6,502 research outputs found

    The application and sustainable development of coral in traditional medicine and its chemical composition, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical research

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    This review discusses the variety, chemical composition, pharmacological effects, toxicology, and clinical research of corals used in traditional medicine in the past two decades. At present, several types of medicinal coral resources are identified, which are used in 56 formulas such as traditional Chinese medicine, Tibetan medicine, Mongolian medicine, and Uyghur medicine. A total of 34 families and 99 genera of corals are involved in medical research, with the Alcyoniidae family and Sarcophyton genus being the main research objects. Based on the structural types of compounds and the families and genera of corals, this review summarizes the compounds primarily reported during the period, including terpenoids, steroids, nitrogen-containing compounds, and other terpenoids dominated by sesquiterpene and diterpenes. The biological activities of coral include cytotoxicity (antitumor and anticancer), anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral, immunosuppressive, antioxidant, and neurological properties, and a detailed summary of the mechanisms underlying these activities or related targets is provided. Coral toxicity mostly occurs in the marine ornamental soft coral Zoanthidae family, with palytoxin as the main toxic compound. In addition, nonpeptide neurotoxins are extracted from aquatic corals. The compatibility of coral-related preparations did not show significant acute toxicity, but if used for a long time, it will still cause toxicity to the liver, kidneys, lungs, and other internal organs in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical applications, individual application of coral is often used as a substitute for orthopedic materials to treat diseases such as bone defects and bone hyperplasia. Second, coral is primarily available in the form of compound preparations, such as Ershiwuwei Shanhu pills and Shanhu Qishiwei pills, which are widely used in the treatment of neurological diseases such as migraine, primary headache, epilepsy, cerebral infarction, hypertension, and other cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is undeniable that the effectiveness of coral research has exacerbated the endangered status of corals. Therefore, there should be no distinction between the advantages and disadvantages of listed endangered species, and it is imperative to completely prohibit their use and provide equal protection to help them recover to their normal numbers. This article can provide some reference for research on coral chemical composition, biological activity, chemical ecology, and the discovery of marine drug lead compounds. At the same time, it calls for people to protect endangered corals from the perspectives of prohibition, substitution, and synthesis

    Exploring the Potential of Curry Leaves for their Therapeutic Action

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    Curry leaves (Murryakoenigii), which are valued for their aromatic flavour, have been mainstay of Indian cuisine for ages. These leaves are becoming more well known for their potential to affect metabolic pathways in additional to their gastronomic value. The molecular mechanistic potential of curry leaves in relation to metabolic control is examined in this abstract. Curry leaves contain a variety of bioactive substance, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent, and substance that modulate insulin sensitivity, which have potential to have an effect on crucial metabolic processes. Their contribution to the management of oxidative stress, inflammation, blood sugar, cholesterol, weight, gut health, liver function, thermogenesis, and appetite regulation is discussed in this work. Although encouraging, more study is necessary to complete clarify the mechanism of action and to determine the efficacy of curry leaves in metabolic disorder

    The role of traditional knowledge in climate change adaptation among the Nicobarese of Central Nicobar Islands, India

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    A qualitative study guided by phenomenological approach was conducted during 2016-2018 to understand the experience of living amid climate change among the Nicobari tribes living in Central Nicobar Islands and their management practices evolved for adaptation over the years. The study showed that the economic prosperity and sustainability of Nicobarese basically depended on their traditional wisdom to mange land resources under their possession and farming practices as indicated by the strength (>6.0) of anecdotal network analysis which are evolved over the years, are found to be climate resilient. They have wealth of knowledge on island biodiversity particularly on pandanus, banana, tubers, roots and leafy vegetables besides coconut. Nicobarese also learnt the process and storage of surplus farm produce for longer duration under the existing climatic conditions. The anecdotal network analysis of nine climate change adaptation measures and eight climate change events showed that seasonal calendar and organic waste management were the best climate adaptation strategy known to tribes followed by community land use / holding

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    Kondisi geografis pada ketinggian wilayah di bawah 100 m di atas permukaan air laut (dpl) seperti di Cilacap dan di atas 1.000 m dpl seperti di Wonosobo, kemungkinan merupakan faktor yang menentukan jenis dan keragaman tungau yang menginfestasi cicak Gekkonidae. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui jenis cicak, tungau dan keragaman tungau yang menginfestasi cicak Gekkonidae di Cilacap dan Wonosobo. Metode penelitian yang dilakukan adalah survai dengan teknik pengambilan sampel acak. Sampel berupa cicak Gekkonidae yang diperoleh diawetkan dalam alkohol 70%, dan disimpan terpisah berdasarkan spesies dan lokasi penangkapan. Selanjutnya cicak di bawa ke laboratorium Entomologi-Parasitologi untuk diidentifikasi dan diisolasi tungau yang menginfestasi menggunakan jarum preparat. Tungau yang diperoleh diidentifikasi setelah melalui serangkaian proses preparasi, maturasi dan mounting. Hasil penelitian baik di Cilacap maupun Wonosobo diperoleh 4 jenis cicak Gekkonidae yaitu Hemidactylus frenatus, H. platyurus, H. garnotii, dan Gehyra mutilate. Tungau yang menginfestasi cicak Gekkonidae meliputi 5 spesies yaitu Geckobia keegani, G. turkestana, G. simplex, G. gleadovania dan G. diversipilis. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa keragaman tungau yang menginfestasi cicak Gekkonidae di Cilacap (H’ = 1,052) lebih tinggi dibandingkan di Wonosobo (H’ = 0,815). Berdasarkan nilai evenness (E) diketahui bahwa tungau yang menginfestasi cicak Gekkonidae di Cilacap lebih mengelompok (E = 0,759) dibandingkan di Wonosobo yang cenderung menyebar secara teratur (E = 0,588)

    DNA barcoding and morphology revealed the existence of seven new species of squat lobsters in the family Munididae (Decapoda, Galatheoidea) in the southwestern Pacific

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    Specimens of squat lobsters belonging to the family Munididae Ahyong et al., 2010, representing the genera Garymunida Macpherson & Baba, 2022, Trapezionida Macpherson & Baba, 2022 and Typhlonida Macpherson & Baba, 2022, were collected during several cruises around New Caledonia and Papua New Guinea, Southwest Pacific. The integrative study of these specimens revealed the presence of one new species in Garymunida, five in Trapezionida and one in Typhlonida. We describe and illustrate these new species, providing some new data on the taxonomy of several rare or scarcely studied species of Trapezionida. Molecular data from different markers (mitochondrial and nuclear) was also included, based on data availability, to support the taxonomic status of different species. Finally, a key to species for each genus is also provided

    Boat paint and epoxy fragments - Leading contributors of microplastic pollution in surface waters of a protected Andaman bay

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    Plastic pollution is a growing concern even in India\u27s remotest oceanic islands. To understand the extent of the problem in relatively undisturbed areas of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, we nested a microplastic survey within a year-long meroplankton study in the protected bay of the Lohabarrack salt water crocodile sanctuary, that lies on the less populated west coast of South Andaman Island. Surveys recovered microplastics year-round, in 299 out of 300 samples. The average microplastic density in the protected bay was 0.45 ± 0.32 particles per m3. Densities were highest during the monsoon, peaking at 2.34 particles per m3. Marine coating fragments (boat paint and epoxy, 58%) dominated the plastic debris composition year-round, while fibre only amounted to 15%. Marine coating fragments were most frequently encountered during the pre-monsoon, while fibres and other miscellaneous debris grew in abundance during the monsoon and post-monsoon months. Marine coating fragments were eaten by arrow worms, gastropods, appendicularians and Lucifer shrimp, and constituted 7% of the arrow worm diet. Microplastic density and composition found in this west facing protected bay was in stark contrast to the previously published observations from the east facing, human dominated Port Blair bay, providing clear indication of sources and potential mitigation strategies. This is the first year-long record of ocean plastics from the Andaman Islands, India and it provides evidence of pollution by boat paint and epoxy particles, an often-overlooked component of microplastic pollution

    GC-MS analysis and in vitro antibacterial activities of mangrove endophytic fungi

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    A seasonal OH minimum region over the Indian Ocean?

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    As the hydroxyl radical (OH) is the cleansing agent of the atmosphere, reduction in its concentration is a great concern for air quality and transport of trace gases across the latitudes and altitudes. In addition, OH determines the lifetime of most trace gases and non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Since many pollutants have adverse health effects and are greenhouse gases, the changes in OH concentrations directly or indirectly affect public health and climate. Our analysis with OH data (from Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service reanalyses) for the past 14 (2005–2018) years finds an OH minimum region over Indian Ocean, in the eastern Bay of Bengal at 6°–14° N and 92°–95° E. The Indian Ocean OH minimum reaches to 15 × 104 molec.cm−3 in April, and a secondary minimum of 18 × 104 molec.cm−3 in September–November. This seasonal minimum found around the Andaman and Nicobar Islands also hosts an active volcano, which releases noticeable amount of SO2 (OH sink) throughout the year. In addition, the biomass burning in spring and thus, the distribution of CO has a profound influence on the OH distribution in this region as Southeast Asia is one of the global hotspots of biomass burning, and the Indian Ocean OH minimum is located near that region. The El Niño and La Niño events also control the tropospheric ozone and CO distribution, and thus the interannual variability of OH minimum there. The WACCM model simulations reproduce the general latitudinal distribution and average seasonal cycle of OH, but not the extreme minimum OH values, although the simulations show the annual minimum in winter (December–January) in both ocean regions, which demands dedicated studies using chemical transport models. Therefore, this study reveals a seasonal OH minimum over Indian Ocean, which is very likely to influence the regional air quality and trace gas transport in the tropics

    Indo-Afghanistan Relations: Challenges for Pakistan

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    Afghanistan and India has been emerged as close affiliates after the IncumbentKarzai regime. She has helped Afghanistan in infrastructural development,institutionalizing capacity building, small development projects, assistance in food procurement, imparting training to Afghanistan’s students on scholarships. India has signed Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) with Afghanistan in the year of 2011. All the neighbouring states and Pakistan as well have vested interests and key objectives in Afghanistan and to guard their interests and retain peace in the region. Afghanistan has been victim of regional and international hegemonic designs of Super Powers. It has great importance to outreach the Central Asian Republic States (CARS). India is trying to increase its influence in Afghanistan which is very much disturbing for Pakistan as India’s growing influence in Afghanistan is the strategic loss for Pakistan. The prevalent security dilemma has increased the mistrust between India and Pakistan. The increased influence of India in Afghanistan is rankling in the strategist’s minds of Pakistan as it debilitates the psychological advantages of Pakistan over India. The stable and tranquil Afghanistan is need of the hour for Pakistan as it is a gateway to Central Asia, South Asia and Middle East. The growing relationship of India with Afghanistan is vitiating the strategic depth paradigm of Pakistan
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