649 research outputs found

    Optimizaci贸n de la s铆ntesis de nanocristales de almid贸n, de papa amarga y tunta, empleando el m茅todo de Taguchi

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    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestr铆a en Tecnolog铆a de AlimentosEl objetivo de la investigaci贸n fue dise帽ar el proceso y optimizar los par谩metros para la s铆ntesis de nanocristales a partir de almidones de papa amarga Ocucuri negra (Solanum curtilobum) y de su respectiva tunta; mediante hidr贸lisis con un 谩cido org谩nico. Se utiliz贸 un dise帽o multifactorial categ贸rico para estimar el efecto de los factores (molienda, concentraci贸n de almid贸n en la suspensi贸n, concentraci贸n de 谩cido y tipo de almid贸n). Se determin贸 que el factor molienda tuvo un efecto estad铆sticamente significativo (p < 0,05) en el proceso de obtenci贸n de nanocristales de almid贸n. La optimizaci贸n del proceso se realiz贸 por el m茅todo de Taguchi, donde los factores considerados fueron: concentraci贸n de almid贸n, concentraci贸n de 谩cido org谩nico y tipo de almid贸n molido, para lo cual se utiliz贸 el dise帽o ortogonal L4 (23), y las variables respuesta optimizadas fueron: la cristalinidad relativa y el porcentaje de rendimiento, buscando en ambos casos su maximizaci贸n. Las condiciones 贸ptimas se obtuvieron con el criterio de 鈥渕ayor es mejor鈥. Se determinaron las propiedades morfol贸gicas (mediante microscop铆a electr贸nica de barrido), estructurales (difracci贸n de rayos X, FTIR), t茅rmicas (DSC) y f铆sicas (distribuci贸n de tama帽o, potencial zeta) a los nanocristales de almid贸n obtenidos con el tratamiento 贸ptimo. Los nanocristales de almid贸n obtenidos presentaron di谩metros hidrodin谩micos en un rango de 118 鈥 399 nm y valores de cristalinidad relativa en un rango de 12,56 鈥 26,2 por ciento.The objective of the research was to design the process and optimize the parameters of the synthesis of nanocrystals from bitter potato starch Ocucuri negra (Solanum curtilobum) and its respective tunta; prepared by hydrolysis using an organic acid. A categorical multifactorial design was used to estimate the effect of the factors (ball milling, starch concentration in the slurry, acid concentration and type of starch). It was determined that the ball milling factor had a significant effect (p < 0,05) in the synthesis of starch nanocrystals. The optimization of the process was employed by the Taguchi method where the factors considered were: starch concentration, organic acid concentration and type of milled starch, for which the L4 (23) orthogonal array was used and the optimized response variables were: relative crystallinity and yield percentage, the target for both was their maximization. The optimal conditions were obtained considering the "bigger is better鈥 criterion. The morphological (by scanning electron microscopy), structural (by X-ray diffraction, FTIR), thermal (by DSC) and physical (by dynamic ligth scattering, zeta potential) properties of the starch nanocrystals obtained with the optimal conditions were determined. The starch nanocrystals presented hydrodynamic diameters in a range of 118 鈥 399 nm and relative crystallinity values in a range of 12,56 鈥 26,52 percent

    Validaci贸n y verificaci贸n del procedimiento de limpieza y desinfecci贸n en una industria de premezclas de panader铆a y pasteler铆a

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    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias. Departamento Acad茅mico de Ingenier铆a de Alimentos y Productos AgropecuariosEn el a帽o 2020, la empresa Tolentino SAC, presenta procedimientos de limpieza y desinfecci贸n desactualizados debido a la reinstalaci贸n de la planta a otro distrito; estos procedimientos se revalidaron mediante ensayos microbiol贸gicos basados en las especificaciones de la Gu铆a T茅cnica para el An谩lisis Microbiol贸gico de Superficies en contacto con Alimentos y Bebidas; se realiz贸 un diagn贸stico con 43 puntos muestreados y se observ贸 que la eficiencia del plan de higiene es de 90.6 %; posteriormente a la revalidaci贸n se logra llegar a un 100% de eficiencia. Adicionalmente se compar贸 la eficacia de dos detergentes (Fullclean y Superfoam) a trav茅s de metodolog铆as conocidas como bioluminiscencia; escogiendo el detergente con menor valor de ATP y el m谩s ecoamigable. A finales del a帽o 2020 se logra mejorar la cultura de inocuidad y BPM mediante capacitaciones y la implementaci贸n del formato codificado con ACC-P-009.F01 cuyo nombre es 鈥淰erificaci贸n de Limpieza y Desinfecci贸n鈥, obteniendo un promedio m铆nimo de 96,4% de cumplimiento en las 谩reas, para estas verificaciones se utiliz贸 un m茅todo cualitativo llamado detecci贸n de residuos de prote铆nas.In 2020, the company Tolentino SAC presents outdated cleaning and disinfection procedures due to the reinstallation of the plant to another district; These procedures were revalidated by microbiological tests based on the specifications of the Technical Guide for Microbiological Analysis of Surfaces in contact with Food and Beverages; A diagnosis was made with 43 points sampled and it was observed that the efficiency of the hygiene plan in 90.6 %; after revalidation, 100% efficiency is achieved. Additionally, the efficacy of two detergents (Full Clean and Superfoam) was compared through methodologies known as bioluminescence; choosing the detergent with the lowest value and the most eco-friendly. At the end of 2020, the safety and GMP culture was improved through training and the implementation of the format encoded with ACC-P-009.F01 which name is 鈥淐leaning and Disinfection Verification鈥, obtaining a final indicator of 95%, for these verifications a qualitative method was used called protein residue detection

    CiteSee: Augmenting Citations in Scientific Papers with Persistent and Personalized Historical Context

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    When reading a scholarly article, inline citations help researchers contextualize the current article and discover relevant prior work. However, it can be challenging to prioritize and make sense of the hundreds of citations encountered during literature reviews. This paper introduces CiteSee, a paper reading tool that leverages a user's publishing, reading, and saving activities to provide personalized visual augmentations and context around citations. First, CiteSee connects the current paper to familiar contexts by surfacing known citations a user had cited or opened. Second, CiteSee helps users prioritize their exploration by highlighting relevant but unknown citations based on saving and reading history. We conducted a lab study that suggests CiteSee is significantly more effective for paper discovery than three baselines. A field deployment study shows CiteSee helps participants keep track of their explorations and leads to better situational awareness and increased paper discovery via inline citation when conducting real-world literature reviews

    Contribuci贸n de las albarradas en sistemas de producci贸n sustentable en la provincia de Guayas, Ecuador

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    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestr铆a en Agricultura SustentableEn el Cant贸n Pedro Carbo, Ecuador La poblaci贸n local desarroll贸 humedales l茅nticos artificiales en respuesta a la escasez de agua en el 谩rea. Estos son de importancia local y regional y son conocidos como jaguares o albarradas, los cuales hasta la actualidad dan sustento a muchas familias que viven en el bosque seco tropical. La investigaci贸n tuvo como objetivo caracterizar y evaluar la sustentabilidad de fincas familiares alrededor de estas albarradas. De acuerdo con la caracterizaci贸n morfol贸gica, las albarradas oscilan entre los 500 y 50 000 m2. As铆 mismo, la capacidad de almacenamiento de estos reservorios est谩 entre los 1 000 y 50 000 m3 de agua. De la poblaci贸n encuestada, el 77 por ciento usa el agua para agricultura, el 21 por ciento como abrevadero de ganado vacuno, ovino y equino, un 2 por ciento utiliza estos sistemas para consumo humano. Los resultados obtenidos del c谩lculo del ICA en las albarradas estudiadas presentan valores de 89.1 (Bellavista), 54.8 (El Agapito), 57.3 (Pampa Grande) 81.9 (La Uni贸n) 57.0 (Cascajal), lo que, seg煤n la escala propuesta, corresponde a un agua de calidad media o aceptable. La producci贸n que se realiza alrededor de las albarradas es principalmente para el autoconsumo, destinando 谩reas entre 0.5 y 3 ha y solo el 4 por ciento tienen 谩reas mayores a 3 hect谩reas para la producci贸n. El principal cultivo es el arroz, El 42 por ciento de las fincas cuentan con m谩s de 5 especies de animales. Los 铆ndices econ贸mico, ecol贸gico y socio cultural, fueron de 3.1, 2.3 y 3.3, respectivamente, con un promedio aritm茅tico de 2.9 que es mayor de 2, al igual que el valor de cada 铆ndice individual, por lo cual se concluye que los sistemas de producci贸n en estas albarradas, son sustentables.In the Pedro Carbo Canton, Ecuador, there are artificial lentic wetlands designed by native peoples as a response to the region's water deficit. These wetlands of great local and regional importance are called jag眉eyes or albarradas, which to this day support many families living in the tropical dry forest. The objective of the research was to characterize and evaluate the sustainability of family farms around these albarradas. According to the morphological characterization, the albarradas oscillate between 500 and 50 000 m2. Likewise, the storage capacity of these reservoirs is between 1 000 and 50 000 m3 of water. Of the population surveyed, 77 percent use the water for agriculture, 21 percent as a watering hole for cattle, sheep and horses, and 2 percent use these systems for human consumption. The results obtained from the calculation of the ICA in the albarradas studied present values of 89.1 (Bellavista), 54.8 (El Agapito), 57.3 (Pampa Grande) 81.9 (La Uni贸n) 57.0 (Cascajal), which, according to the proposed scale, corresponds to water of medium or acceptable quality. The production that takes place around the albarradas is mainly for self-consumption, allocating areas between 0.5 and 3 ha and only 4 percent have areas greater than 3 hectares for production. The main crop is rice. 42 percent of the farms have more than 5 species of animals. The economic, ecological and socio-cultural indices were 3.1, 2.3 and 3.3, respectively, with an arithmetic average of 2.9 which is greater than 2, as well as the value of each individual index, for which it is concluded that the production in these albarradas, are sustainabl

    Olas de calor en la Regi贸n Norte del Per煤 y su correlaci贸n con eventos Enso (1979 - 2018)

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    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Facultad de Ciencias. Departamento Acad茅mico de Ingenier铆a Ambiental, F铆sica y Meteorolog铆aEn el presente trabajo se analiz贸 la relaci贸n que existe entre un evento de ola de calor y su aparici贸n durante un evento ENSO para la regi贸n norte del Per煤 (Tumbes, Piura y Lambayeque), en la cual se estudiaron los mecanismos oc茅ano-atmosf茅rico asociados a su formaci贸n, en ese sentido, se emple贸 en primer lugar el c谩lculo de percentiles para determinar los umbrales de temperatura de cada estaci贸n meteorol贸gica e identificar los eventos de olas de calor, en segundo lugar se aplic贸 la metodolog铆a de anomal铆a estandarizada categorizando los eventos extraordinarios ENSO, en tercer lugar se realiz贸 an谩lisis de correlaci贸n de Pearson y Spearman a fin de identificar la relaci贸n entre los diferentes 铆ndices clim谩ticos asociados al ENSO (oce谩nico, atmosf茅rico y multivariado) y el IOC (铆ndice de olas de calor) adaptado de la f贸rmula de anomal铆a estandarizada, asimismo, se plante贸 un modelo conceptual para la formaci贸n de eventos de olas de calor; en ese sentido se calcul贸 el IOC y mostro valores de +0.76 y +1.33 en los eventos ENSO 1997 鈥 1998 y 2015 鈥 2016 respectivamente, asimismo durante los eventos extraordinarios el IOC con los 铆ndices clim谩ticos mostro una alta correlaci贸n positiva mayor de +0.5, a excepci贸n del 铆ndice atmosf茅rico SOI, en adici贸n, la relaci贸n entre IOC con la TSM, nivel de 850 hPa y 500 hPa mostro una alta correlaci贸n positiva mayor de +0.5 en los meses de enero, febrero y marzo. Por otro lado, la formaci贸n de eventos de olas de calor se apreci贸 que cuando existe un ingreso an贸malo de la circulaci贸n de los oestes a la atm贸sfera tropical genera que el APS ingrese a continente y atrapando la humedad proveniente de la alta evaporaci贸n por calentamiento de la TSM donde la energ铆a calor铆fica acumulada se irradia durante la tarde incrementando la temperatura y ocasionando las olas de calor.In the present work, the relationship between a heat wave event and its appearance during an ENSO event for the northern region of Peru (Tumbes, Piura and Lambayeque) was analyzed, in which the ocean-atmospheric mechanisms associated with heat waves were studied. its formation, in this sense, the calculation of percentiles was used firstly to determine the temperature thresholds of each meteorological station and identify the events of heat waves, secondly, the standardized anomaly methodology was applied, categorizing the extraordinary events ENSO , thirdly, a Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis was carried out in order to identify the relationship between the different climatic indices associated with ENSO (oceanic, atmospheric and multivariate) and the IOC (heat wave index) adapted from the anomaly formula standardized, likewise, a conceptual model was proposed for the formation of heat wave events; In this sense, the IOC was calculated and showed values of +0.76 and +1.33 in the ENSO events 1997 - 1998 and 2015 - 2016 respectively, also during the extraordinary events the IOC with the climatic indices showed a high positive correlation greater than +0.5, With the exception of the SOI atmospheric index, in addition, the relationship between IOC and SST, level of 850 hPa and 500 hPa, showed a high positive correlation greater than +0.5 in the months of January, February and March. On the other hand, the formation of heat wave events showed that when there is an anomalous entry of the westerly circulation into the tropical atmosphere, it causes the APS to enter the continent and trap the moisture from the high evaporation due to heating of the atmosphere. SST where the accumulated heat energy is radiated during the afternoon increasing the temperature and causing heat waves

    Privacy-Preserving Dashboard for F.A.I.R Head and Neck Cancer data supporting multi-centered collaborations

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    Research in modern healthcare requires vast volumes of data from various healthcare centers across the globe. It is not always feasible to centralize clinical data without compromising privacy. A tool addressing these issues and facilitating reuse of clinical data is the need of the hour. The Federated Learning approach, governed in a set of agreements such as the Personal Health Train (PHT) manages to tackle these concerns by distributing models to the data centers instead of the traditional approach of centralizing datasets. One of the prerequisites of PHT is using semantically interoperable datasets for the models to be able to find them. FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) principles help in building interoperable and reusable data by adding knowledge representation and providing descriptive metadata. However, the process of making data FAIR is not always easy and straight-forward. Our main objective is to disentangle this process by using domain and technical expertise and get data prepared for federated learning. This paper introduces applications that are easily deployable as Docker containers, which will automate parts of the aforementioned process and significantly simplify the task of creating FAIR clinical data. Our method bypasses the need for clinical researchers to have a high degree of technical skills. We demonstrate the FAIR-ification process by applying it to five Head and Neck cancer datasets (four public and one private). The PHT paradigm is explored by building a distributed visualization dashboard from the aggregated summaries of the FAIR-ified datasets. Using the PHT infrastructure for exchanging only statistical summaries or model coefficients allows researchers to explore data from multiple centers without breaching privacy

    Resilience in higher education settings during the COVID-19 pandemic:A scoping literature review with implications for policy and practice

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    With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the construct of resilience has received growing attention in the higher education literature. The pandemic, acting as an external stressor, impacted multiple higher educational settings in 2020 during the period of lockdowns, when universities had to temporarily close on-campus activities and shift to online emergency responses. The objective of this scoping review is to explore how resilience was conceptualized in the higher education research literature during the initial emergency response phase of the pandemic, and how conceptual and research design choices in this early body of literature shaped policy recommendations aimed at enhancing resilience of individuals and support systems in higher education settings. This article, thus, contributes to the ongoing discussion in the academic and policy-relevant literature on how to better prepare universities as organizations and communities for a response not only during the emergency pandem ic, but also beyond in post-pandemic higher education settings. In particular, the paper examines five related questions, as pertaining to the early literature on the university emergency response in higher education: 1) how, and at which levels (i.e. individual, community, organization, system) was resilience conceptualized, 2) what types of research questions on resilience were being explored in this literature (i.e. determinants of resilience, or impacts of resilience), 3) how, and via which instruments, resilience was measured, 4) which factors were found to be facilitative for resilience, and 5) which factors were found to be impacts of resilience. The article synthesizes the findings of the early literature on resilience in higher education during the pandemic emergency response, and discusses important areas for further academic research, highlighting the implications for relevant support policies and interventions

    Estimaci贸n de la huella de carbono de una central t茅rmica para los a帽os 2019-2020

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    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Facultad de Ciencias. Departamento Acad茅mico de Ingenier铆a Ambiental, F铆sica y Meteorolog铆aEl presente trabajo describe la medici贸n de la Huella de Carbono de una central t茅rmica ubicada en Caman谩, para los a帽os 2019-2020. Para ello se utiliza la NTP-ISO 14064-I 2020 como base para la categorizaci贸n de emisiones directas e indirectas de Gases de Efecto Invernadero. Seg煤n las fuentes de emisi贸n identificadas y la informaci贸n brindada, se opt贸 por la metodolog铆a del Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Alimentaci贸n y Asuntos Rurales del Gobierno del Reino Unido (DEFRA por sus siglas en ingl茅s) para la estimaci贸n de las fuentes de emisi贸n siguientes: veh铆culos propios, aire acondicionado, grupos electr贸genos para emergencia y para generaci贸n de energ铆a, energ铆a el茅ctrica, p茅rdidas de energ铆a por la distribuci贸n y transmisi贸n de energ铆a, consumo de agua, vertimiento de aguas residuales. Por otro lado, se utilizaron las Directrices del IPCC de 2006 para inventarios nacionales de gases de efecto invernadero y la actualizaci贸n del 2019 para estimar las emisiones de los residuos generados por la sede. Se lograron identificar las fuentes de emisi贸n de la central t茅rmica para ambos a帽os, estimando las emisiones de cada categor铆a. La huella de carbono de la central t茅rmica para el a帽o 2019 es de 2052.76 tCO2e, siendo la huella de carbono per c谩pita 157.9 tCO2e/per. Para el a帽o 2020 se tuvo una huella de carbono de 2231.71 tCO2e, y una huella per c谩pita de 171.67 tCO2e/per. Adem谩s, se hizo un an谩lisis de la incertidumbre de la informaci贸n brindada, dando recomendaciones para una futura medici贸n.This paper describes the measurement of the Carbon Footprint of a thermal power station in Camana for the years 2019-2020. For this purpose, NTP-ISO 14064-I 2020 is used as a basis for the categorization of direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. According to the emission sources identified and the information provided, the UK Government鈥檚 Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) methodology was chosen for estimating the following emission sources: own vehicles, air conditioning, generators for emergency and power generation, electric power, energy losses by distribution and transmission of energy, water consumption and sewage discharge. On the other hand, the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the 2019 Update were used to estimate emissions from waste generated by headquarters. It was possible to identify the sources of emission of the substation for both years, estimating the emissions of each category. The carbon footprint of the substation for the year 2019 is 2052.76 tCO2e, being the carbon footprint per capita 157.9 tCO2e/per. For the year 2020 it had a carbon footprint of 2231.71 tCO2e, and a per capita footprint of 171.67 tCO2e/per. In addition, an analysis was made of the uncertainty of the information provided, giving recommendations for future measurement

    Spatial inequality during the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa using night-time lights data

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    In this paper, we study the evolution of spatial inequality during the recent COVID-19 pandemic in Africa and assess if there is any association between the outbreak of the health crisis, the strictness of policy restrictions and the changes observed in spatial inequality. Using remotely sensed night time lights data, we find that spatial inequality decreased after the COVID-19 outbreak. Yet, there are huge differences within and between countries. Spatial inequality decreased in Southern and Northern African countries while it increased in Central African countries. Spatial inequality mainly decreased in countries implementing more stringent measures but also in those areas that were richer before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic
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