14,762 research outputs found

    Molecular and behavioral mechanisms mediating paclitaxel-induced changes in affect-like behavior in mice

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    The antineoplastic paclitaxel is associated with negative affective outcomes, such as depression, anxiety, and decreased quality of life during treatment and convalescence. With the Baby Boomer population approaching peak cancer age, it is dire that the mechanisms behind paclitaxel-induced changes in mood are uncovered. Cancer-free male and female C57BL/6J mice were treated with one set of four injections of vehicle or paclitaxel (32mg/kg cumulative), or two sets of four injections of vehicle or paclitaxel (64mg/kg cumulative), and periodically assessed for depression-like behaviors. Paclitaxel caused significant, time-dependent deficits in sucrose preference and operant responding for palatable food. Because there is growing evidence to support the role of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in stress-mediated depression and reward dysfunction, we investigated KOR signaling as a putative mechanism of paclitaxel-induced depression-like behaviors. The selective KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI) reversed paclitaxel-induced attenuation of sucrose preference. At the molecular level, paclitaxel time-dependently induced an increase in the expression of Prodynorphin mRNA, the precursor for endogenous KOR agonists, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Using the [35S]GTPγS assay, we discovered that a history of paclitaxel time-dependently attenuated activation of dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) and KORs in the NAc but not caudate putamen. These data suggest that paclitaxel-induced changes in affect-like behavior may be due to time- and region-dependent dysregulation of KOR and D2R signaling. These observations help to establish the roles of KOR and D2R systems in paclitaxel-induced disruption of behavioral reward, thus revealing potential neurochemical targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer survivors with treatment-resistant depression.https://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/gradposters/1038/thumbnail.jp

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: review and new classification criteria for reporting in clinical trials

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    STUDY QUESTION What is an objective approach that employs measurable and reproducible physiologic changes as the basis for the classification of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in order to facilitate more accurate reporting of incidence rates within and across clinical trials? SUMMARY ANSWER The OHSS flow diagram is an objective approach that will facilitate consistent capture, classification and reporting of OHSS within and across clinical trials. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY OHSS is a potentially life-threatening iatrogenic complication of the early luteal phase and/or early pregnancy after ovulation induction (OI) or ovarian stimulation (OS). The clinical picture of OHSS (the constellation of symptoms associated with each stage of the disease) is highly variable, hampering its appropriate classification in clinical trials. Although some degree of ovarian hyperstimulation is normal after stimulation, the point at which symptoms transition from those anticipated to those of a disease state is nebulous. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION An OHSS working group, comprised of subject matter experts and clinical researchers who have significantly contributed to the field of fertility, was convened in April and November 2014. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The OHSS working group was tasked with reaching a consensus on the definition and the classification of OHSS for reporting in clinical trials. The group engaged in targeted discussion regarding the scientific background of OHSS, the criteria proposed for the definition and the rationale for universal adoption. An agreement was reached after discussion with all members. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE One of the following conditions must be met prior to making the diagnosis of OHSS in the context of a clinical trial: (i) the subject has undergone OS (either controlled OS or OI) AND has received a trigger shot for final oocyte maturation (e.g. hCG, GnRH agonist [GnRHa] or kisspeptin) followed by either fresh transfer or segmentation (cryopreservation of embryos) or (ii) the subject has undergone OS or OI AND has a positive pregnancy test. All study patients who develop symptoms of OHSS should undergo a thorough examination. An OHSS flow diagram was designed to be implemented for all subjects with pelvic or abdominal complaints, such as lower abdominal discomfort or distention, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, and/or for subjects suspected of having OHSS. The diagnosis of OHSS should be based on the flow diagram. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This classification system is primarily intended to address the needs of the clinical investigator undertaking clinical trials in the field of OS and may not be applicable for the use in clinical practice or with OHSS occurring under natural circumstances. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The proposed OHSS classification system will enable an accurate estimate of the incidence and severity of OHSS within and across clinical trials performed in women with infertility. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS Financial support for the advisory group meetings was provided by Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. P.H. reports unrestricted research grants from MSD, Merck and Ferring, and honoraria for lectures from MSD, Merck and IBSA. S.M.N. reports that he has received fees and grant support from the following companies (in alphabetic order): Beckman Coulter, Besins, EMD Serono, Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Finox, MSD and Roche Diagnostics over the previous 5 years. P.D., C.C.C., J.L.F., H.M.F., and P.L. report no relationships that present a potential conflict of interest. B.C.T. reports: grants and honorarium from Merck Serono; unrestricted research grants, travel grants and honorarium, and participation in a company-sponsored speaker's bureau from Merck Sharp & Dohme; grants, travel grants, honoraria and advisory board membership from IBSA; travel grants from Ferring; and advisory board membership from Ovascience. L.B.S. reports current employment with Merck & Co, Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, and owns stock in the company. K.G. and B.J.S. report prior employment with Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, and own stock in the company. All reported that competing interests are outside the submitted work. No other relationships or activities exist that could appear to have influenced the submitted work

    Differential expression of skeletal muscle genes following administration of clenbuterol to exercised horses.

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    BackgroundClenbuterol, a beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is used therapeutically to treat respiratory conditions in the horse. However, by virtue of its mechanism of action it has been suggested that clenbuterol may also have repartitioning affects in horses and as such the potential to affect performance. Clenbuterol decreases the percent fat and increases fat-free mass following high dose administration in combination with intense exercise in horses. In the current study, microarray analysis and real-time PCR were used to study the temporal effects of low and high dose chronic clenbuterol administration on differential gene expression of several skeletal muscle myosin heavy chains, genes involved in lipid metabolism and the β2-adrenergic receptor. The effect of clenbuterol administration on differential gene expression has not been previously reported in the horse, therefore the primary objective of the current study was to describe clenbuterol-induced temporal changes in gene expression following chronic oral administration of clenbuterol at both high and low doses.ResultsSteady state clenbuterol concentrations were achieved at approximately 50 h post administration of the first dose for the low dose regimen and at approximately 18-19 days (10 days post administration of 3.2 μg/kg) for the escalating dosing regimen. Following chronic administration of the low dose (0.8 μg/kg BID) of clenbuterol, a total of 114 genes were differentially expressed, however, none of these changes were found to be significant following FDR adjustment of the p-values. A total of 7,093 genes were differentially expressed with 3,623 genes up regulated and 3,470 genes down regulated following chronic high dose administration. Of the genes selected for further study by real-time PCR, down-regulation of genes encoding myosin heavy chains 2 and 7, steroyl CoA desaturase and the β2-adrenergic receptor were noted. For most genes, expression levels returned towards baseline levels following cessation of drug administration.ConclusionThis study showed no evidence of modified gene expression following chronic low dose administration of clenbuterol to horses. However, following chronic administration of high doses of clenbuterol alterations were noted in transcripts encoding various myosin heavy chains, lipid metabolizing enzymes and the β2-adrenergic receptor

    Development of indole sulfonamides as cannabinoid receptor negative allosteric modulators

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    This Letter was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Scottish Universities Life Sciences Alliance (SULSA) in 2011Peer reviewedPostprin

    Structure-activity relationships based on 3D-QSAR CoMFA/CoMSIA and design of aryloxypropanol-amine agonists with selectivity for the human β3-adrenergic receptor and anti-obesity and anti-diabetic profiles

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    Indexación: Scopus.Acknowledgments: This work was supported by FONDECYT No. 11130701. We would also like to thank fDoTr CthLeafbr efeora vthaeil afrbeilei tayvoafiltahbeilsitoyf towfa trheer seoqfutwireadret orecqaulciureladt etothcealAcuDla(thet ttph:e/ A/dDt c(lhatbt.pw:/e/dbstc.cloabm.w/seobfst.wcoamre/-stoofotlws aarned-tools and http://teqip.jdvu.ac.in/QSAR_Tools/). SDG. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.The wide tissue distribution of the adrenergic β3 receptor makes it a potential target for the treatment of multiple pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, depression, overactive bladder (OAB), and cancer. Currently, there is only one drug on the market, mirabegron, approved for the treatment of OAB. In the present study, we have carried out an extensive structure-activity relationship analysis of a series of 41 aryloxypropanolamine compounds based on three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) techniques. This is the first combined comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) study in a series of selective aryloxypropanolamines displaying anti-diabetes and anti-obesity pharmacological profiles. The best CoMFA and CoMSIA models presented values of r2 ncv = 0.993 and 0.984 and values of r2 test = 0.865 and 0.918, respectively. The results obtained were subjected to extensive external validation (q2, r2, r2 m, etc.) and a final series of compounds was designed and their biological activity was predicted (best pEC50 = 8.561). © 2018 by the authors.https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/5/119

    Effects of keratin filaments on ERK signaling during Fas-induced death of cervical cancer (HeLa) cells

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    Survival of cancer cells is influenced by a variety of factors, including physical elements such as keratin filaments. We know HeLa cells containing or lacking keratin 8/18 intermediate filaments (K+ and K- cells, respectively) are more sensitive to the death-inducing effects of Fas agonist compared to the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. Additionally, K- cells are more sensitive to Fas-induced death than K+ as shown by previous studies using mitochondrial activity and caspase activation assays. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that keratin filaments associate with the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade to protect cells from Fas-induced death. To do this, K+ and K- cells were exposed to Fas agonist in the absence or presence of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) (known to stimulate MAPK) and then downstream phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) was measured. Fas agonist reduced pERK expression in both cell types (~32% less pERK compared to non-EGF-treated controls, n= 3 expts.). Conversely, EGF (50ng/ml) reversed this outcome, but again did so equally in K+ and K- cells. Intriguingly, K- cells were more responsive to EGF stimulation alone than K+ cells, regardless of EGF dose (pERK ~27% higher in K- than K+ cells, n= 3 expts.). The results suggest keratin 8/18 filaments do associate with the MAPK cascade to influence cell survival. Supported by the Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research (AB) and the COLSA Karabelas Fund (DHT)

    Lipopolysaccharide as trigger of platelet aggregation via eicosanoid over-production

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    The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on platelet aggregation is still controversial. We performed in vitro and ex vivo studies in controls and in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to assess the effect of LPS on platelet activation (PA). LPS (15-100 pg/ml) significantly increased PA only if combined with sub-threshold concentrations (STC) of collagen or ADP; this effect was associated with increased platelet H2O2 production, Nox2 activation, PLA2 phosphorylation, thromboxane (Tx)A2 and 8-iso-PGF2α-III, and was inhibited by aspirin, TxA2 receptor antagonist or by Toll-like receptor 4 blocking peptide (TLR4bp). Analysis of up-stream signalling potentially responsible for Nox2 and PLA2 activation demonstrated that LPS-mediated PA was associated with phosphorylation of AKT, p38 and p47phox translocation. In 10 consecutive CAP patients serum endotoxins were significantly higher compared to 10 controls (145 [115-187] vs 18 [6-21] pg/ml; p<0.01). Ex vivo study showed that agonist-stimulated platelets were associated with enhanced PA (p<0.01), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression (p<0.05), thromboxane (Tx)A2 (p<0.01) and 8-iso-PGF2α-III (p<0.01) production in CAP patients compared to controls. The study provides evidence that LPS amplifies the platelet response to common agonists via TLR4-mediated eicosanoid production and suggests LPS as a potential trigger for PA in CAP
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