229,654 research outputs found

    Validity of ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes used to identify acute liver injury: a study in three European data sources

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    This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Forns, J. [et al.]. Validity of ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes used to identify acute liver injury: a study in three European data sources. "Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety", 6 Juny 2019, vol. 28, núm. 7, p. 965-975, which has been published in final form at 10.1002/pds.4803. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving."Purpose Validating cases of acute liver injury (ALI) in health care data sources is challenging. Previous validation studies reported low positive predictive values (PPVs). Methods Case validation was undertaken in a study conducted from 2009 to 2014 assessing the risk of ALI in antidepressants users in databases in Spain (EpiChron and SIDIAP) and the Danish National Health Registers. Three ALI definitions were evaluated: primary (specific hospital discharge codes), secondary (specific and nonspecific hospital discharge codes), and tertiary (specific and nonspecific hospital and outpatient codes). The validation included review of patient profiles (EpiChron and SIDIAP) and of clinical data from medical records (EpiChron and Denmark). ALI cases were confirmed when liver enzyme values met a definition by an international working group. Results Overall PPVs (95% CIs) for the study ALI definitions were, for the primary ALI definition, 84% (60%-97%) (EpiChron), 60% (26%-88%) (SIDIAP), and 74% (60%-85%) (Denmark); for the secondary ALI definition, 65% (45%-81%) (EpiChron), 40% (19%-64%) (SIDIAP), and 70% (64%-77%) (Denmark); and for the tertiary ALI definition, 25% (18%-34%) (EpiChron), 8% (7%-9%) (SIDIAP), and 47% (42%-52%) (Denmark). The overall PPVs were higher for specific than for nonspecific codes and for hospital discharge than for outpatient codes. The nonspecific code “unspecified jaundice” had high PPVs in Denmark. Conclusions PPVs obtained apply to patients using antidepressants without preexisting liver disease or ALI risk factors. To maximize validity, studies on ALI should prioritize hospital specific discharge codes and should include hospital codes for unspecified jaundice. Case validation is required when ALI outpatient cases are considered.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Pain Response after Maximal Aerobic Exercise in Adolescents across Weight Status

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    Introduction Pain reports are greater with increasing weight status, and exercise can reduce pain perception. It is unknown, however, whether exercise can relieve pain in adolescents of varying weight status. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adolescents across weight status report pain relief after high-intensity aerobic exercise (exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH)). Methods Sixty-two adolescents (15.1 ± 1.8 yr, 29 males) participated in the following three sessions: 1) pressure pain thresholds (PPT) before and after quiet rest, clinical pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire), and physical activity levels (self-report and ActiSleep Plus Monitors) were measured, 2) PPT were measured with a computerized algometer at the fourth finger’s nailbed, middle deltoid muscle, and quadriceps muscle before and after maximal oxygen uptake test (V˙O2max Bruce Treadmill Protocol), and 3) body composition was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results All adolescents met criteria for V˙O2max. On the basis of body mass index z-score, adolescents were categorized as having normal weight (n = 33) or being overweight/obese (n = 29). PPT increased after exercise (EIH) and were unchanged with quiet rest (trial × session, P = 0.02). EIH was similar across the three sites and between normal-weight and overweight/obese adolescents. Physical activity and clinical pain were not correlated with EIH. Overweight/obese adolescents had similar absolute V˙O2max (L·min−1) but lower relative V˙O2max (mL·kg−1·min−1) compared with normal-weight adolescents. When adolescents were categorized using FitnessGram standards as unfit (n = 15) and fit (n = 46), the EIH response was similar between fitness levels. Conclusions This study is the first to establish that both overweight and normal-weight adolescents experience EIH. EIH after high-intensity aerobic exercise was robust in adolescents regardless of weight status and not influenced by physical fitness

    Joint effect of physical activity and sedentary behaviour on cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean adults

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    Background: To investigate the associations between combined categories of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) with markers of adiposity and cardiovascular risk in adults. Methods: Overall, 5040 participants (mean age 46.4 years and 59.3% women) from the cross-sectional Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010 were included in this study. MVPA and SB were measured using the Global Physical Activity questionnaire. Four categories were computed using MVPA- and SB-specific cut-offs (‘High-SB & Active’, ‘Low-SB & Active’, ‘High-SB & Inactive’ and ‘Low-SB & Inactive’). Results: Compared to the reference group (‘High-SB & Inactive’), those in ‘High-SB & Active’ and ‘Low-SB & Active’ were less likely to have an obese BMI (OR: 0.67 [0.54; 0.85], P = 0.0001 and 0.74 [0.59; 0.92] P = 0.0007, respectively) and less likely to have metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.63 [0.49; 0.82], P < 0.0001 and 0.72 [0.57; 0.91], P = 0.007), central obesity (OR: 0.79 [0.65; 0.96], P = 0.016 and 0.71 [0.59; 0.84], P < 0.0001), diabetes (OR: 0.45 [0.35; 0.59], P < 0.0001 and 0.44 [0.34; 0.56], P < 0.0001) and hypertension (OR: 0.52 [0.43; 0.63], P < 0.0001 and 0.60 [0.50; 0.72], P < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions: Being physically active and spending less time in SBs was associated with lower adiposity and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors

    Patterns of Dental Service Utilization Following Nontraumatic Dental Condition Visits to the Emergency Department in Wisconsin Medicaid

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    Objectives: To examine patterns of dental service utilization for adult Medicaid enrollees in Wisconsin following nontraumatic dental condition (NTDC) visits to the emergency department (ED). Methods: This is a retrospective, observational study of claims for NTDC visits to the ED and dental service encounters from the Wisconsin Medicaid Evaluation and Decision Support database (2001-2009). We used competing risk models to predict probabilities of returning to the ED versus obtaining follow-up care from a dentist. Results: We observed a 43 percent increase in the rate of NTDC visits to the ED, with most of this increase occurring from 2001 to 2005. Within 30 days of an NTDC visit to the ED, ∼29.6 percent of enrollees will first visit a dentist office, while ∼9.9 percent will return to the ED. Young to middle-aged adults (18 toyears) and enrollees living in counties with a lower supply of dental providers were more likely to return to the ED following a NTDC visit. Among the enrollees that first visited a dental office following an ED visit, 37.6 percent had an extraction performed at this visit. Conclusions: Almost one in five adult Medicaid enrollees will subsequently return to the ED following a previous NTDC visit. The provision of definitive care for these individuals appears to primarily consist of extractions

    Who Is Caring for the Caregiver? The Role of Cybercoping for Dementia Caregivers

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    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between dementia caregivers’ communication behaviors (information seeking and forwarding) and their outcomes (coping outcomes: e.g., dealing better with negative feelings or improved medical outcomes). A survey data set of dementia patients’ caregivers substantiates the effects of communication behaviors about dementia illness on coping outcomes, as well as the mediating role of emotion-focused and problem-focused coping processes. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), this study found positive effects of communication behaviors on outcomes through coping processes. Further, the results indicate that communication behaviors in cyberspace are crucial for caregivers to cope with dementia, both affectively (improvement of caregivers’ emotional control) and physically (health improvement of patients). The implications for the improvement of public health through online health communication behaviors are discussed

    Spectrum of topics for world congresses and other activities of the International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) : a first proposal

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    Background: One of the objectives of the International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine is to improve the continuity of World Congresses. This requires the development of an abstract topic list for use in congress announcements and abstract submissions. Methods: An abstract topic list was developed on the basis of the definitions of human functioning and rehabilitation research, which define 5 main areas of research (biosciences in rehabilitation, biomedical rehabilitation sciences and engineering, clinical Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) sciences, integrative rehabilitation sciences, and human functioning sciences). For the abstract topic list, these research areas were grouped according to the proposals of congress streams. In a second step, the first version of the list was systematically compared with the topics of the 2003 ISPRM World Congress. Results: The resulting comprehensive abstract topic list contains 5 chapters according to the definition of human functioning and rehabilitation research. Due to the high significance of clinical research, clinical PRM sciences were placed at the top of the list, comprising all relevant health conditions treated in PRM services. For congress announcements a short topic list was derived. Discussion: The ISPRM topic list is sustainable and covers a full range of topics. It may be useful for congresses and elsewhere in structuring research in PRM

    Developmental Considerations and Acculturation of Children: Measures and Issues

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    This article presents the secondary validation of the Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (Brief ARSMA-II) for use with children—carried out using two samples of Mexican-descent children (ages = 9-11) from two states ( N = 295). The Brief ARSMA-II was originally normed on adolescents and adults but has been validated and used with children. Ethnic identity development perspectives suggest that the interpretation of scores derived from acculturation measures normed on adolescents and adults may not extend accurately to children. Convergent validity and differential discrimination between groups were examined using scores on the Brief ARSMA-II; scores on an acculturation measure designed for the present study, the Things About Me (TAM); and traditional proxy measures of acculturation. Results from this study do not support the use of the Brief ARSMA-II with children. The importance of considering contextual effects in the interpretation of scores of children\u27s acculturation experience is discussed

    Coping With Discrimination Among Mexican Descent Adolescents

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    The current research is designed to explore the relationship among discrimination stress, coping strategies, and self-esteem among Mexican descent youth (N = 73, age 11-15 years). Results suggest that primary control engagement and disengagement coping strategies are positively associated with discrimination stress. Furthermore, self-esteem is predicted by an interaction of primary control engagement coping and discrimination stress, such that at higher levels of discrimination stress, youth who engaged in more primary control engagement coping reported higher self-esteem. The authors’ findings indicate that Mexican descent youth are actively finding ways to cope with the common experience of negative stereotypes and prejudice, such that their self-esteem is protected from the stressful impact of discrimination and prejudice. Implications of these findings for Latino/a youth resilience are discussed
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