429 research outputs found

    The increasing threat to European forests from the invasive foliar pine pathogen, Lecanosticta acicola

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    European forests are threatened by increasing numbers of invasive pests and pathogens. Over the past century, Lecanosticta acicola, a foliar pathogen predominantly of Pinus spp., has expanded its range globally, and is increasing in impact. Lecanosticta acicola causes brown spot needle blight, resulting in premature defoliation, reduced growth, and mortality in some hosts. Originating from southern regions of North American, it devastated forests in the USA's southern states in the early twentieth century, and in 1942 was discovered in Spain.Derived from Euphresco project 'Brownspotrisk,' this study aimed to establish the current distribution of Lecanosticta species, and assess the risks of L. acicola to European forests. Pathogen reports from the literature, and new/ unpublished survey data were combined into an open-access geo-database (http://www.portaloff orestpathology.com), and used to visualise the pathogen's range, infer its climatic tolerance, and update its host range. Lecanosticta species have now been recorded in 44 countries, mostly in the northern hemisphere. The type species, L. acicola, has increased its range in recent years, and is present in 24 out of the 26 European countries where data were available. Other species of Lecanosticta are largely restricted to Mexico and Central America, and recently Colombia.The geo-database records demonstrate that L. acicola tolerates a wide range of climates across the northern hemisphere, and indicate its potential to colonise Pinus spp. forests across large swathes of the Europe. Pre-liminary analyses suggest L. acicola could affect 62% of global Pinus species area by the end of this century, under climate change predictions.Although its host range appears slightly narrower than the similar Dothistroma species, Lecanosticta species were recorded on 70 host taxa, mostly Pinus spp., but including, Cedrus and Picea spp. Twenty-three, including species of critical ecological, environmental and economic significance in Europe, are highly susceptible to L. acicola, suffering heavy defoliation and sometimes mortality. Variation in apparent susceptibility between reports could reflect variation between regions in the hosts' genetic make-up, but could also reflect the signif-icant variation in L. acicola populations and lineages found across Europe. This study served to highlight sig-nificant gaps in our understanding of the pathogen's behaviour.Lecanosticta acicola has recently been downgraded from an A1 quarantine pest to a regulated non quarantine pathogen, and is now widely distributed across Europe. With a need to consider disease management, this study also explored global BSNB strategies, and used Case Studies to summarise the tactics employed to date in Europe

    Redisposition of acremonium-like fungi in Hypocreales

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    Acremonium is acknowledged as a highly ubiquitous genus including saprobic, parasitic, or endophytic fungi that inhabit a variety of environments. Species of this genus are extensively exploited in industrial, commercial, pharmaceutical, and biocontrol applications, and proved to be a rich source of novel and bioactive secondary metabolites. Acremonium has been recognised as a taxonomically difficult group of ascomycetes, due to the reduced and high plasticity of morphological characters, wide ecological distribution and substrate range. Recent advances in molecular phylogenies, revealed that Acremonium is highly polyphyletic and members of Acremonium s. lat. belong to at least three distinct orders of Sordariomycetes, of which numerous orders, families and genera with acremonium-like morphs remain undefined. To infer the phylogenetic relationships and establish a natural classification for acremonium-like taxa, systematic analyses were conducted based on a large number of cultures with a global distribution and varied substrates. A total of 633 cultures with acremonium-like morphology, including 261 ex-type cultures from 89 countries and a variety of substrates including soil, plants, fungi, humans, insects, air, and water were examined. An overview phylogenetic tree based on three loci (ITS, LSU, rpb2) was generated to delimit the orders and families. Separate trees based on a combined analysis of four loci (ITS, LSU, rpb2, tef-1α) were used to delimit species at generic and family levels. Combined with the morphological features, host associations and ecological analyses, acremonium-like species evaluated in the present study are currently assigned to 63 genera, and 14 families in Cephalothecales, Glomerellales and Hypocreales, mainly in the families Bionectriaceae, Plectosphaerellaceae and Sarocladiaceae and five new hypocrealean families, namely Chrysonectriaceae, Neoacremoniaceae, Nothoacremoniaceae, Pseudoniessliaceae and Valsonectriaceae. Among them, 17 new genera and 63 new combinations are proposed, with descriptions of 65 new species. Furthermore, one epitype and one neotype are designated to stabilise the taxonomy and use of older names. Results of this study demonstrated that most species of Acremonium s. lat. grouped in genera of Bionectriaceae, including the type A. alternatum. A phylogenetic backbone tree is provided for Bionectriaceae, in which 183 species are recognised and 39 well-supported genera are resolved, including 10 new genera. Additionally, rpb2 and tef-1α are proposed as potential DNA barcodes for the identification of taxa in Bionectriaceae

    Trichoderma in the Maltese Islands

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    This study assessed presence of Trichoderma spp. in the Maltese Islands. Isolates were identified using dichotomous keys and DNA barcoding. Ten distinct isolates were obtained from different soils and other substrates, and were identified as T. virens, T. citrinoviride, T. gamsii, and, in the former T. harzianum species complex, T. breve, T. afroharzianum and T. atrobrunneum. Five out of these six fungi are reported for the first time in the Maltese Islands, and T. brevis is reported for the first time in Europe.peer-reviewe

    Biodiversity, Distribution and Conservation of Plants and Fungi

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    This Special Issue brings together some interconnected topics related to fungi and plants such as biodiversity, taxonomy, conservation, molecular phylogeny, ecology, and plant–fungal interactions. Additionally, some applied aspects are covered, such as phytoremediation, the improvement of spinach growth by biochar and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, bio-friendly solutions for waste reduction, the accumulation of rare-earth elements by wild edible mushrooms, etc

    Taxonomía y filogenia molecular de hongos procedentes de material vegetal sumergido de España

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    Durant els últims anys s'ha incrementat l'interès sobre la taxonomia dels fongs d'aigua dolça, particularment d'aquells que es reprodueixen a través de la generació d'ascospores i/o conidis dintre de cossos fructífers. En la present tesi es van caracteritzar, morfològica i filogenèticament 111 soques aïllades de mostres de material vegetal submergit en hàbitats d'aigua dolça d'Espanya, amb la finalitat de clarificar la seva taxonomia i la seva posició filogenètica. Els resultats van mostrar que el 62% de les soques estudiades s'ubicaren taxonòmicament a la classe del Dothideomycetes i dintre d'aquest grup el 95% corresponia als Pleosporales. La resta dels aïllats es va distribuir de la següent manera: el 30% en Sordariomycetes, el 4,5% en Letiomycetes i el 3,5% en els Euromycetes. Això va permetre la descripció i publicació d'un gran nombre de nous taxons per a la ciència, distribuïts en una àmplia diversitat de famílies i gèneres. La qual cosa, hem fet grans contribucions al coneixement de la taxonomia dels fongs presents en els hàbitats d'aigua dolça d'Espanya. Un altre de les grans aportacions és la troballa dels estats sexuals per a gèneres de fongs dels quals només es coneixen pel seu estat asexual i viceversa.En los últimos años se ha incrementado el interés sobre la taxonomía de los hongos de agua dulce, particularmente de aquellos que se reproducen a través de la generación de ascosporas y/o conidios dentro de cuerpos fructíferos. En la presente tesis se caracterizaron, morfológica y filogenéticamente 111 cepas aisladas de muestras de material vegetal sumergido en hábitats de agua dulce de España, con la finalidad de clarificar su taxonomía y posición filogenética. Los resultados mostraron que el 62% de las cepas estudiadas se ubicaron taxonómicamente en la clase de los Dothideomycetes y dentro de éste grupo el 95% correspondía a los Pleosporales. El resto de los aislados se distribuyó de la siguiente manera: el 30% en Sordariomycetes, 4.5% en Leotiomycetes y el 3.5 % en los Eurotiomycetes. Esto permitió la descripción y publicación de un gran número de taxones nuevos para la ciencia, distribuidos en una amplia diversidad de familias y géneros. Con lo cual, hemos hecho importantes contribuciones al conocimiento de la taxonomía de los hongos presentes en hábitats de agua dulce de España. Otra de las grandes aportaciones es el hallazgo de los estados sexuales para géneros de hongos tan solo conocidos por su estado asexual y viceversa.In the past few years, interest in the taxonomy of freshwater fungi, and particularly in those that reproduce through the generation of ascospores and/or conidia within fruiting bodies, has increased. In this thesis, 111 strains isolated from vegetal material samples submerged in freshwater habitats of Spain were characterized morphologically and phylogenetically in order to clarify their taxonomy and phylogenetic position. The results showed that 62% of the studied strains were taxonomically placed in the Dothideomycetes class and within this group, 95% were included under the Pleosporales order. The rest of the isolates were distributed as follows: 30% in Sordariomycetes, 4.5% in Leotiomycetes and 3.5% in Eurotiomycetes. This led to the description and publication of a large number of new taxa to science, distributed in a wide diversity of families and genera. Thus, we have made great contributions to the knowledge related to the taxonomy of fungi that settle in freshwater habitats in Spain. Moreover, another great contribution is the finding of sexual states for fungal genera only known by their asexual state and vice versa


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    One hundred have passed, and the journey continues. This work was created by a group of professors of the (former) Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Florence, and has the sole purpose of telling, through a few significant subjects, about the first one hundred years (1913-2013) of an institution which, thanks to its researchers, technicians and administrative department, has contributed as one to the advancement of knowledge in the Agricultural Sciences and, in the local area, to the success of the agri-food sector in Tuscany. However, the real protagonists of this work are not only the Teachers of the School of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences of the University of Florence, but also the thousands of students who, over a century, have attended the National Forestry Institute first, and then the Faculty, and who have brought the fruits of the teachings they received in Florence to Italy and to the whole world

    Gli erbari aretini da Andrea Cesalpino ai giorni nostri

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    The production of this book has been made possible by the collaboration of a number of scholars and the generosity of the Arezzo Provincial Authority. It provides detailed descriptions of the contents of precious botanical collections amassed by natives of Arezzo, or simply conserved in institutions situated within the territory. The book provides an overview of both herbals of dried plants and painted herbals from the sixteenth century up to the present, starting from the one created in 1563 by the Arezzo doctor Andrea Cesalpino. The first herbal in the world to be organised through systematic criteria, this collection is now in the Botanical Section of the Florence University Museum of Natural History, together with another small eighteenth-century herbal produced by a pharmacist from Cortona, Agostino Coltellini. Conserved in Cortona itself is another eighteenth-century herbal, this one painted by Mattia Moneti, while in Castiglion Fiorentino and Poppi respectively are the intriguing collections of the Hortus siccus pisanus (18th century) and of the Biblioteca Rilliana (late 17th century). Also described in the book is a herbal from the Convent of La Verna (18th century) and the Egyptian herbal of Jacob Corinaldi (19th century), conserved in Montevarchi. Finally there are also the modern herbals, illustrating the continuity over time of a practice that is the foundation of all systematic study. The book is in fact rounded off by an anastatic reprint of the description of the Cesalpino herbal published in 1858, which is still a seminal work for studies such as those contained in this collection

    Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa – 2021

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    This paper provides an updated classification of the Kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. Five-hundred and twenty-three (535) notes are provided for newly introduced taxa and for changes that have been made since the previous outline. In the discussion, the latest taxonomic changes in Basidiomycota are provided and the classification of Mycosphaerellales are broadly discussed. Genera listed in Mycosphaerellaceae have been confirmed by DNA sequence analyses, while doubtful genera (DNA sequences being unavailable but traditionally accommodated in Mycosphaerellaceae) are listed in the discussion. Problematic genera in Glomeromycota are also discussed based on phylogenetic results.National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) NSFC 31950410558 NSFC 31760013 32100011Department of Science and Technology of Yunnan Province 2018FB050State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants, Guizhou Medical University FAMP201906KScience and Technology Department of Guizhou Province QKHRCPT[2017] 5101High-Level Talent Recruitment Plan of Yunnan Province ("Young Talents" Program)Chiang Mai UniversityCroatian Science Foundation HRZZ-IP-2018-01-1736 HRZZ-2018-09-7081LOEWE initiative of the government of HessenDistinguished Scientist Fellowship (DSFP), King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaCAS President's International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) 2020PB0115 2020PC0009 2018PC0006National Science Centre, Poland 2017/25/B/NZ8/00473International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program Y9180822S1China Postdoctoral Science FoundationYunnan Human Resources, and Social Security Department FoundationNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) 31750110478China Postdoctoral Science Foundation 2021M693361Portuguese Foundation for Science and TechnologyEuropean Commission UIDB/04046/2020 UIDP/04046/2020High-Level Talent Recruitment Plan of Yunnan Province ("High-End Foreign Experts" Program
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