1,215,703 research outputs found

    How Working Time Reduction Affects Employment and Earnings

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    December 1, 1996 Portugal introduced a new law on working hours which gradually reduced the standard workweek from 44 hours to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory working hours reduction affected employment and earnings of workers involved. We find for workers who were affected by the new law that working hours decreased, while hourly wages increased, keeping monthly earnings approximately constant. We also find that the working hours reduction did not lead to an increased job loss of workers directly affected. Finally, we find that workers who themselves were not directly affected were influenced by the working hours reduction indirectly. If they worked in a firm with many workers working more than 40 hours before the change in law was introduced.Workweek reduction;policy reform;employment dynamics;earnings

    Do reductions of standard hours affect employment transitions? : evidence from Chile

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    This study exploits the reduction of weekly working hours from 48 to 45 occurred in Chile in January 2005. We use this pure and exogenous policy change to identify the employment effects of such a policy. Our main contribution is that we overcome the problems of previous studies such as : selection between hours and employment, lack of identification strategy due to the joint implementation of policies and lack of crucial variables (like hourly wages and usual hours). Our results suggest no significant effects of a reduction of standard hours on employment transitions and a significant effect on hourly wages (i.e. wage compensation). These results are robust to several specifications

    How a Reduction of Standard Working Hours Affects Employment Dynamics

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    On December 1, 1996, a new law was implemented in Portugal to gradually reduce the stan- dard working week from 44 to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory reduction affected employment through job creation and job destruction. We find evidence that the working hours reduction had a positive effect on employment through a fall in job destruction.Workweek reduction;policy reform;employment dynamics

    Hours of Work and Retirement Behavior

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    Using a novel dataset from the 2006 Portuguese Labor Force Survey this paper examines the impact of a voluntary reduction in hours of work, before retirement, on the moment of exit from the labor force. If, as often suggested, flexibility in hours of work is a useful measure to postpone retirement, then a reduction in working hours should be associated with retirement at later ages. Results prove otherwise suggesting that reducing hours of work before retirement is associated with early exits from the labor force. A reduction in hours of work seems to signal the worker's wish to retire sooner rather than to announce the desire of remaining in the labor market. This result may enclose the need for some alternative policy strategies regarding working hours.aging, retirement, working hours, older workers

    Decent working time: New trends, new issues.

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    Includes selected papers from the 9th International Symposium on Working Time, Paris (2004), looking at the increasing use of results-based employment relationships for managers and professionals, and the increasing fragmentation of time to more closely tailor staffing needs to customer requirements (e.g., short-hours, part-time work). Moreover, as operating/opening hours rapidly expand toward a 24-hour and 7-day economy, the book considers how this has resulted in a growing diversification, decentralization, and individualization of working hours, as well as an increasing tension between enterprises' business requirements and workers' needs and preferences regarding their hours. It addresses issues such as increasing employment insecurity and instability, time-related social inequalities, particularly in relation to gender, workers' ability to balance their paid work with their personal lives, and the synchronization of working hours with social times, such as community activities. In addition, the book offers suggestions on how policy-makers, academics, and the social partners can together help further develop effective policies for advancing "decent working timeRéduction du temps de travail; Aménagement du temps de travail; Horaires de travail; Labor laws and legislation; Developed countries; Trend; Arrangement of working time; Flexible hours of work; Hours of work;

    Preferred vs. Actual Working Hours - A Ten Years Paneleconometric Analysis for Professions, Entrepreneurs and Employees in Germany

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    Labour market dynamics according the individual working hour tension (preferred working hours minus actual working hours) of active people with focus on the self-employed, as professions and entrepreneurs, and employees are investigated in our study. The individual longitudinal analysis based on panel data allows us to follow the individual process of working time preferences and actual outcomes in its individual convergence/divergence balancing process in the course of time. Our microanalytic and paneleconometric results (with pooled, one and two factor fixed and random effects models) quantify the working hour tension developments and its determinants in a decade from the mid 80s to the mid 90s. Microdata base is the German Socio-Economic Panel with ten waves from 1985 to 1994. Finally, we discuss impacts of our results for labour market strategies and a targeted economic and social policy

    Do reductions of standard hours affect employment transitions? : Evidence from Chile

    Get PDF
    This study exploits the reduction of weekly working hours from 48 to 45 occured in Chile in January 2005. We use this pure and exogenous policy change to identify the employment effects of such a policy. Our main contribution is that we overcome the problems of previous studies such as : selection between hours and employment, lack of identification strategy due to the joint implementation of policies and lack of crucial variables (like hourly wages and usual hours). Our results suggest no significant effects of a reduction of standard hours on employment transitions and a significant effect on hourly wages (i.e. wage compensation). These results are robust to several specifiations.

    Working Hour Arrangements and Working Hours A Microeconometric Analysis Based on German Time Diary Data

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    The labour market providing individual resources and economic well-being is still a topic in the economic and social policy discussion. In the course of time the traditional full-time work is diminishing, new labour arrangements are discussed (keyword: flexible labour markets). This study will contribute to the discussion of working hour arrangements by quantifying patterns of explanation of ‚Äėwho is working when within a workday‚Äô. In particular we want to disentangle certain working hour patterns and the final hours of work according to those different patterns allowing for market and non-market influences.The daily working hour patterns are analysed by two dimensions: the fragmentation of a working day (by the number of working episodes) and the timing of work time by location of those episodes within the day‚Äôs period. Deducting such patterns allows not only to describe possible workday interruptions and workday behaviour in general,but to give hints for which groups of the society non-traditional working time is important. Once quantified, labour market policy has a sound base for a targeted policy. Our model is based on a microeconomic labour supply approach, however extended by two dimensions: first,by daily working time arrangements with focus on core and non core working time crossed by number of episodes and, second, by labour supply factors in a market and non market context. Our microeconometric estimates use a multinomial logit (MNL) model to explain the working hour arrangement probability and a MNL selectivity bias corrected hours estimation for arrangement specific working hours with correct asymptotic covariances. Our study is the first German study of this kind which could analyse the actual available German Time Use Survey 1991/92 from the Federal Statistical Office with ca.32.000 time diaries.Working hour arrangements, timing of work time, working hours, German time budget stud, time use diary data, dicrete/continous extended labour supply modelling and MNL/COLS-estimation

    The Detaxation of Overtime Hours: Lessons from the French Experiment

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    In October 2007 France introduced an exemption on the income tax and social security contributions that applied to wages received for hours worked overtime. The goal of the policy was to increase the number of hours worked. This article shows that this reform has had no significant impact on hours worked. Conversely, it has had a positive impact on the overtime hours declared by highly qualified wage-earners, who have opportunities to manipulate the overtime hours they declare in order to optimize their tax situation, since the hours they work are difficult to verify.tax exemption, overtime hours, working time

    Working Hours Reduction and Endogenous Growth

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    This paper formulates an endogenous growth model and uses it to inquire into the long-run impact of work-sharing arrangements on economic growth. We show that the styles of wage contract, namely salary-style and hourly-style contracts, are a key factor in determining the long-run growth effects of working time reduction. If the labor market is overwhelmingly salaried arrangement, then the extent of wage flexibility is relatively low; as a consequence, a policy of reducing working hours will deteriorate economic growth. On the contrary, if hourly pay predominates, then the wage system tends to increase the degree of wage flexibility. Thus, a cut in working time may favor the economy’s growth rate.Working hours reduction, Endogenous growth
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