9,981 research outputs found

    Analysis of growth and wilting point of chili (Capsicum annum L.) seedlings using three types of planting media

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    Cayenne pepper plants are one of the plants that are susceptible to excess and lack of water during their growth period. Lack of water can cause chili seeds to not grow optimally, so chili plant nurseries need ideal media to be able to provide optimal water. This research aims to determine the growth and duration of the permanent wilting point in the growth of chili plant seeds based on differences in planting media in the form of magot compost, soil containing pumice and paddy soil under conditions without watering. The treatment in this research used three different planting media, namely compost, pumice, and paddy soil media. Providing water to chili plants by watering 3 times a day and without watering. The research method uses experimental methods with observations in the greenhouse and there are three treatments, namely using magot compost, pumice and soil media. The parameters observed included growth in height, number of leaves, and width of the plant leaves as well as the length of time to the permanent wilting point. The data from the research were analyzed using ANOVA with the help of SPSS. The results of the research showed that the compost media had the best growth with a height of 9 cm, the number of leaves was 6 pieces, and leaf width 2.9 cm, while the permanent wilting point duration of the three media used was found in compost media, which experienced the longest permanent wilting point at the age of 10 days. So it can be concluded that the best planting medium is found in maggot compost media with the highest growth and longest wilting point

    Potential Status of Persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L.) in TĂĽrkiye and Its Impact on Human Health

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    Anatolia is the gene center of many fruit species grown in the world and is also very rich in terms of fruit species and varieties. Diospyrus kaki L., known as persimmon, is one of these fruit species. Considering Türkiye’s ecological conditions, persimmon has a great potential for production. In recent studies, the potential health effects of persimmon have been cited as an important factor, increasing the popularity and consumption of persimmon. In addition, persimmon has become the center of attention in recent years due to the attractive orange color of the fruit, its distinctive taste and structure, rich in antioxidants and phenolic compounds. In this review study, it was aimed to increase awareness of the production potential of persimmon grown in Turkiye by revealing its production potential, and to shed light on decision-makers in future production planning by providing information in terms of economic importance and health

    Entrepreneurial Attributes of Floriculture Farmers

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    Floriculture has emerged as an important agribusiness, providing employment opportunities and entrepreneurship in both urban and rural areas. This study calculated the entrepreneurial attributes of floriculture farmers in Nashik, Maharashtra, India were calculated based on seven parameters viz., innovativeness, achievement motivation, economic motivation, decision making ability, leadership ability, risk orientation and management orientation. Majority of the flower growers belonged to medium entrepreneurial category. There was a highly significant and positive relationship of entrepreneurial attributes of respondents with Annual Income, Mass Media Exposure and Extension Agency Contact

    The habit of strawberry flowering is the key for runner propagation, where the photoperiod is the main environmental factor - A review

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    Despite the advancement of tissue culture in strawberry plant propagation, the degree of elite for field cultivation depends on forcing the plant to produce runners. The strawberry flower habit [everbearing (EB), seasonal berry (SB), short-day (SD), long-day (LD), and day-neutral (DN)] defines the method of encouraging the plant to generate runners, since the formation of runners is mostly influenced by genetic factors before being influenced by environmental factors. Stolon production, which occurs as a result of vying for resources under certain environmental circumstances, is the reverse of blossoming. Therefore, any stimulus that encourages stolon formation and vegetative growth limits the development of flower buds, which is necessary for elite propagation. Long photoperiod, temperature, chilling hour, or cold storage, and plant growth regulators (PGR) are cited as these variables. Temperature has a significant impact on runner development, although the long daily photoperiod (LD) remains the most crucial component in runner induction. However, when LD interacts with other factors like temperature, cold storage, and gibberellins, its efficiency is increased. Thus, based on the cultivars and the seasonal climate of the geographical location, the best approach for strawberry propagation is identified by optimising the planting date for propagation or adjusting the propagation circumstances

    Unlocking heirloom diversity: a pathway to bridging global challenges in modern apple cultivation

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    Reports indicate that climate changes will result in the extinction of a significant percentage of plant species even though many of these species contributed to crucial genetic traits that led to the development of domestic crops. In the past, the diversified range of plant species, varieties, and agricultural practices allowed agriculture production and local food systems to tolerate moderate climate variability. Today, industrial farming relies on very limited genetic diversity for commercial production. Narrowing the genetic base leads to higher susceptibility to environmental changes and diseases.Heirloom cultivars survived climate variations and extreme conditions but were abandoned in favor of a handful of commercial cultivars that dominate the food industry and fit the standards of the global food system. From a climate change perspective, it would be important to conserve heirloom cultivars to preserve biodiversity and make greater genetic diversity available to farming, which will lead to resilience and adaptation

    Evaluating the sustainability and resiliency of local food systems

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    With an ever-rising global population and looming environmental challenges such as climate change and soil degradation, it is imperative to increase the sustainability of food production. The drastic rise in food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic has further shown a pressing need to increase the resiliency of food systems. One strategy to reduce the dependence on complex, vulnerable global supply chains is to strengthen local food systems, such as by producing more food in cities. This thesis uses an interdisciplinary, food systems approach to explore aspects of sustainability and resiliency within local food systems. Lifecycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate how farm scale, distance to consumer, and management practices influence environmental impacts for different local agriculture models in two case study locations: Georgia, USA and England, UK. Farms were grouped based on urbanisation level and management practices, including: urban organic, peri-urban organic, rural organic, and rural conventional. A total of 25 farms and 40 crop lifecycles were evaluated, focusing on two crops (kale and tomatoes) and including impacts from seedling production through final distribution to the point of sale. Results were extremely sensitive to the allocation of composting burdens (decomposition emissions), with impact variation between organic farms driven mainly by levels of compost use. When composting burdens were attributed to compost inputs, the rural conventional category in the U.S. and the rural organic category in the UK had the lowest average impacts per kg sellable crop produced, including the lowest global warming potential (GWP). However, when subtracting avoided burdens from the municipal waste stream from compost inputs, trends reversed entirely, with urban or peri-urban farm categories having the lowest impacts (often negative) for GWP and marine eutrophication. Overall, farm management practices were the most important factor driving environmental impacts from local food supply chains. A soil health assessment was then performed on a subset of the UK farms to provide insight to ecosystem services that are not captured within LCA frameworks. Better soil health was observed in organically-farmed and uncultivated soils compared to conventionally farmed soils, suggesting higher ecosystem service provisioning as related to improved soil structure, flood mitigation, erosion control, and carbon storage. However, relatively high heavy metal concentrations were seen on urban and peri-urban farms, as well as those located in areas with previous mining activity. This implies that there are important services and disservices on farms that are not captured by LCAs. Zooming out from a focus on food production, a qualitative methodology was used to explore experiences of food insecurity and related health and social challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Fourteen individuals receiving emergency food parcels from a community food project in Sheffield, UK were interviewed. Results showed that maintaining food security in times of crisis requires a diverse set of individual, household, social, and place-based resources, which were largely diminished or strained during the pandemic. Drawing upon social capital and community support was essential to cope with a multiplicity of hardship, highlighting a need to develop community food infrastructure that supports ideals of mutual aid and builds connections throughout the food supply chain. Overall, this thesis shows that a range of context-specific solutions are required to build sustainable and resilient food systems. This can be supported by increasing local control of food systems and designing strategies to meet specific community needs, whilst still acknowledging a shared global responsibility to protect ecosystem, human, and planetary health

    MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF VIERUL LOCAL GRAPE (Vitis spp.) CUTTING SEEDS ON PODZOLIC SOIL USING VARIOUS CONCENTRATION OF AUXIN SOAK

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    The development of grapes (Vitis vinifera) has obstacle among others are limited optimal land and difficult nurseries. Suboptimal land use for grape cuttings can use red yellow podzolic soil (ultisol). Podzolic soil has an acidic pH and low macro and micro nutrient uptake but can still be used as a growing medium. Vierul local grapes are a type of grape that has begun to be developed as root stock in nurseries but needs to be improved for its root success using a synthetic phytohormones bath of napthaline acetic acid (NAA). The purpose of this study was to determine the morphological character of vierul local grape cuttings at various concentrations of NAAsoaking in podzolic soil growing medium. This research has been carried out in a screen house from August to December 2021. This study used a non-factorial completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 treatments and 3 replications as block consisting of F0, F1, F2, F4 following by 0, 2, 4, 6 g L-1 respectively. The morphological characteristics observed is number of bud break, time of leaves appear, number of leaves, tendril length and percentage of live cuttings. The results of the study were analyzed using ANOVA at the 5% level and continued using the DMRT at the 5% level. The result showed that soaking of NAA at a concentration of 0 g L-1 (F0) had the best result for the variable number of bud break and number of leaves. Concentration of 6 g L-1 (F3) had the best result for variable length of the tendril while for the variable when the leaves appear, NAA soaking has no significant effect. The percentage of live cuttings is still low because it is influenced by the quality (material) of cuttings, the age of woodstock, growing media and water availability

    Market bulletin

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    The South Carolina Department of Agriculture publishes the bi-monthly Market Bulletin newsletter. The Market Bulletin began in 1913 and was originally an insert in The State newspaper. Later it was added to other papers, and about 12 years later began as a stand-alone publication. The Market Bulletin has information about the agency, agriculture-related news, and free advertising available to farmers and consumers

    Invasiivse patogeeni Lecanosticta acicola geneetiline mitmekesisus, päritolu ja uued peremeestaimed Põhja-Euroopas

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    A Thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Forestry.Väitekiri filosoofiadoktori kraadi taotlemiseks metsanduse erialal.Lecanosticta acicola is an ascomycete causing Brown Spot Needle Blight (BSNB) – a foliar disease affecting pine species (Pinus spp.). The disease causes premature needle shedding which leads to reduced growth of the trees and to severe defoliation which may cause death of the infected trees. The native range of L. acicola is in North America but during the last century anthropogenic activity introduced the pathogen also into Europe and Asia. In Europe, L. acicola was first detected in southern and central regions, but during the current century the disease agent has significantly distributed northward and is now present also in the Baltic states and southern Sweden. So far, in northern Europe, the disease has mostly affected non-native pine species. Nevertheless, by today, L. acicola has already succeeded to infect native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), although so far damage on the P. sylvestris is insignificant and only the trees growing in the immediate proximity to non-native P. mugo have been found to be infected. The distribution range of L. acicola appears to be expanding also to the western Asia. In this thesis the pathogen was identified for the first time in Turkey and Georgia. In Turkey, the infection of BSNB was found also on Cedrus libani, proving that L. acicola is not only a Pinus-specific pathogen. Identical genetic strains of the pathogen were found on the distances that the fungus could not spread naturally. Identical strains were found to be shared even between continents, being present in Canada and Germany, but similarly strains were also shared between the countries in Europe. Lecanosticta acicola has reached northern Europe predominantly from pre-existing populations in central Europe and not directly from its native range in America. Surprisingly high diversity found from the populations in northern Europe is probably the result of repeated introductions from genetically different source populations. Although, by today, both mating types of the fungus are present in northern Europe and probably in some limited areas the sexual reproduction takes place, the clonal reproduction mode dominates in this region. Based on the so far distribution of this pathogen and that the ongoing climate changes support its dissemination, it can be assumed that northwards spread of L. acicola will continue in Europe. It is important to avoid any further increase in the diversity of pathogens’ populations, that could easily happen if new fungal strains are imported with insufficiently controlled planting material. An increase in diversity could lead to dangerous development of strains with higher virulence or higher suitability to local climate conditions which could result in higher damage to the forest stands.Invasiivne patogeen Lecanosticta acicola on mändide (Pinus spp.) okkaid kahjustava seenhaiguse pruunvöötaud tekitaja. Nakatunud okkad varisevad enneaegselt, mis põhjustab puude juurdekasvu aeglustumist ja võib ulatuslikuma kahjustuse tagajärjel viia puude hukkumiseni. Lecanosticta acicola pärineb Põhja-Ameerikast, kuid möödunud sajandil levis patogeen inimtegevuse tulemusel ka Euroopasse ja Aasiasse. Esmalt leiti seent Lõuna- ja Kesk-Euroopast, käesoleval sajandil on pruunvöötaudi levikuala aga hüppeliselt laienenud, eriti just põhja poole ning seent esineb nüüdseks ka Balti riikides ning Lõuna-Rootsis. Haiguse tõttu on Põhja-Euroopas kannatanud peamiselt eksoot-männiliigid, kuid nüüdseks on nakatunud juba ka looduslik harilik mänd (P. sylvestris). Seni on kahju harilikule männile olnud tagasihoidlik ja nakatunud on vaid haigete mägimändide (P. mugo) vahetus läheduses kasvavad puud. Lisaks Põhja-Euroopale laieneb L. acicola levikuala ka Lääne-Aasia suunal. Doktoritöös dokumenteeriti patogeeni esmaleiud Türgis ja Gruusias. Türgis tuvastati pruunvöötaudi nakkus ka Liibanoni seedril (Cedrus libani), mis on esmakordne kinnitus, et L. acicola võib nakatada ka teisi okaspuid männiliste sugukonnas peale männi perekonna liikide. Lecanosticta acicola identseid geneetilisi tüvesid tuvastati selliste vahemaade tagant, mida seen looduslikult levida ei suudaks, näiteks eri kontinentidel asuvast Kanadast ja Saksamaalt, kuid niisamuti erinevatest Euroopa riikidest. Molekulaargeneetilised uuringud tõestasid, et pruunvöötaudi tekitaja on levinud Põhja-Euroopasse valdavalt Kesk-Euroopast ja mitte otse kodumaalt, s.o Ameerikast. Seene Põhja-Euroopa populatsioonides tuvastati seni arvatust suurem geneetiline mitmekesisus, mis on tõenäoliselt põhjustatud patogeeni mitmest eraldiseisvast introduktsioonist erinevatest lähtepopulatsioonidest. Kuigi Põhja-Euroopas esinevad patogeeni mõlemad paarumistüübid ja ilmselt toimub siin ka seene suguline paljunemine, siis domineerib siiski seene suguta paljunemine. Tuginedes seene senisele levikule ning seda toetavatele kliimamuutustele võib eeldada, et jätkub L. acicola levikuala edasine laienemine Euroopas, sealhulgas ka põhjasuunal. Oluline on vältida patogeeni populatsioonide geneetilise mitmekesisuse suurenemist, mis võib juhtuda näiteks nakatunud istutusmaterjaliga seene uute geneetiliste tüvede sissetoomisel. See looks võimaluse kohalikele kliimatingimustele enamsobivate või senisest virulentsemate patogeeni tüvede tekkeks ja levikuks ning kahjustuse riski edasiseks suurenemiseks Põhja-Euroopa metsades.Publication of this thesis is supported by the Estonian University of Life Sciences and the European Union’s European Regional Development Fund (Estonian University of Life Sciences ASTRA project “Value-chain based bioeconomy”)
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