1,942 research outputs found

    Delphine Red Shirt: George Sword's Warrior Narratives: Compositional Processes in Lakota Oral Tradition

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    George Sword an Oglala Lakota (1846–1914) learned to write in order to transcribe and preserve his people’s oral narratives. In her book Delphine Red Shirt, also Oglala Lakota and a native speaker, examines the compositional processes of George Sword and shows how his writings reflect recurring themes and story patterns of the Lakota oral tradition. Her book invites further studies in several areas including literature, translation studies and more. My review of her book suggests some ways it could be used as a primary resource book in developing curricula in Indigenous philosoph

    Cultural aspects of preschool education: Ojibwa, Odawa and Potawatomi Indian children\u27s \u27\u27ways of knowing and communicating\u27\u27 in early intervention and Head Start programs

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    This research investigated what Anishinabe cultural values and beliefs are transmitted in the Head Start and Early Head Start oft he Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, and how Anishinabe values and beliefs affect instructional communications, teacher/student relationships, and the learning styles used by Native teachers in the educational process of Anishinabe children in the preschool situation. The study used an ethnographic approach to identify what informants would describe was their culture among the four Inter-Tribal Preschool programs. Observations completed in the classroom, home and community environment sought to discover how parents, teachers, children and staff in the preschool process use the culture. Outreach to interview Elders and grandparents from each of the four communities were an important component of this research in reconstructing the aboriginal culture and Tribal history

    Climbing Learners\u27 Hill: Benedictines at White Earth, 1878-1945

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    Benedictine sisters and monks administered and staffed a boarding school on the White Earth Reservation in Minnesota from 1882-1945, responding to a request from the local bishop and to the Peace Policy of President Grant. Church denominations were asked to cooperate with the government in Christianizing and “civilizing” the Indians—on and off-reservations. With significant aid from federal funds, various denominations, primarily Catholic and Protestant, built churches and schools to educate and “convert” Indians. This was done in the cause of assimilation, with most of the missionaries, lay or religious, deliberately undermining the traditional cultures. Benedictines came late to the Indian ministry but participated fully to bring white society’s values and ways to the tribes. The Benedictine endeavor, St. Benedict’s Mission, overall was a humanely-run institution. Much of this was due to the influence of values deeply engrained in the missionaries, values based on the Gospel and on the Rule of St. Benedict which undergirded their work. There has been more positive judgment of the St. Benedict’s School at White Earth than negative. Interviews with both the missionaries and Indian graduates offer support for this conclusion

    A preliminary bibliography on focus

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    [I]n its present form, the bibliography contains approximately 1100 entries. Bibliographical work is never complete, and the present one is still modest in a number of respects. It is not annotated, and it still contains a lot of mistakes and inconsistencies. It has nevertheless reached a stage which justifies considering the possibility of making it available to the public. The first step towards this is its pre-publication in the form of this working paper. […] The bibliography is less complete for earlier years. For works before 1970, the bibliographies of Firbas and Golkova 1975 and Tyl 1970 may be consulted, which have not been included here

    Traditional Indian Justice in Ontario: A Role for the Present?

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    It is the author\u27s position that for too long the study of Indian law in Canada has meant the study of law imposed upon Canadian Indians. It is suggested that the study of the indigenous law ways of Ontario\u27s native Indians has been wrongly neglected This is so not merely because of the historical interest of the subject to Indians and non-Indians alike, but also because the study of traditional law ways provides an opportunity for modem native communities to understand the historical continuity of local responsibility for justice among natives and to build upon that tradition in assuming more responsibility for the administration of justice in native communities today. The approach of this paper is threefold. Its starting point is a review of recent studies which indicate that native men and women are dramatically over-represented in the province\u27s prison system, particularly for minor offences. The paper then investigates the historical evidence that social mechanisms existed in traditional lroquois and Cree-Ojibwa societies in Ontario that performed the functions of a justice system in those societies before Euro-Canadian law was imposed on them. Next, the author considers whether, and to what extent, traditional native approaches to conflict resolution in Ontario are in accord with modern Canadian criminal justice policy. Concluding that the values which inspired traditional native justice ways and current criminal policy are indeed compatible, the author proposes that native communities in Ontario be encouraged to rediscover the value of their justice traditions and presents concrete examples of the sorts of current Canadian justice initiatives which seem to offer particular hope for the future

    Traditional Indian Justice in Ontario: A Role for the Present?

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    It is the author\u27s position that for too long the study of Indian law in Canada has meant the study of law imposed upon Canadian Indians. It is suggested that the study of the indigenous law ways of Ontario\u27s native Indians has been wrongly neglected This is so not merely because of the historical interest of the subject to Indians and non-Indians alike, but also because the study of traditional law ways provides an opportunity for modem native communities to understand the historical continuity of local responsibility for justice among natives and to build upon that tradition in assuming more responsibility for the administration of justice in native communities today. The approach of this paper is threefold. Its starting point is a review of recent studies which indicate that native men and women are dramatically over-represented in the province\u27s prison system, particularly for minor offences. The paper then investigates the historical evidence that social mechanisms existed in traditional lroquois and Cree-Ojibwa societies in Ontario that performed the functions of a justice system in those societies before Euro-Canadian law was imposed on them. Next, the author considers whether, and to what extent, traditional native approaches to conflict resolution in Ontario are in accord with modern Canadian criminal justice policy. Concluding that the values which inspired traditional native justice ways and current criminal policy are indeed compatible, the author proposes that native communities in Ontario be encouraged to rediscover the value of their justice traditions and presents concrete examples of the sorts of current Canadian justice initiatives which seem to offer particular hope for the future

    Ritual and Ceremony in a Contemporary Anishinabe Tribe

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    Zeziikizit Kchinchinaabe: A Relational Understanding of Anishinaabemowin History

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    abstract: Relationships are the heart of Anishinaabeg culture and language. This research proposes understanding Anishinaabemowin, the language of Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi peoples, as a living, historical, and spiritual member of the cultural community. As a community member, the language is the Oldest Elder. This understanding provides a relational lens through which one can understand language history from an Indigenous perspective. Recent scholarship on Indigenous languages often focuses on the boarding school experiences or shapes the narrative in terms of language loss. A relational understanding explores the language in terms of connections. This dissertation argues that the strength of language programs is dependent on the strength of reciprocal relationships between the individuals and institutions involved. This research examines the history of Anishinaabemowin classes and programs at three higher educational institutions: Bemidji State University, University of Michigan, and Central Michigan University. At each institution, the advocates and allies of Oldest Elder fought and struggled to carve space for American Indian people and the language. Key relationships between advocates and allies in the American Indian and academic communities found ways to bring Oldest Elder into the classroom. When the relationships were healthy, Oldest Elder thrived, but when the relationships shifted or weakened, so did Oldest Elder's presence. This dissertation offers a construct for understanding Indigenous language efforts that can be utilized by others engaged in language revitalization. The narrative of Oldest Elder shifts the conversation from one of loss to one of possibilities and responsibilities.Dissertation/ThesisPh.D. History 201

    Narrative and the Maintenance of Great Lakes Native American Cultural Identity

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    This paper examines the relationship of the trickster character to the maintenance of Great Lakes Native American cultural identity by using interviews and literary analysis. The interviews gathered statements from participants about their personal experiences with narrative, and the social context of narrative, within their tribes. The literary analysis examines three stories in the Manabozho cycle: The theft of fire, Manabozho and wolf, and The flood. The themese in these stories fulfill all four of William Bascom\u27s four functions folklore. The hypothesis that narrative is a necessary factor of cultural maintenance has been supported by both the interviews and the literary analysis
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