110,573 research outputs found

    Nut production in Bertholletia excelsa across a logged forest mosaic: implications for multiple forest use

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    Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) is one of the world’s most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity) on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013) in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80%) of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1–2 timber trees removed per ha). In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09) P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil nut rich forests, when a buffer zone cannot be observed, low logging intensities should be implemented. The sustainability of this integrated management system will ultimately depend on a complex series of socioeconomic and ecological interactions. Yet we submit that our study provides an important initial step in understanding the compatibility of timber harvesting with a high value NTFP, potentially allowing for diversification of forest use strategies in Amazonian Perù

    Morphological and molecular characteristics do not confirm popular classification of the Brazil nut tree in Acre, Brazil.

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    In the State of Acre, the Brazil nut tree, Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae), is classified by the local population into two types according to morphological characteristics, including color and quality of wood, shape of the trunk and crown, and fruit production. We examined thereliability of this classification by comparing morphological and molecular data of four populations of Brazil nut trees from Vale do Rio Acre in the Brazilian Amazon. For the morphological analysis, we evaluated qualitative and quantitative information of the trees, fruits, and seeds. The molecular analysis was performed using RAPD and ISSR markers, with cluster analysis. Significant differences were found between the two types of Brazil nut trees for the characters diameter at breast height, fruit yield, fruit size,and number of seeds per fruit. Despite the significant correlation between the morphological characteristics and the popular classification, we observed all possible combinations of morphological characteristics in both types of Brazil nut trees. In some individuals, the classification did not correspond to any of the characteristics. The results obtained with molecular markers showed that the two locally classified types of Brazil nut trees did not differ genetically, indicating that there is no consistent separation between them

    Nut Trees on Campus

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    https://openriver.winona.edu/wsuarboretumstories/1022/thumbnail.jp

    Coalesced and embedded nut graphs in singular graphs

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    A nut graph has a non-invertible (singular) 0-1 adjacency matrix with non-zero entries in every kernel eigenvector. We investigate how the concept of nut graphs emerges as an underlying theme in the theory of singular graphs. It is known that minimal configurations (MCs) are necessarily found as subgraphs of singular graphs. We construct MCs having nut graphs as subgraphs. Nut graphs can be coalesced with singular graphs at particular vertices or grown into a family of core graphs of larger nullity by adding a vertex at a time. Moreover, we propose a construction of nut line graph of trees by coalescence and a local enlargement of nut fullerenes and tetravalent nut graphs.peer-reviewe

    Abundance of Pollinator Insect (Forcipomyia Spp .) of Cocoa Under Some Shade Trees

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    Cocoa production is affected by cocoa flowering and fruiting. The factor affects fruit seeting is pollinator agent such as Forcipomyia spp. Until now, information concerning population dynamics of Forcipomyia in some models of cocoa shading trees remains limited. This research was studied to observe the population dynamics of Forcipomyia spp. in some models of cocoa shading trees, namely lamtoro (Leucaena sp.), krete (Cassia surithensis) and areca nut (Areca catechu) in two main season of rainy and dry seasons. The research was conducted in Kaliwining research station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), Jember, by surveying the existing cocoa under different types of shading trees as mentioned above. The insects were observed using modified sticky trap method, whilst micro climate condition was also observed. The highest population was in January (rainy season) under Leucaena spp. shade tress and the lowest population was in October under all type of the shading trees. There was no relationship between microclimate condition under cocoa trees (temperature, RH and light intensity) and Forcipomyia spp. population (r = 0.08 and 0.04)

    Irrigation improves tree physiological performances and nut quality in sweet chestnut

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    Italy is one of the most important world chestnut producers. The majority of traditional sweet chestnut orchards are still non-irrigated since they are typically located in mountain-hill areas usually characterized by environmental conditions that are not limiting for the vegetative and reproductive growth of this fruit tree crop. Nowadays, the increase of summer temperatures and the decrease of rainfall are affecting negatively chestnut physiological performances and productivity. The adoption of scheduled irrigation practices, in light also of the limited water availability/possibility of storage (e.g., artificial lakes, reservoirs) of these areas, should become part of chestnut orchard management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation on sweet chestnut physiology, nut quality and yield. The study was carried out in 2020 in a traditional chestnut orchard of the “Marron Buono di Marradi” ecotype, located in the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines (Marradi, Italy). The experimental design compared trees irrigated between August and September with a non-irrigated control. Leaf gas exchange and plant water status were monitored during the growing season and, nut quality and yield were assessed at harvest. Results showed that irrigated trees exhibited, in middle September, higher photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and stem water potentials compared to the non-irrigated control trees. Nut size was significantly smaller in non-irrigated trees than in irrigated ones while the yield was not statistically affected by the irrigation treatment. Despite the favourable mild and rainy weather conditions occurred in 2020, the application of irrigation during the nut filling phase (e.g., late summer) was beneficial for enhancing sweet chestnut physiological performances and for improving nut quality

    ESTIMATION OF SHEA TREES (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. GAERTN.) FRUIT PRODUCTION BY ASSESSING THE CORRELATION BETWEEN YIELD PARAMETERS AND DENDROMETRIC FEATURES IN NORTHERN OF CÔTE D'IVOIRE

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    Vitellaria paradoxa, commonly known as the shea tree, is a tree of the family Sapotaceae and represents a traditional African food plant. It has been claimed to have the potential to improve nutrition, boost food supply, foster rural development, and support sustainable land care. Despite its multiple potentials, statistical data relating to its production are non-existent and/or unexploited in several African communities. To contrast this tendency, the present study aims to assess the intra-seasonal variation in fruit production of a sample of 115 shea trees and then to establish a correlation between yield parameters and several dendrometric features. Dendrometric (i.e. tree height, trunk girth, and crown basal area) and pomological (i.e. fruit and nut length and width) parameters, as well as yield parameters by monitoring daily fallen fruit from each sampled shea tree, carried out for five years consecutively, were considered for this study. The results showed inter-year fluctuation of shea fruit/nut number and shea fruit/nut weight. In addition, the results showed a significant increase in the annual average of shea fruit/nut yield per tree and as well per girth and/or crown basal area interval class, randomly generated by Sturge and Yule's formula. Interestingly, potentially high producing trees emerged within each considered interval class. Then, observed intraclass variation between trees determining shea yield can be exploited in selecting elite shea trees

    The Nut Tree in the Middle West

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    The early pioneer of the Middlewest appreciated the value of the nut trees which grew abundantly along the river bottoms. In his tiny sod hut, riding at anchor in a sea of bil1owing prairie, he knew that the stored bushels of black walnuts and hickories would nourish him when the bitter lash of a prairie winter drove the wallowing herds of bison toward the southland. The years rolled by and the oncoming hosts of civilization fenced the prairie. The sod hut gave way to modern farm homes, and the nut trees were cut to furnish pasturage for steer and hog. At that time the fat hog and steer were considered the prime source of fat and protein, but today a tremendously increasing population brings us to realize that the day is not far hence when the nut tree will assert itself as a more efficient producer of fat than its animal competitor. But the farmer is not particularly concerned with the problems of future generations. He wishes to know the status of the nut tree today

    Swidden fallow management to increase landscape-level Brazil nut productivity.

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    Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.) is considered the cornerstone non-timber species of Amazonian conservation. Nuts (or seeds) of this massive tree are harvested by local people living in and near old growth forests, supporting local livelihoods and regional economies. Secondary forests, however, particularly plots previously used for agriculture (swidden fallows), present better B. excelsa seedling and sapling recruitment than mature forest. This study examines the extent to which forest residents could increase nut productivity by allowing their fallows to grow into Brazil nut rich forests. We conducted B. excelsa inventories in the Brazilian state of Acre in abandoned swidden fallows of different ages. We also conducted interviews to determine landowner perspectives on the fallow potential for increasing nut production. An individual-based model, based on in-situ inventories and primary and secondary datasets from prior fieldwork, simulated growth, survivorship and production from the 250 inventoried trees in 18 fallows of varying sizes (from 0.41 to 4.18 ha) and different regrowth stages (12 to 60 years old). These simulation model predictions showed that after 10 years, 2.4% of existing trees would be productive, with an average of 68.6 ± 21.5 fruits per reproductively mature tree in the four fallows that most quickly yielded productive trees. By the final projected time interval (40 years), predictions suggest all fallows will produce fruits with cumulative production averaging 1475 ± 359 fruits ha?1, suggesting an increase in landowner income of US$55.1 ± 13.4 per hectare of fallow. Our simulation model is the first to explore fruit productivity of Brazil nut in secondary forest. It likely underpredicts B. excelsa growth and nut production, considering that swidden fallows provide better resource availability than the forest-derived datasets we used to construct the model equations. In conclusion, our findings support previous research that suggests that higher B. excelsa recruitment rates observed in abandoned swidden fallows could indeed translate into greater adult densities and thus potentially, higher nut production – a conclusion mirrored by most participant landowners

    Storrs, Harrison & Co., Painesville, Ohio, nursery catalog, 1879

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    Retail Price List (No. 5) for Fall of 1879 and Spring of 1880, Fruit Trees, Grape Vines, Strawberry Plants, Nut-Bearing Trees, Catalpa, Evergreens, Etc., of Suitable Size to Forward by Mail, Cultivated and For Sale by Storrs, Harrison & Co., Painesville, Lake Co., Ohio.https://digitalcommons.memphis.edu/speccoll-mss-cpsimontonfamily1/1079/thumbnail.jp
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