10,290 research outputs found

    Genomic relatedness within five common Finnish Campylobacter jejuni pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotypes studied by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, ribotyping and serotyping

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    Thirty-five Finnish Campylobacter jejuni strains with five SmaI/SacII pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes selected among human and chicken isolates from 1997 and 1998 were used for comparison of their PFGE patterns, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) patterns, HaeIII ribotypes, and heat-stable (HS) serotypes. The discriminatory power of PFGE, AFLP, and ribotyping with HaeIII were shown to be at the same level for this selected set of strains, and these methods assigned the strains into the same groups. The PFGE and AFLP patterns within a genotype were highly similar, indicating genetic relatedness. The same HS serotypes were distributed among different genotypes, and different serotypes were identified within one genotype. HS serotype 12 was only associated with the combined genotype G1 (PFGE-AFLP-ribotype). These studies using polyphasic genotyping methods suggested that common Finnish C. jejuni genotypes form genetic lineages which colonize both humans and chickens

    Genomic analysis of Mycobacterium bovis and other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by isoenzyme analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

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    Initially, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to examine genetic relationships among 63 isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and 13 other members of the M. tuberculosis complex. The isolates were divided into five electrophoretic types, with a mean genetic diversity of 0.1. The strains were genetically homogenous, indicating that members of the complex were closely related. This supported the suggestion that they should be considered as subspecies of a single species. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was then used to differentiate these isolates, as well as 59 additional isolates of M. bovis from different parts of the world. PFGE differentiated these strains into 63 patterns (53 patterns for M. bovis). Isolates of M. bovis from Western Australia (n = 46) were more homogenous than isolates from other regions. Eight strains were identified in that state, and one predominantly bovine strain was isolated from two human beings and a feral pig. Although M. bovis isolates from different parts of the world had distinct DNA patterns, some were very similar. PFGE is a highly discriminatory technique for epidemiological studies of bovine tuberculosis. For example, it allowed differentiation between isolates of M. bovis cultured from animals in separate outbreaks of tuberculosis, it suggested the transmission of infection between certain properties, and it demonstrated the existence of multiple infections with different strains at certain farms

    Neutral genomic microevolution of a recently emerged pathogen, salmonella enterica serovar agona

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    Salmonella enterica serovar Agona has caused multiple food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis since it was first isolated in 1952. We analyzed the genomes of 73 isolates from global sources, comparing five distinct outbreaks with sporadic infections as well as food contamination and the environment. Agona consists of three lineages with minimal mutational diversity: only 846 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have accumulated in the non-repetitive, core genome since Agona evolved in 1932 and subsequently underwent a major population expansion in the 1960s. Homologous recombination with other serovars of S. enterica imported 42 recombinational tracts (360 kb) in 5/143 nodes within the genealogy, which resulted in 3,164 additional SNPs. In contrast to this paucity of genetic diversity, Agona is highly diverse according to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which is used to assign isolates to outbreaks. PFGE diversity reflects a highly dynamic accessory genome associated with the gain or loss (indels) of 51 bacteriophages, 10 plasmids, and 6 integrative conjugational elements (ICE/IMEs), but did not correlate uniquely with outbreaks. Unlike the core genome, indels occurred repeatedly in independent nodes (homoplasies), resulting in inaccurate PFGE genealogies. The accessory genome contained only few cargo genes relevant to infection, other than antibiotic resistance. Thus, most of the genetic diversity within this recently emerged pathogen reflects changes in the accessory genome, or is due to recombination, but these changes seemed to reflect neutral processes rather than Darwinian selection. Each outbreak was caused by an independent clade, without universal, outbreak-associated genomic features, and none of the variable genes in the pan-genome seemed to be associated with an ability to cause outbreaks

    Towards a typing strategy for Arcobacter species isolated from humans and animals and assessment of the in vitro genomic stability

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    Arcobacter species have a widespread distribution with a broad range of animal hosts and environmental reservoirs, and are increasingly associated with human illness. To elucidate the routes of infection, several characterization methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment-length polymorphism, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR have already been applied, but without proper validation or comparison. At present, no criterion standard typing method or strategy has been proposed. Therefore, after the validation of PFGE, those commonly applied typing methods were compared for the characterization of six human- and animal-associated Arcobacter species. With a limited number of isolates to be characterized, PFGE with restriction by KpnI is proposed as the first method of choice. However, ERIC-PCR represents a more convenient genomic fingerprinting technique when a large number of isolates is involved. Therefore, a first clustering of similar patterns obtained after ERIC-PCR, with a subsequent typing of some representatives per ERIC cluster by PFGE, is recommended. As multiple genotypes are commonly isolated from the same host and food, genomic plasticity has been suggested. The in vitro genomic stability of Arcobacter butzleri and A. cryaerophilus was assessed under two temperatures and two oxygen concentrations. Variability in the genomic profile of A. cryaerophilus was observed after different passages for different strains at 37 degrees C under microaerobic conditions. The bias due to these genomic changes must be taken into account in the evaluation of the relationship of strains

    Occurrence and characterization of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw meat, raw milk, and street vended juices in Bangladesh

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    The major objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Shiga toxin (Stx)–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in different types of food samples and to compare their genetic relatedness with STEC strains previously isolated from animal sources in Bangladesh. We investigated a total of 213 food samples, including 90 raw meat samples collected from retail butcher shops, 20 raw milk samples from domestic cattle, and 103 fresh juice samples from street vendors in Dhaka city. We found that more than 68% (n=62) of the raw meat samples were positive for the stx gene(s); 34% (n=21) of buffalo meats and 66% (n=41) of beef. Approximately 10% (n=2) of the raw milk and 8% (n=8) of the fresh juice samples were positive for stx. We isolated STEC O157 from seven meat samples (7.8%), of which two were from buffalo meats and five from beef; and no other STEC serotypes could be isolated. We could not isolate STEC from any of the stx-positive raw milk and juice samples. The STEC O157 isolates from raw meats were positive for the stx2, eae, katP, etpD, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli hly virulence genes, and they belonged to three different phage types: 8 (14.3%), 31 (42.8%), and 32 (42.8%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed six distinct patterns among seven isolates of STEC O157, suggesting a heterogeneous clonal diversity. Of the six PFGE patterns, one was identical and the other two were =90% related to PFGE patterns of STEC O157 strains previously isolated from animal feces, indicating that raw meats are readily contaminated with fecal materials. This study represents the first survey of STEC in the food chain in Bangladesh

    Multiresistant Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- in Europe: a new pandemic strain?

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    A marked increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT) has been noted in food-borne infections and in pigs/pig meat in several European countries in the last ten years. One hundred and sixteen strains of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- from humans, pigs and pig meat isolated in England and Wales, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the Netherlands were further subtyped by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis to investigate the genetic relationship among strains. PCR was performed to identify the fljB flagellar gene and the genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Class 1 and 2 integrase genes were also sought. Results indicate that genetically related serovar 4,[5],12:i:- strains of definitive phage types DT193 and DT120 with ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamide and tetracycline resistance encoded by blaTEM, strA-strB, sul2 and tet(B) have emerged in several European countries, with pigs the likely reservoir of infection. Control measures are urgently needed to reduce spread of infection to humans via the food chain and thereby prevent the possible pandemic spread of serovar 4,[5],12:i:- of R-type ASSuT as occurred with S. Typhimurium DT104 during the 1990s

    Horizontal transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during cattle housing, survival kinetics in feces and water of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and characterisation of E. coli O157:H7 isolates from cattle faeces and a feedlot environment

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    End of project reportTeagasc acknowledges with gratitude the support of European Union Structural Funds (EAGGF) in financing this research projectEscherichia coli O157:H7 can cause severe illness and in some cases leading to death. Cattle are the main reservoir with transmission to humans occurring through contamination of food or the environment. Improved understanding of the survival and transmission and survival of E. coli O157:H7 on the farm is essential for developing future controls of this pathogen. This study showed that transmission of E. coli O157:H7 can occur rapidly in groups of housed cattle, with contamination of the pens and hides occurring in 24 hrs. The inoculation dose for cattle is lower than previously reported. Ingestion of bacteria from the hide through social grooming is important for pathogen transmission in housed cattle along with faecal contamination of the environment. Sampling hide will improve the estimation of prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in pens

    Data mining tools for Salmonella characterization: application to gel-based fingerprinting analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is currently the most widely and routinely used method by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state health labs in the United States for Salmonella surveillance and outbreak tracking. Major drawbacks of commercially available PFGE analysis programs have been their difficulty in dealing with large datasets and the limited availability of analysis tools. There exists a need to develop new analytical tools for PFGE data mining in order to make full use of valuable data in large surveillance databases. RESULTS: In this study, a software package was developed consisting of five types of bioinformatics approaches exploring and implementing for the analysis and visualization of PFGE fingerprinting. The approaches include PFGE band standardization, Salmonella serotype prediction, hierarchical cluster analysis, distance matrix analysis and two-way hierarchical cluster analysis. PFGE band standardization makes it possible for cross-group large dataset analysis. The Salmonella serotype prediction approach allows users to predict serotypes of Salmonella isolates based on their PFGE patterns. The hierarchical cluster analysis approach could be used to clarify subtypes and phylogenetic relationships among groups of PFGE patterns. The distance matrix and two-way hierarchical cluster analysis tools allow users to directly visualize the similarities/dissimilarities of any two individual patterns and the inter- and intra-serotype relationships of two or more serotypes, and provide a summary of the overall relationships between user-selected serotypes as well as the distinguishable band markers of these serotypes. The functionalities of these tools were illustrated on PFGE fingerprinting data from PulseNet of CDC. CONCLUSIONS: The bioinformatics approaches included in the software package developed in this study were integrated with the PFGE database to enhance the data mining of PFGE fingerprints. Fast and accurate prediction makes it possible to elucidate Salmonella serotype information before conventional serological methods are pursued. The development of bioinformatics tools to distinguish the PFGE markers and serotype specific patterns will enhance PFGE data retrieval, interpretation and serotype identification and will likely accelerate source tracking to identify the Salmonella isolates implicated in foodborne diseases

    Diversity in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from paediatric cancer patients in Egypt

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    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen, commonly causing infections in immunocompromised patients. It is increasingly reported as a multidrug-resistant organism, which is alarming because of its capability to resist all available classes of antibiotics including carbapenems. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic and epidemiological diversity of A. baumannii isolates from paediatric cancer patients in Egypt, by sequencing the intrinsic blaOXA -51-like gene, genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi-locus sequence typing in addition to identifying the carbapenem-resistance mechanism. Results showed a large diversity within the isolates, with eight different blaOXA -51-like genes, seven novel sequence types and only 28% similarity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All three acquired class-D carbapenemases (OXA-23, OXA-40 and OXA-58) were also identified among these strains correlating with resistance to carbapenems. In addition, we report the first identification of ISAba2 upstream of blaOXA -51-like contributing to high-level carbapenem resistance. This indicates the presence of several clones of A. baumannii in the hospitals and illustrates the large genetic and epidemiological diversity found in Egyptian strains
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