48,757 research outputs found

    The response of the English churches to the Nazi persecution of the Jews 1933-1945

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    The background to this thesis is the scholarly debate about bystanders to the Holocaust. Also pertinent is the debate about the conduct of Pius XII in relation to the persecution of the Jews. During the 1930s the Church of England's focus on the persecution of the Jews was complicated by Bishop George Bell's campaign for what were called non-Aryan Christians. He continued his campaign despite being warned that he had exaggerated the numbers of such refugees who would be seeking assistance. The churches in England were challenged to respond to persecution of the Jews by helping fellow- Christians deemed to be of Jewish descent, which confused the understanding about who was being helped. Bell side-stepped calls for him to condemn in outright terms what was happening in Germany. When the Church of England did seek to use its influence with the government, the church had very little suasive force. Specific instances are cited where Archbishop Cosmo Gordon Lang sought government action, but was rebuffed. The persecution of the Jews led to high-profile public meetings and other forms of protest. However, the liberal culture of the times tended to present antisemitic persecution as a challenge to liberal values. This effectively downplayed the persecution's targeting of Jews and its racist basis. Even Jewish requests for church involvement stressed the importance of making the issue a humanitarian one and not a specifically Jewish one. The Council of Christians and Jews also stressed the threat to civilization rather than the threat to Jews. Even so, the CCJ's formation was in itself a response to antisemitism and showed a desire for Christian-Jewish Co-operation and respect. Missionary societies continued to seek to convert the Jews and saw the crisis of the times as an opportunity. Indeed, some missionaries believed it might be the fulfilment of prophecy. The pioneer in Jewish-Christian dialogue, James Parkes, strongly opposed such conversionism. Lang's successor at Canterbury, William Temple, treated the Jewish situation as urgent. He also saw it as challenging Europe's claims to a Christian heritage. Temple's high-profile campaign helped create a wave of Christian support for the Jews, and a flood of petitions. There was a strong tradition of English Catholic antisemitism. Cardinal Arthur Hinsley broke with this to condemn antisemitism with increasing force, though he always mentioned persecution of the Jews in tandem with persecution of Catholics. Evidence suggests that Hinsley may have been compensating for reticence on the part of Pius XII. The thesis also provides a briefer survey of the response of the Quakers, the Methodists and the Baptists

    Whiter Shade of Pale: Making the Case for Jewish Presence in the Multicultural Classroom

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    Despite over 4,000 years of persecution, American Jews and antisemitism continue to be overlooked in university multicultural and social justice classroom discussions. This is due to many factors, such as the misconceptions that Jews are solely a religious group, are White and have completely assimilated into American culture, and are economically successful. Jews are a distinctive group in the United States who continue to experience racism and oppression. In order to validate the racism and discrimination of Jews in the United States, university multicultural and social justice programs must begin to discuss the issues pertaining to antisemitism

    Postcard from the Jewish Ghetoo in Kassa (Kosice)

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    Front: Some handwriting in lines of postcard, ‘KASSA’ circular handstamp at top right; handwritten message fills the page. Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: By the time this postcard was written, Kosice (Kassa) had been annexed to Hungary. Persecution of Jews commenced in earnest, and Jews lost their property and possessions, and ultimately their civeil rights. When the Germans invaded Hungary in March, 1944, Jews were massed in brickwork factories and in a ghetto. By May the deportations began with almost 16,000 Jews deported to concentration camps. By October the Arrow Cross established a reign of terror in Hungary.https://digital.kenyon.edu/bulmash/2304/thumbnail.jp

    Through the Eyes of Children: Social Oppression Under Nazi Rule from 1933 to 1938 Reflections of Three Holocaust Survivors

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    This paper discusses the experiences of three Berlin native child survivors of the Holocaust through analysis of their oral testimonies. Their unique voices help shed light on the various ways in which lives were forever changed for those who were legally identified as Jewish in Nazi Germany by way of social oppression. This paper highlights three key years that each survivor discussed at length in their testimonies: Hitler’s Chancellorship in 1933, the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, and Kristallnacht in 1938. Ultimately, this paper argues for the importance of these years and labels them as being a crucial part in the events that led up to the Holocaust and carrying out of the Final Solution, in regards to the victims, perpetrators, and bystanders

    'The Accidental Birth of Hate Crime in Transnational Criminal Law: 'Discrepancies' in the Prosecution for "Incitement to Genocide" during the Nuremberg Process involving the cases of Julius Streicher, Hans Fritzsche and Carl Schmitt.'

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    This volume of three interrelated studies aims to explore the various contingencies through which individuals responsible, to various degrees, for promoting expressions of racist hate were subjected to markedly different types of legal responses within the landmark Nuremberg trials programme. These contingencies, together with loose judicial reasoning, complicate scholarly efforts to identify the historical emergence of this type of transnational hate crime, and to illustrate the complications that arise when seeking to ascertain its implications as a precedent. It needs to be emphasised at the outset that what follows is not a comprehensive study of the origins of the criminalisation of hate speech in general as this would have to include a full comparative survey of all domestic laws and their judicial interpretation, application and institutional enforcement. In addition, the interaction between domestic, regional and international criminalisations would also have to be addressed in what would amount to a massive multi-volume study, beyond the scope of this study. It is acknowledged that a strong case can be made for a more comprehensive approach, placing the contents of what follows within this wider context of transnational regulation. For example, there has clearly been a measure of interaction, albeit of an inconsistent type, between US immigration and naturalisation law and practice, and international criminal law relating to hate speech, with the Streicher case expressly referred to as a precedent for the idea that "persecution," as a subset of crimes against humanity, can include racist and anti-Semitic propaganda

    Gendered Language and the Construction of Jewish Identity in 2 Maccabees

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    British newsreels and the plight of European Jews, 1933-1945

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    This dissertation is an investigation into what the British newsreels told the public about the plight of German and European Jews, between January 1933) and the end of 1945. Nazi persecution of the Jews is a subject that has been well researched for the last 40 years. Historians have examined questions of attitudes to Jewish immigration into Britain and into Palestine, together with the British response to the news of the 'Final Solution' of the 'Jewish Question' in Europe. They have asked why countries such as Britain and her Allies did not do more. The role of the media is central to this question. Work has already been done on what the public was told by the British press as early as 1964, and, more recently on elements of the response of the BBC. Until the time of writing, no historian has considered the most popular medium of all in its response to the persecution of Jews. No-one has explained why the British newsreels did not inform the public, or has asked why there was almost total silence from this medium on the implementation of the 'Final Solution'. This dissertation will argue that more could have been done by British newsreels to highlight the plight of the European Jews between 1933 and 1945

    Page from Printing of Reich Citizenship Law

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    [Cover]: Typewritten page printed 207 Information Provided by Michael D. Bulmash: German printed text from a law journal of the Reich Citizenship Law which had been passed in the Reichstag on September 15, 1935. This law was foundational for the Nazi persecution of the Jews, no longer considered German citizens but rather subjects of the state, stripped of their civil rights and professional employment. Under the “Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor”, the so-called “Blood Protection Law”, Jews were racially and socially isolated, prohibited from marrying or having sexual relations with non-Jews. Other laws followed, specifying professions, occupations, and educational opportunities from which Jews were expunged.https://digital.kenyon.edu/bulmash/2710/thumbnail.jp

    Spinoza and Judaism in the French Context: The Case of Milner's Le Sage Trompeur

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    Jean-Claude Milner’s Le sage trompeur (2013), a controversial recent piece of French Spinoza literature, remains regrettably understudied in the English-speaking world. Adopting Leo Strauss’ esoteric reading method, Milner alleges that Spinoza dissimulates his genuine analysis of the causes of the persecution and survival of the Jewish people within a brief “manifesto” found at the end of the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (TTP), Chapter 3. According to Milner, Spinoza holds that the Jewish people themselves are responsible for the hatred of the Jewish people, and that the engine of their longevity is the hatred they engender. Additionally, claims Milner, Spinoza covertly insinuates that the solution to this persistent state of hatred consists in the mass apostasy of the Jewish people under the leadership of a Sabbatai Zevi-like figure. This article presents the Milner–Spinoza controversy to the English-speaking public along with the larger context of French-language scholarship on Spinoza’s relation to Judaism. While refuting Milner’s reading of Spinoza, I simultaneously clarify relevant elements of Spinoza’s discussions of Judaism in the TTP, such as Spinoza’s examination of Jewish identity and the nature of divine election, Spinoza’s understanding of the causes of national hatred, and Spinoza’s appeals to Portuguese, Spanish, Chinese, and Turkish political history

    A Female Adolescent Bystander\u27s Diary and the Jewish Hungarian Holocaust

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    In his article A Female Adolescent Bystander\u27s Diary and the Jewish Hungarian Holocaust Gergely Kunt analyzes the unpublished diary manuscript of Margit Molnár, a Hungarian Roman Catholic adolescent girl born in 1927 who kept a diary between 1941 and 1949. Kunt\u27s analysis shows how Molnár viewed Jews, the persecution of Jews, and the anti-Jewish terror in Budapest. As the diary documents, Molnár\u27s views of the Jews temporarily changed during the Arrow Cross\u27s reign of terror in October 1944 when she received news of the Arrow Cross murdering Jews en masse in Budapest. However, once the war was over, Molnár\u27s deep-seated anti-Semitic prejudices resurfaced and she felt that despite the previously justified measures against Jews, the oppressive wealthy Jewish Hungarian elite had once again returned