114 research outputs found

    Parámetros genéticos de los caracteres morfológicos lineales de la raza caprina murciano-granadina y sus relaciones con otros caracteres funcionales

    Get PDF
    Linear appraisal systems (LAS) are effective strategies for systematically collecting zoometric information from animal populations. Traditionally applied LAS in goats was developed considering the variability and scales found in highly selected breeds. Implementing LAS may reduce time, personnel, and resource needs when performing zoometric large-scale collection. Moreover, selection for zoometrics defines individuals’ productive longevity, endurance, enhanced productive abilities, and consequently, long-term profitability. As a result, traditional LAS may no longer cover the different contexts of goat breeds widespread throughout the world, and departures from normality may be indicative of the different stages of selection at which a certain population can be found. In the first study, an evaluation of the distribution and symmetry properties of twenty-eight zoometric traits was developed. After symmetry analysis was performed, the scale readjustment proposal suggested specific strategies should be implemented such as scale reduction of lower or upper levels, determination of a setup moment to evaluate and collect information from young (up to 2 years) and adult bucks (over 2 years), the addition of upper categories in males due to upper values in the scale being incorrectly clustered together. Thus, the particular analysis of each variable permits determining specific strategies for each trait and serve as a model for other breeds, either selected or in terms of selection. The aim of the second study was to propose a method to optimize and validate LAS in opposition to traditional measuring protocols routinely implemented in Murciano-Granadina goats. The data sample consisted of 41323 LAS and traditional measuring records, belonging to 22727 herdbook registered primipara does, 17111 multipara does, and 1485 bucks. Each record comprised information on 17 linear traits for primipara and multipara does, and 10 traits for bucks. All zoometric parameters were scored on a 9-points scale. Cronbach’s alpha values suggested a high internal consistency of the optimized variable panel. Model fit, variability explanation power, and predictive power (MSE, AIC/AICc, and BIC, respectively) suggested a model comprising zoometric LAS scores performed better than traditional zoometry. Optimization procedures result in reduced models able to capture variability for dairy-related zoometric traits without noticeable detrimental effects on model validity properties. The third study aimed to perform a particular analysis of each variable that permits determining specific strategies for each trait and serves as a model for other breeds. Among the strategies proposed are the reduction/readjustment of the levels in the scale as it happens for limb-related traits, the extension of the scale as it occurs in the stature of males, or the subdivision of the scale used in males into two categories, bucks younger than two years and bucks of two years old and older. Murciano- Granadina goat breed has drifted towards better dairy-linked conformation traits but without losing the grounds of the zoometric basis which confers it with enhanced adaptability to the environment. Hence, such strategies can help to achieve a better understanding of the momentum of selection for dairy-linked zoometric traits in Murciano-Granadina population and their future evolution to enhance the profitability and efficiency of breeding plans. The objective of the fourth study was to evaluate the progress of heritabilities of the traits comprising the linear appraisal system in the Murciano-Granadina breed during the complete decade from December 2011 to December 2021. The estimated values for heritability were obtained from multivariate analyzes using the BLUP methodology and MTDFREML software. For 2021 heritabilities, a simple animal model was applied to records collected from 22727 primiparous goats and 17111 multiparous goats belonging to 85 herds. The model included the linear and quadratic and linear components of the covariates age and days in milk, respectively. The fixed effects considered in the model were herd, reproductive status, calving month, and herd/year interaction. The animal was considered as a random effect. The variables studied included five characteristics related to structure and capacity, two traits related to dairy structure, six related to the mammary system, and three related to legs and feet. The heritabilities for structure and capacity characters progressed from 0.22 to 0.28 including non-convergent variables in June 2012 to values between 0.10 and 0.41 with all variables converging in June 2021. Heritabilities for dairy structure progressed from 0.18 with nonconvergent variables in 2011 to 0.17 to 0.25 in 2021. Heritabilities for mammary system traits progressed from 0.12 to 0, 27 with non-convergent variables in 2012 to between 0.10 and 0.41 in 2021. For legs and feet, heritabilities progressed from 0.16 to 0.17 with non-convergent variables to 0.09 a 0.22. Genetic progress is not only evident in heritability values, but there has been a notable reduction in the standard error of heritabilities from 0.1000 (0.080-0.120) to 0.000 (0.000-0.001) from 2011 to 2021. These results provide evidence of the enhancement in the effectiveness and precision of the linear qualification system applied during the past decade and its successful integration into the breeding program of the Murciano- Granadina breed. The fifth study estimates genetic and phenotypic parameters for zoometric/LAS traits in Murciano-Granadina goats, estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among all traits, and to determine whether major area selection would be appropriate or if adaptability strategies may need to be followed. Heritability estimates for the zoometric/LAS traits were low to high, ranging from 0.09 to 0.43 and the accuracy of estimation has improved after decades rendering standard errors negligible. Scale inversion of specific traits may need to be performed before major areas selection strategies are implemented. Genetic and phenotypic correlations suggest that negative selection against thicker bones and higher rear insertion heights, indirectly results in the optimization of selection practices in the rest of the traits, especially of those in the structure and capacity and mammary system major areas. The integration and implementation of the strategies proposed within Murciano-Granadina breeding program maximize selection opportunities and the sustainable international competitiveness of the Murciano- Granadina goat in the dairy goat breed panorama. The objective of the sixth study was to develop a discriminant canonical analysis (DCA) tool that permits outlining the role of the individual haplotypes of each component of the casein complex (αS1, β, αS2, and κ-casein) on zoometrics/linear appraisal breeding values. The relationship of the predicted breeding value for 17 zoometric/Linear appraisal traits and αS1, β, αS2, and κ-casein genes haplotypic sequences was assessed. Results suggest that, although a lack of significant differences (P>0.05) was reported across the predictive breeding values of zoometric/linear appraisal traits for αS1, αS2 and κ casein, significant differences were found for β Casein (P0,05) en los valores de cría predichos de los rasgos de zoometría/calificación lineal para la αS1, αS2 y κ-caseína, se encontraron diferencias significativas para la β-caseína (P<0,05), respectivamente. La presencia de secuencias haplotípicas de β-caseína GAGACCCC, GGAACCCC, GGAACCTC, GGAATCTC, GGGACCCC, GGGATCTC y GGGGCCCC, vinculadas a combinaciones diferenciales de mayores cantidades de leche de mayor calidad en términos de su composición, también puede estar relacionada con una mayor valoración zoométrica/lineal de la predicción de los valores de cría. La selección debe realizarse con cuidado, dado que la consideración de animales aparentemente deseables que presentan la secuencia haplotípica GGGATCCC en el gen de la β- caseína, debido a sus valores genéticos predichos positivos para ciertos rasgos de zoometría/calificación lineal, como la altura de la inserción trasera, la calidad ósea , la inserción anterior, la profundidad de ubre, la vista lateral de patas traseras y la vista trasera de patas traseras pueden conducir a una selección indirecta frente al resto de rasgos de zoometría/calificación lineal y a su vez conducir a una selección ineficiente hacia un tipo morfotipo lechero óptimo en cabras Murciano-Granadina. Por el contrario, la consideración de animales que presentan la secuencia haplotípica GGAACCCC implica también considerar animales que aumentan el potencial genético para todos los rasgos de zoometría/calificación lineal, haciéndolos así recomendables como reproductores. La información derivada de los presentes análisis mejorará la selección de individuos reproductores que busquen un tipo lechero bastante deseable, a través de la determinación de las secuencias haplotípicas que presentan en el locus β-caseína. Todos estos estudios persiguen la obtención de un conocimiento más profundo de los caracteres morfológicos lineales de la raza caprina Murciano-Granadina y sus relaciones con otras características funcionales. Esto sienta las bases para estrategias de normalización y mejora de la capacidad productiva y el morfotipo lechero de la cabra Murciano-Granadina y ayudará a alcanzar su consolidación competitiva en el panorama caprino lechero internacional

    Exploring potential of goat based dairy farming in India and way forward

    Get PDF
    The aim of this review is to highlight the significance of goat milk along with potential and prospects of dairy goat development in the country. India occupies the first position in goat milk production in the world. In the last few years, commercial dairy goat production in India gained momentum due to spread of knowledge about therapeutic, nutraceutical and medicinal benefits of goat milk and its product, and their export potential. India possesses vast caprine resources with 37 goat breeds distributed in different bio-climates with varied nutritive value, however, some goat breeds native to north and north-western region namely Beetal, Jamunapari, Jakhrana, Surti and Zalawadi are considered as Indian dairy breed with 150 to 500 litre milk yields. The reported milk yield of Indian dairy goat is far below their potential, since they are primarily raised for mutton and also due to energy-deficient diet. Attempts so far made were scarce and limited for milk improvement of dairy goats and in creating infrastructure for goat milk processing and marketing. Use of potential sire/semen and infrastructural support for a secured market for goat milk and products is necessary to enhance dairy goat productivity and profitability. To cater the demand for goat milk in southern, eastern and hilly regions, suitable dairy breeds need to be developed along with increasing the genetic potential of existing breeds. Development of the goat dairy sector will require focused efforts to encourage entrepreneurship to set as many as possible commercial dairy farms by involving private sector through appropriate policy support and incentives

    Impact of heat stress on dairy cattle and selection strategies for thermotolerance: a review

    Get PDF
    Climate change is a problem that causes many environmental issues that impact the productivity of livestock species. One of the major issues associated with climate change is an increase of the frequency of hot days and heat waves, which increases the risk of heat stress for livestock species. Dairy cattle have been identified as being susceptible to heat stress due to their high metabolic heat load. Studies have shown heat stress impacts several biological processes that can result in large economic consequences. When heat stress occurs, dairy cattle employ several physiological and cellular mechanisms in order to dissipate heat and protect cells from damage. These mechanisms require an increase and diversion in energy toward protection and away from other biological processes. Therefore, in turn heat stress in dairy cattle can lead numerous issues including reductions in milk production and reproduction as well as increased risk for disease and mortality. This indicates a need to select dairy cattle that would be thermotolerant. Various selection strategies to confer thermotolerance have been discussed in the literature, including selecting for reduced milk production, crossbreeding with thermotolerant breeds, selecting based on physiological traits and most recently selecting for enhanced immune response. This review discusses the various issues associated with heat stress in dairy cattle and the pros and cons to the various selection strategies that have been proposed to select for thermotolerance in dairy cattle

    PERENCANAAN STRATEGI SISTEM INFORMASI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PELAYANAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE WARD AND PEPPARD DI DUTA SIAK TRAVEL PEKANBARU

    Get PDF
    Perencanaan Strategi adalah sebuah alat manajemen yang digunakan untuk mengelola kondisi saat ini untuk melakukan proyeksi kondisi pada masa depan. Pendekatan metodologi versi Ward and Peppard ini dimulai dari kondisi investasi SI/TI dimasa lalu yang kurang bermanfaat bagi tujuan bisnis organisasi dan menangkap peluang bisnis, serta fenomena meningkatkan keunggulan kompetitif suatu organisasi karena mampu memanfaatkan SI/TI dengan maksimal. Karena kurang bermanfaatnya investasi SI/TI bagi organisasi disebabkan karena perencanaan strategi SI/TI yang lebih fokus ke teknologi, bukan berdasarkan kebutuhan bisnis. Dalam penyusunan kerangka kerja perencanaan strategi sistem informasi menggunakan pendekatan Ward and Peppard dan teknik analisis yang digunakan untuk menganalisis lingkungan bisnis internal yaitu analisis Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT), Value Chain dan Critical Success Factor (CSF). Sedangkan untuk menganalisis lingkungan bisnis eksternal, teknik analisis yang digunakan yaitu analisis Porter’s Five Forces Model PEST. Untuk menganalisis kondisi SI/TI internal menggunakan analisis Mc Farlan Strategic Grid digunakan untuk memetakan portofolio. Sedangkan penelitian untuk menganalisis kondisi SI/TI eksternal menggunakan stren teknologi saat ini. Kata Kunci: Ward and Peppard, SI/TI, Duta Siak Travel, SWOT, CSF, PES

    Effects of Road Transportation on Some Physiological Stress Measures in Anpera and Boerka Goats

    Get PDF
    Transporting livestock is a common practice in agriculture, but it can be a stressful situation for the animals. This stress can lead to physiological responses like live weight loss, changes in blood cortisol levels, and immune suppression. Goats are particularly sensitive to transportation stress and stress-induced diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of road transport on the physiological condition of 33 goats (13 Anpera goats and 20 Boerka goats) transported for 72 hours over approximately ±2.000 km. Live weight loss was determined by comparing the body weights of the goats before and after transportation. We measured psychological responses (heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature), blood parameters (Blood urea nitrogen/BUN, creatinine, glucose), cortisol, and hematological parameters. The results showed that transportation caused an average weight loss of 4.05 kg/head (14.22%). Heart rate decreased by 14.71 x/minute after transport, while respiratory rate and rectal temperature increased by 8.44 x/minute and 0.41 units, respectively. BUN levels increased by approximately 10.92 mg/dL (35%) and glucose levels increased by approximately 30.07 mg/dL (48%). Hematological parameters also showed significant changes, with transportation causing alterations in WBC, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and MCH levels. The study also showed an interaction between the sex and breed of goats on BUN, glucose, MCV, MCH. The comparison between Anpera goats and Boerka showed that transportation had significant influence on heart rate, rectal temperature, cortisol, RBC, haemoglobin, RDW. In conclusion, transportation for 72 hours caused stress on goats, leading to weight loss, changes in psychological behavior, and blood parameters, and the breed and sex of the goats played a crucial role in the observed changes

    On farm evaluation of the effects of Nutritional flushing on Body weight, Body condition score and Reproductive performances of Doyogena ewes in Doyogena District, Southern Ethiopia’

    Get PDF
    On farm evaluation of the effects of Nutritional flushing on Body weight, Body condition score and Reproductive performances of Doyogena ewes in Doyogena District, Southern Ethiopia’’

    Effects of Feeding a Commercial Starch Binding Agent during Heat Stress on Enteric Methane Emission, Rumen Volatile Fatty Acid Contents, and Diet Digestibility of Merino Lambs

    Get PDF
    Twenty-four Merino lambs were allocated to three dietary treatment groups to determine the effects of a dietary starch and protein binding agent and heat stress on methane (CH4) emissions and rumen parameters. The diets were a wheat-based diet (WD), a 2% Bioprotect™ (Bioprotect™, RealisticAgri, Rutland, UK) treated wheat-based diet (BD), and a maize-based diet (MD) for 3 periods of 1-week duration. During Period 1 (P1) the lambs were maintained under thermoneutral conditions and at a 1.7 × Maintenance (M) level. During P2 and P3, the lambs were maintained under cyclic heat stress conditions and fed at 1.7 × M and 2.0 × M, respectively. Total CH4 production was lower for the BD diet than the WD diet, which in turn was lower than the MD diet (p < 0.001). Total CH4 production was lower during P2 than P1 with P3 intermediate (p = 0.04). Rumen total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentrations were higher for the WD diet than the MD diet with the BD diet intermediate (p = 0.01). Rumen TVFA concentrations were lower during heat stress than under thermoneutral conditions (p < 0.001). Whole tract starch digestibility was higher for the BD and WD diets than the MD diet (p < 0.001). In conclusion, feeding Merino lambs the BD diet reduces CH4 emissions without reducing starch digestibility

    Genetic Analysis of The Leptin Gene in Goats Based on GenBank DNA Sequences

    Get PDF
    The Leptin gene is the gene that produces the leptin hormone, which is released from adipose tissue and can increase the productivity of animals. This study aimed to identify polymorphic nucleotides, changes in amino acid components, and species of goats based on GenBank Leptin DNA sequence data. A total of five goat leptin DNA sequences were extracted from NCBI GenBank data. The leptin DNA sequence was aligned with Bioedit to locate SNPs and amino acid changes. The tree produces cultivars grown using Clustal Omega Ver. 1.2.4. Based on the DNA sequencing results of leptin genes in five goats, five SNPs were located in the coding sequence (CDS), SNPs g.17T/A, g.43T/A, g.74G/A, g.93C/A. and d. 386A/G. SNP was a missense mutation and a silent mutation. The analysis of phylogenetic trees of Leptin showed that there were three breeds of goats in one branch and two breeds of goats in different branches. These results provided the first report for further studies on the genetic diversity of leptin genes in different local goat breeds

    HaeIII Polymorphism of Growth Hormone (GH-1) Gene in Some Goat Breeds Reared in Turkey by Using PCR-RFLP Method

    Get PDF
    The purpose of this study is to determine HaeIII polymorphism in the exon 2 and 3 regions of the growth hormone -1 (GH-1) gene that regulates tissue growth and muscle development in six different goat breeds reared in Turkey. The HaeIII polymorphism in GH-1 gene (422 bp) was investigated by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology in 303 goats including 52 Hair, 51 Angora, 50 Honamlı, 50 Halep, 50 Saanen and 50 heads of Kilis breeds. Two alleles (A and B) and 3 genotypes (AA, BB and AB) were identified in the study. A and B allele frequencies in Hair, Angora, Honamlı, Halep, Saanen and Kilis breeds were found to be 0.4038 and 0.5962, 0.4314 and 0.5686, 0.4600 and 0.5400, 0.4500 and 0.5500, 0.3800 and 0.6200, 0.5400 and 0.4600, respectively. AA, AB and BB genotype frequencies were found to be 00.019, 0.769 and 0.212 (P0.05), 0.080, 0.760 and 0.160 (P0.05), 0.160, 0.760 and 0.080 (P0.05). As a result, it was determined that goat population had high heterozygosity (0.494) in general and was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in terms of HaeIII polymorphism in the exon 2 and 3 regions of the GH-1 gene (P>0.05)

    Impact of heat stress on ruminant livestock production and meat quality, and strategies for amelioration

    Get PDF
    Climate change will continue to accentuate the negative impact of heat stress (HS) on ruminant livestock production, compromising animal welfare and meat quality. Mitigation strategies, including providing shade on farms, modifications of animal housing (heat extractors, fans, water sprinklers, and cool drinking water), and nutritional interventions, are important short-Term measures to reduce the negative effects of HS. Climate-smart breeding for thermotolerance and matching of adapted ruminant breeds to appropriate production systems should be considered for more sustainable livestock production systems
    • …
    corecore