630,272 research outputs found

### Round Compression for Parallel Matching Algorithms

For over a decade now we have been witnessing the success of {\em massive
parallel computation} (MPC) frameworks, such as MapReduce, Hadoop, Dryad, or
Spark. One of the reasons for their success is the fact that these frameworks
are able to accurately capture the nature of large-scale computation. In
particular, compared to the classic distributed algorithms or PRAM models,
these frameworks allow for much more local computation. The fundamental
question that arises in this context is though: can we leverage this additional
power to obtain even faster parallel algorithms?
A prominent example here is the {\em maximum matching} problem---one of the
most classic graph problems. It is well known that in the PRAM model one can
compute a 2-approximate maximum matching in $O(\log{n})$ rounds. However, the
exact complexity of this problem in the MPC framework is still far from
understood. Lattanzi et al. showed that if each machine has $n^{1+\Omega(1)}$
memory, this problem can also be solved $2$-approximately in a constant number
of rounds. These techniques, as well as the approaches developed in the follow
up work, seem though to get stuck in a fundamental way at roughly $O(\log{n})$
rounds once we enter the near-linear memory regime. It is thus entirely
possible that in this regime, which captures in particular the case of sparse
graph computations, the best MPC round complexity matches what one can already
get in the PRAM model, without the need to take advantage of the extra local
computation power.
In this paper, we finally refute that perplexing possibility. That is, we
break the above $O(\log n)$ round complexity bound even in the case of {\em
slightly sublinear} memory per machine. In fact, our improvement here is {\em
almost exponential}: we are able to deliver a $(2+\epsilon)$-approximation to
maximum matching, for any fixed constant $\epsilon>0$, in $O((\log \log n)^2)$
rounds

### Parallel Peeling Algorithms

The analysis of several algorithms and data structures can be framed as a
peeling process on a random hypergraph: vertices with degree less than k are
removed until there are no vertices of degree less than k left. The remaining
hypergraph is known as the k-core. In this paper, we analyze parallel peeling
processes, where in each round, all vertices of degree less than k are removed.
It is known that, below a specific edge density threshold, the k-core is empty
with high probability. We show that, with high probability, below this
threshold, only (log log n)/log(k-1)(r-1) + O(1) rounds of peeling are needed
to obtain the empty k-core for r-uniform hypergraphs. Interestingly, we show
that above this threshold, Omega(log n) rounds of peeling are required to find
the non-empty k-core. Since most algorithms and data structures aim to peel to
an empty k-core, this asymmetry appears fortunate. We verify the theoretical
results both with simulation and with a parallel implementation using graphics
processing units (GPUs). Our implementation provides insights into how to
structure parallel peeling algorithms for efficiency in practice.Comment: Appears in SPAA 2014. Minor typo corrections relative to previous
versio

### Parallel algorithms for normalization

Given a reduced affine algebra A over a perfect field K, we present parallel
algorithms to compute the normalization \bar{A} of A. Our starting point is the
algorithm of Greuel, Laplagne, and Seelisch, which is an improvement of de
Jong's algorithm. First, we propose to stratify the singular locus Sing(A) in a
way which is compatible with normalization, apply a local version of the
normalization algorithm at each stratum, and find \bar{A} by putting the local
results together. Second, in the case where K = Q is the field of rationals, we
propose modular versions of the global and local-to-global algorithms. We have
implemented our algorithms in the computer algebra system SINGULAR and compare
their performance with that of the algorithm of Greuel, Laplagne, and Seelisch.
In the case where K = Q, we also discuss the use of modular computations of
Groebner bases, radicals, and primary decompositions. We point out that in most
examples, the new algorithms outperform the algorithm of Greuel, Laplagne, and
Seelisch by far, even if we do not run them in parallel.Comment: 19 page

### Main Memory Adaptive Indexing for Multi-core Systems

Adaptive indexing is a concept that considers index creation in databases as
a by-product of query processing; as opposed to traditional full index creation
where the indexing effort is performed up front before answering any queries.
Adaptive indexing has received a considerable amount of attention, and several
algorithms have been proposed over the past few years; including a recent
experimental study comparing a large number of existing methods. Until now,
however, most adaptive indexing algorithms have been designed single-threaded,
yet with multi-core systems already well established, the idea of designing
parallel algorithms for adaptive indexing is very natural. In this regard only
one parallel algorithm for adaptive indexing has recently appeared in the
literature: The parallel version of standard cracking. In this paper we
describe three alternative parallel algorithms for adaptive indexing, including
a second variant of a parallel standard cracking algorithm. Additionally, we
describe a hybrid parallel sorting algorithm, and a NUMA-aware method based on
sorting. We then thoroughly compare all these algorithms experimentally; along
a variant of a recently published parallel version of radix sort. Parallel
sorting algorithms serve as a realistic baseline for multi-threaded adaptive
indexing techniques. In total we experimentally compare seven parallel
algorithms. Additionally, we extensively profile all considered algorithms. The
initial set of experiments considered in this paper indicates that our parallel
algorithms significantly improve over previously known ones. Our results
suggest that, although adaptive indexing algorithms are a good design choice in
single-threaded environments, the rules change considerably in the parallel
case. That is, in future highly-parallel environments, sorting algorithms could
be serious alternatives to adaptive indexing.Comment: 26 pages, 7 figure

### Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance

### Shared-Memory Parallel Maximal Clique Enumeration

We present shared-memory parallel methods for Maximal Clique Enumeration
(MCE) from a graph. MCE is a fundamental and well-studied graph analytics task,
and is a widely used primitive for identifying dense structures in a graph. Due
to its computationally intensive nature, parallel methods are imperative for
dealing with large graphs. However, surprisingly, there do not yet exist
scalable and parallel methods for MCE on a shared-memory parallel machine. In
this work, we present efficient shared-memory parallel algorithms for MCE, with
the following properties: (1) the parallel algorithms are provably
work-efficient relative to a state-of-the-art sequential algorithm (2) the
algorithms have a provably small parallel depth, showing that they can scale to
a large number of processors, and (3) our implementations on a multicore
machine shows a good speedup and scaling behavior with increasing number of
cores, and are substantially faster than prior shared-memory parallel
algorithms for MCE.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures, proceedings of the 25th IEEE International
Conference on. High Performance Computing, Data, and Analytics (HiPC), 201

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