed feedstuffs including kitchen left-over and animal entrails are used globally for mud crab aquaculture. The emerging scenario of mud crab culture demand scientifically designed fresh and processed feed combinations and formulated off the shelf-diets. The survey on mud crab farming made during the study clearly indicate the least concern on the feeds used and feed management. Currently farmers widely use fresh, salted and dried trash fish being a cheap source, irrespective of the quality. Feeding with fresh and cooked animal entrails was also practiced by some farmers. The use of fresh and cooked molluscan meat like clam meat was recorded rarely. The evaluation of currently used feeds and their combinations were done with a view to identifying the best feeds among the presently used feeds to maximize the feed utilization thereby reducing the wastage and to support faster growth rates of mud crabs. The studies on energy budget were aimed at gathering information on energy requirements and utilization at various moult stages and to optimise feed rationing and maximize feed utilization. Feeding trials with pellet diets were conducted to determine the protein requirement and to evaluate various diets supplemented with different lipid sources singly and in combination. The information generated from the studies on energy budget, protein requirement and evaluation of lipid sources can be used in formulating nutritionally adequate, eco-friendly, off-the shelf pellet feed for mud crab culture

    An investigation into the protein requirement of a marine prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards)

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    Ph. D. University of KwaZulu-Natal 2007.Abstract available in PDF file.Photographic images in thesis

    Daily digestible protein and energy requirements for growth and maintenance of sub-adult Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

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    This study utilized two diets (25 and 35% crude protein) fed at 10 different rates to produce differences in shrimp specific growth rate which were regressed against daily digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) intake to estimate daily DP and DE requirements for sub-adult L. vannamei. Apparent DP and DE requirement for maximum growth decreased throughout the 7-week trial as shrimp size increased. Mean apparent daily DP requirement for 7.69 to 13.08-g L. vannamei fed the 25% protein diet was 6.31 g DP kg-1 BW d-1 while the 35% protein diet produced a mean apparent daily DP requirement of 8.00 g DP kg-1 BW d-1 for 8.11- to 13.79-g L. vannamei. Maintenance requirements were estimated by regressing DP feed allowances back to zero weight-gain and were 1.03 g DP kg-1 BW d-1 for shrimp fed the 25% protein diet and 1.87 g DP kg-1 BW d-1 for shrimp fed the 35% protein diet. Mean apparent daily DE requirement for shrimp fed the 25% protein diet was 402.62 kJ DE kg-1 BW d-1 while the 35% protein diet produced an apparent daily DE requirement of 334.72 kJ DE kg-1 BW d-1. Mean apparent daily DE maintenance requirements for shrimp fed the 25% protein diet was 66.23 kJ DE kg-1 BW d-1 while the requirement was 78.82 kJ DE kg-1 BW d-1 for shrimp fed the 35% protein diet. Daily DP and DE requirements were also determined by regressing whole-body protein or energy change against daily DP and DE intake and were similar to those values obtained by regressing change in body weight against daily DP and DE intake. Another component of this project involved evaluating 32 different feedstuffs for dry matter, protein and energy digestibility coefficients. Fish meal apparent crude protein digestibility coefficients as a group were higher than all other ingredient classifications except purified ingredients. Protein in 48% soybean meal and 90% isolated soybean protein were significantly more digestible than protein found in fish, animal and marine meals tested. This data will improve the quality and reduce the cost of commercial shrimp feeds
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