19,490 research outputs found

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: review and new classification criteria for reporting in clinical trials

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    STUDY QUESTION What is an objective approach that employs measurable and reproducible physiologic changes as the basis for the classification of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in order to facilitate more accurate reporting of incidence rates within and across clinical trials? SUMMARY ANSWER The OHSS flow diagram is an objective approach that will facilitate consistent capture, classification and reporting of OHSS within and across clinical trials. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY OHSS is a potentially life-threatening iatrogenic complication of the early luteal phase and/or early pregnancy after ovulation induction (OI) or ovarian stimulation (OS). The clinical picture of OHSS (the constellation of symptoms associated with each stage of the disease) is highly variable, hampering its appropriate classification in clinical trials. Although some degree of ovarian hyperstimulation is normal after stimulation, the point at which symptoms transition from those anticipated to those of a disease state is nebulous. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION An OHSS working group, comprised of subject matter experts and clinical researchers who have significantly contributed to the field of fertility, was convened in April and November 2014. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The OHSS working group was tasked with reaching a consensus on the definition and the classification of OHSS for reporting in clinical trials. The group engaged in targeted discussion regarding the scientific background of OHSS, the criteria proposed for the definition and the rationale for universal adoption. An agreement was reached after discussion with all members. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE One of the following conditions must be met prior to making the diagnosis of OHSS in the context of a clinical trial: (i) the subject has undergone OS (either controlled OS or OI) AND has received a trigger shot for final oocyte maturation (e.g. hCG, GnRH agonist [GnRHa] or kisspeptin) followed by either fresh transfer or segmentation (cryopreservation of embryos) or (ii) the subject has undergone OS or OI AND has a positive pregnancy test. All study patients who develop symptoms of OHSS should undergo a thorough examination. An OHSS flow diagram was designed to be implemented for all subjects with pelvic or abdominal complaints, such as lower abdominal discomfort or distention, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, and/or for subjects suspected of having OHSS. The diagnosis of OHSS should be based on the flow diagram. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This classification system is primarily intended to address the needs of the clinical investigator undertaking clinical trials in the field of OS and may not be applicable for the use in clinical practice or with OHSS occurring under natural circumstances. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The proposed OHSS classification system will enable an accurate estimate of the incidence and severity of OHSS within and across clinical trials performed in women with infertility. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS Financial support for the advisory group meetings was provided by Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. P.H. reports unrestricted research grants from MSD, Merck and Ferring, and honoraria for lectures from MSD, Merck and IBSA. S.M.N. reports that he has received fees and grant support from the following companies (in alphabetic order): Beckman Coulter, Besins, EMD Serono, Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Finox, MSD and Roche Diagnostics over the previous 5 years. P.D., C.C.C., J.L.F., H.M.F., and P.L. report no relationships that present a potential conflict of interest. B.C.T. reports: grants and honorarium from Merck Serono; unrestricted research grants, travel grants and honorarium, and participation in a company-sponsored speaker's bureau from Merck Sharp & Dohme; grants, travel grants, honoraria and advisory board membership from IBSA; travel grants from Ferring; and advisory board membership from Ovascience. L.B.S. reports current employment with Merck & Co, Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, and owns stock in the company. K.G. and B.J.S. report prior employment with Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, and own stock in the company. All reported that competing interests are outside the submitted work. No other relationships or activities exist that could appear to have influenced the submitted work

    Molecular and behavioral mechanisms mediating paclitaxel-induced changes in affect-like behavior in mice

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    The antineoplastic paclitaxel is associated with negative affective outcomes, such as depression, anxiety, and decreased quality of life during treatment and convalescence. With the Baby Boomer population approaching peak cancer age, it is dire that the mechanisms behind paclitaxel-induced changes in mood are uncovered. Cancer-free male and female C57BL/6J mice were treated with one set of four injections of vehicle or paclitaxel (32mg/kg cumulative), or two sets of four injections of vehicle or paclitaxel (64mg/kg cumulative), and periodically assessed for depression-like behaviors. Paclitaxel caused significant, time-dependent deficits in sucrose preference and operant responding for palatable food. Because there is growing evidence to support the role of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in stress-mediated depression and reward dysfunction, we investigated KOR signaling as a putative mechanism of paclitaxel-induced depression-like behaviors. The selective KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI) reversed paclitaxel-induced attenuation of sucrose preference. At the molecular level, paclitaxel time-dependently induced an increase in the expression of Prodynorphin mRNA, the precursor for endogenous KOR agonists, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Using the [35S]GTPÎłS assay, we discovered that a history of paclitaxel time-dependently attenuated activation of dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) and KORs in the NAc but not caudate putamen. These data suggest that paclitaxel-induced changes in affect-like behavior may be due to time- and region-dependent dysregulation of KOR and D2R signaling. These observations help to establish the roles of KOR and D2R systems in paclitaxel-induced disruption of behavioral reward, thus revealing potential neurochemical targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer survivors with treatment-resistant depression.https://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/gradposters/1038/thumbnail.jp

    The role of endothelin-1 in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare but debilitating disease, which if left untreated rapidly progresses to right ventricular failure and eventually death. In the quest to understand the pathogenesis of this disease differences in the profile, expression and action of vasoactive substances released by the endothelium have been identified in patients with PAH. Of these, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is of particular interest since it is known to be an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor and also involved in vascular remodelling. Identification of ET-1 as a target for pharmacological intervention has lead to the discovery of a number of compounds that can block the receptors via which ET-1 mediates its effects. This review sets out the evidence in support of a role for ET-1 in the onset and progression of the disease and reviews the data from the various clinical trials of ET-1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of PAH

    SAT-Based Synthesis Methods for Safety Specs

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    Automatic synthesis of hardware components from declarative specifications is an ambitious endeavor in computer aided design. Existing synthesis algorithms are often implemented with Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs), inheriting their scalability limitations. Instead of BDDs, we propose several new methods to synthesize finite-state systems from safety specifications using decision procedures for the satisfiability of quantified and unquantified Boolean formulas (SAT-, QBF- and EPR-solvers). The presented approaches are based on computational learning, templates, or reduction to first-order logic. We also present an efficient parallelization, and optimizations to utilize reachability information and incremental solving. Finally, we compare all methods in an extensive case study. Our new methods outperform BDDs and other existing work on some classes of benchmarks, and our parallelization achieves a super-linear speedup. This is an extended version of [5], featuring an additional appendix.Comment: Extended version of a paper at VMCAI'1

    Lipopolysaccharide as trigger of platelet aggregation via eicosanoid over-production

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    The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on platelet aggregation is still controversial. We performed in vitro and ex vivo studies in controls and in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to assess the effect of LPS on platelet activation (PA). LPS (15-100 pg/ml) significantly increased PA only if combined with sub-threshold concentrations (STC) of collagen or ADP; this effect was associated with increased platelet H2O2 production, Nox2 activation, PLA2 phosphorylation, thromboxane (Tx)A2 and 8-iso-PGF2α-III, and was inhibited by aspirin, TxA2 receptor antagonist or by Toll-like receptor 4 blocking peptide (TLR4bp). Analysis of up-stream signalling potentially responsible for Nox2 and PLA2 activation demonstrated that LPS-mediated PA was associated with phosphorylation of AKT, p38 and p47phox translocation. In 10 consecutive CAP patients serum endotoxins were significantly higher compared to 10 controls (145 [115-187] vs 18 [6-21] pg/ml; p<0.01). Ex vivo study showed that agonist-stimulated platelets were associated with enhanced PA (p<0.01), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression (p<0.05), thromboxane (Tx)A2 (p<0.01) and 8-iso-PGF2α-III (p<0.01) production in CAP patients compared to controls. The study provides evidence that LPS amplifies the platelet response to common agonists via TLR4-mediated eicosanoid production and suggests LPS as a potential trigger for PA in CAP

    Transcriptional regulation of prostate kallikrein-like genes by androgen.

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    Using gene-specific synthetic oligonucleotides the expression and regulation of kallikrein-like genes in the human prostatic cancer cell line LNCaP were studied. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and human glandular kallikrein (hGK-1) together constitute a subfamily of serine proteases exclusively produced in the human prostate. RNA analysis revealed that both genes are expressed in LNCaP cells with PSA basal levels being 2-fold higher than hGK-1 levels. Both mRNAs are induced over a period of 24 h in the presence of 3.3 nM of the synthetic androgen mibolerone. Stimulation of PSA RNA is about 5- fold,whereas hGK-1 stimulation is less pronounced. Nuclear run-on analysis revealed that androgen induction of kallikrein-like genes in LNCaP cells is a rapid event (c3 h) occurring at the level of transcription initiation. Treatment of cells with cycloheximide demonstrates that, while PSA/hGK-1 basal transcription strictly depends on continuous protein synthesis, transcriptional induction by androgen does not. This suggests the direct involvement of the androgen receptor in the induction process independent of additional labile protein factors necessary for kallikrein basal transcription. A binding motif is present in the PSA and hGK-1 promoters, closely resembling the consensus sequence for steroidresponsive elements. The androgen antagonist cyproterone acetate was also able to stimulate transcription of kallikrein-like genes in LNCaP cells. In contrast, androgen-dependent transcriptional suppression of the protooncogene c-myc was strongly counteracted by cyproterone acetate. Thus, antiandrogens act differentially on androgen-regulated prostate-specific (PSA, hGK-1) and growthrelated (c-myc) gene expression in LNCaP cells

    Dose-Dependent Enhancement of Morphine-Induced Analgesia\ud by Ingestion of Amniotic Fluid and Placenta

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    Ingestion of amniotic fluid and placenta by rats has been shown to enhance opioid-mediated analgesia. The present studies were designed to examine the effect of several doses and volumes of placenta and amniotic fluid on tail-flick latency in rats treated with 3 mg/kg morphine. The optimal dose of amniotic fluid was found to be 0.25 ml, although 0.50 and 1.0 ml also produced significant enhancement. Doses of 0.125 and 2 ml of amniotic fluid were ineffective, as was a dose of 0.25 ml diluted to 2 ml with saline. The optimal dose of placenta was found to be 1 placenta, although the resulting enhancement was not significantly greater than that produced by 0.25, 0.50, 2.0 or 4.0 placentas. Doses smaller than 0.25 placenta or larger than 4.0 placentas were ineffective. The most effective doses of amniotic fluid and placenta correspond to the amounts delivered with each pup during parturition

    Full genome sequence and sfRNA interferon antagonist activity of Zika virus from Recife, Brazil

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    Background: The outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has transformed a previously obscure mosquito-transmitted arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family into a major public health concern. Little is currently known about the evolution and biology of ZIKV and the factors that contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Determining genomic sequences of clinical viral isolates and characterization of elements within these are an important prerequisite to advance our understanding of viral replicative processes and virus-host interactions. Methodology/Principal findings: We obtained a ZIKV isolate from a patient who presented with classical ZIKV-associated symptoms, and used high throughput sequencing and other molecular biology approaches to determine its full genome sequence, including non-coding regions. Genome regions were characterized and compared to the sequences of other isolates where available. Furthermore, we identified a subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in ZIKV-infected cells that has antagonist activity against RIG-I induced type I interferon induction, with a lesser effect on MDA-5 mediated action. Conclusions/Significance: The full-length genome sequence including non-coding regions of a South American ZIKV isolate from a patient with classical symptoms will support efforts to develop genetic tools for this virus. Detection of sfRNA that counteracts interferon responses is likely to be important for further understanding of pathogenesis and virus-host interactions
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