123,567 research outputs found

    Does international patent collaboration have an effect on entrepreneurship?

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    .Entrepreneurship is one of the main pillars of growth in any economy. Achieving a high rate of entrepreneurship in a region has become the priority objective of governments and firms. However, in many cases, new firm creation is conditioned by relations or collaboration in innovation with agents from other countries. Previous literature has analyzed the mechanisms that foster entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to shed light on the influence of international patent collaboration (IPC) on entrepreneurial activity at country level taking into account the timing of this relationship. An empirical study is proposed to verify whether IPC leads to greater entrepreneurship and to analyze the gestation period between international patenting actions and firm creation. Using the Generalized Method of Moments, the two hypotheses proposed were tested in a data panel of 30 countries for the period 2005‚Äď2017. Results show the influence of IPC in promoting entrepreneurship in the same year, but especially in the following year. The study offers implications for entrepreneurs and public agents. IPC affects the integration and interaction of international agents in a country, favors the production of new knowledge, and increases positive externalities in a territory. All this facilitates the creation of new companies with a high innovative component.S

    Análisis de la calidad del servicio que prestan las entidades bancarias y su repercusión en la satisfacción del cliente y la lealtad hacia la entidad

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    p. 79-107El objetivo de la investigación se ha encuadrado en determinar las percepciones de calidad que tienen los clientes sobre su entidad bancaria. Para ello, para contrastar el modelo se han utilizado ecuaciones estructurales por medio de mínimos cuadrados parciales conocido como PLS (Partial Least Square). El objetivo concreto ha sido analizar los factores que determinan la calidad del servicio que perciben los clientes de las entidades bancarias, entre los que se encuentran: i) aspecto operativo, ii) aspecto físico, iii) nuevas tecnologías, y iv) aspecto humano. Una vez determinada la fiabilidad y validez de la escala, se procedió a verificar las tres hipótesis de la investigación. La primera hipótesis del modelo examina cada una de las relaciones de estos factores con la calidad del servicio, del que se resalta la gran influencia de los aspectos operativos en la percepción de la calidad. La segunda hipótesis demuestra que la calidad del servicio es un antecedente de la satisfacción del cliente. Y una tercera hipótesis verifica que la satisfacción del cliente tiene influencia en la lealtad del cliente hacia la entidad.S

    Introduction to Special Issue ‚ÄúAdvances in Sustainability-Oriented Innovations‚ÄĚ

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    8836This Special Issue focuses on the study of Sustainability-Oriented Innovations (SOIs). Our purpose is to shed light on the SOIs literature regarding their determining factors, implications and new challenges for the future. In this editorial, we are delighted to present the three papers included in this Special Issue. Each of them tackles di erent issues related to SOIs having important academic and managerial implications. Two papers analyze the influence of SOIs on urban development and resource productivity, respectively, and the third studies SOIs determinants, in particular, cooperation networks. Moreover, two of the papers analyze SOIs considering territory (cities or countries) as their unit of analysis while the third focuses on firms. This denotes that SOIs’ actions are important whatever the level of analysis and as either a determinant or a consequence.S

    A new index of resilience applicable to external pulse-disturbances that considers the recovery of communities in the short term

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    .Resilience is a key concept in the study of the recovery of ecosystems affected by disturbances. Currently, there are numerous indices to measure resilience, but many of them do not show the accuracy of the resilience value or the behaviour of ecological parameters in the face of disturbances. New approaches and technologies enable large amounts of information to be obtained, facilitating the proposal of new resilience indices that work consistently and intuitively for a wide variety of ecological response variables under different scenarios after pulse-disturbances. In this study, we propose and verify a new resilience index, comparing its performance with others previously published. We validated the performance of the new index using real data based on field measurements of changes in soil bacterial OTUs diversity and abundance after a wildfire. The new resilience index provided an automatic and robust functional classification of the behaviour of ecosystems after disturbances, supported by a bootstrap analysis. We identified 5 scenarios of ecosystem resilience performance according to their behaviour after a pulse-disturbance: resilient, non-resilient, recovering, rebound, and continuing.S

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    South Yorkshire low carbon energy supply chains: insulation sector summary

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    South Yorkshire low carbon energy supply chains: hydrogen sector summary

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    Structural and Attitudinal Barriers to Bicycle Ownership and Cycle-Based Transport in Gauteng, South Africa

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    Policies that aim to facilitate and promote non-motorised transport (NMT), and in particular cycling, have been developed by many high-income countries facing increasingly congested roads and saturated public transport systems. Such policies are also emerging in many low- and middle-income settings where high rates of urbanisation have led to similar problems with motorised transport. The aim of the present study was to better understand the potential structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport in one such context: South Africa‚Äôs Gauteng Province, the industrial powerhouse of sub-Saharan Africa that has recently made a firm commitment to NMT. The study focussed on demographic and socioeconomic variation in bicycle and car ownership, and related this to: (1) the reported use of motorised and non-motorised transport (both private and public); and (2) perceived ‚Äėproblems‚Äô with cycling. The analyses drew on interviews with key respondents from n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ27,490 households conducted in 2013 as part of the third Quality of Life survey undertaken by the Gauteng City Regional Observatory. The survey contained items on three outcomes of interest: household vehicle ownership (bicycles and cars); modes of transport used for the ‚Äútrips‚ÄĚ most often made; and respondents‚Äô ‚Äúsingle biggest problem with‚Ķ cycling‚ÄĚ. Respondent- and household-level demographic and socioeconomic determinants of these outcomes were examined using descriptive and multivariable statistical analyses, the latter after adjustment for measured potential confounders identified using a theoretical causal path diagram (in the form of a directed acyclic graph). Of the n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ26,469 households providing complete data on all of the variables examined in the present study, only n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ8722 (32.9%) owned a car and fewer still (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2244; 8.4%) owned a bicycle. The ownership of these assets was commonest amongst wealthier, economically active households; and those that owned a car had over five times the odds of also owning a bicycle, even after adjustment for potential confounding (OR 5.17; 95% CI 4.58, 5.85). Moreover, of household respondents who reported making ‚Äėtrips‚Äô during the preceding month (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ18,209), over two-thirds of those whose households owned a car (70.1%) reported private car-based transport for such trips, while only 3.2% of those owning a bicycle reported cycling. Amongst the specific responses given to the item requesting the ‚Äúsingle biggest problem with‚Ķ cycling‚ÄĚ by far the commonest was ‚ÄúDon‚Äôt know how to cycle‚ÄĚ (32.2%), less than half as many citing ‚ÄúVehicle accident risk‚ÄĚ (15.9%), and fewer still: ‚ÄúDestination is too far‚ÄĚ (13.9%); ‚ÄúCrime‚ÄĚ (10.3%); ‚ÄúToo much effort‚ÄĚ (9.2%); or ‚ÄúLack of good paths‚ÄĚ (4.6%). While the first of these reasons was commonest amongst poorer households, concerns about risk and effort were both most common amongst better educated, economically active and wealthier/better serviced households. In contrast, concerns over (cycle) paths were only common amongst those owning bicycles. The low prevalence of household bicycle ownership, and the disproportionate number of households owning bicycles that also owned cars, might explain the very small proportion of the ‚Äėthe trips most often made‚Äô that involved cycle-based transport (0.3%), and the preferential use of cars amongst households owning both bicycles and cars. Low levels of bicycle ownership might also explain why so many respondents cited ‚ÄúDon‚Äôt know how‚ÄĚ as the ‚Äúsingle biggest problem with‚Ķ cycling‚ÄĚ; although risk and effort were also substantial concerns (presumably for many who did, and some who did not, know how to cycle); the lack of suitable cycle lanes being only primarily a concern for those who actually owned bicycles. Structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport limit the use of cycle-based transport in Gauteng, not only amongst the vast majority of household respondents who lack the means to cycle (and the means to learn how), but also amongst those dissuaded from learning to cycle, purchasing a bicycle and/or using a bicycle they own by: the risks and effort involved; the lack of suitable cycle paths; and/or because they also own a car and prefer to drive than cycle

    Paradoxes in the Management of Timebanks in the UK’s Voluntary Sector: Discursive Bricolage and its Limits

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    This paper contributes to our understanding of volunteer management by charting some important challenges associated with the governance of one of the UK‚Äôs largest timebanking networks. While timebanking is often treated as a form of volunteering, many timebank advocates are keen to distinguish it sharply from traditional volunteering. We suggest that this tension generates a fundamental ‚Äėperformance paradox‚Äô in the management of timebanks in the voluntary sector. We draw on political discourse theory to characterise and evaluate associated challenges, suggesting that, when viewed against a host of context-specific organisational and policy pressures, the progressive potential of timebanking cannot be realised as a distinct community economy without adequate support. Instead of taking up a position alongside more traditional forms of volunteering, timebanking is more likely to be subsumed by them
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