38 research outputs found

    Very early onset of ATTRE89Q amyloidosis in a homozygous patient

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    Case Presentarion: Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis is a progressive, fatal disease that generally involves the peripheral nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, and the heart. It is autosomal dominant with different penetrance depending on the mutation and the genetic background. Many other missense mutations of the TTR gene may cause the disease. Being an overall rare disease is very rare to observe the condition of homozygosity. In particular, cases of homozygosity have been described in patients with ATTRV30M and ATTRV122I amyloidosis. In the former, the phenotype does not seem to be aggravated, having an age of onset and disease course that does not appear to differ from those of heterozygotes, while in the latter, the onset appears to be earlier. Conclusion: We report the first case of ATTRE89Q amyloidosis in a patient that was homozygous for the E89Q mutation in the TTR gene. The clinical phenotype resulted in the earlier disease onset reported in this form of amyloidosis, suggesting that the homozygous condition may be prognostically negative

    Practical approach to respiratory emergencies in neurological diseases

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    Many neurological diseases may cause acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to involvement of bulbar respiratory center, spinal cord, motoneurons, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction, or skeletal muscles. In this context, respiratory emergencies are often a challenge at home, in a neurology ward, or even in an intensive care unit, influencing morbidity and mortality. More commonly, patients develop primarily ventilatory impairment causing hypercapnia. Moreover, inadequate bulbar and expiratory muscle function may cause retained secretions, frequently complicated by pneumonia, atelectasis, and, ultimately, hypoxemic ARF. On the basis of the clinical onset, two main categories of ARF can be identified: (i) acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure, which is common in slowly progressive neurological diseases, such as movement disorders and most neuromuscular diseases, and (ii) sudden-onset respiratory failure which may develop in rapidly progressive neurological disorders including stroke, convulsive status epilepticus, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, phrenic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, and Guillain-Barr\ue9 syndrome. A tailored assistance may include manual and mechanical cough assistance, noninvasive ventilation, endotracheal intubation, invasive mechanical ventilation, or tracheotomy. This review provides practical recommendations for prevention, recognition, management, and treatment of respiratory emergencies in neurological diseases, mostly in teenagers and adults, according to type and severity of baseline disease

    6MWT performance correlates with peripheral neuropathy but not with cardiac involvement in patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (hATTR)

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    Abstract Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (hATTR) is a life-threatening multisystemic disease with sensory-motor peripheral neuropathy, cardiomyopathy and dysautonomia. Although the six-minute walk test (6MWT) is one of the most popular clinical tests to assess functional exercise capacity in cardiopulmonary and neuromuscular diseases, little is known about 6MWT in evaluating hATTR patients. A prospective single-center pilot study was performed in twenty hATTR patients, comparing 6MWT with widely used outcome measures. After 18 months, fourteen patients were re-evaluated. 6MWT performance was highly related with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy stage and polyneuropathy disability score, and with CMT examination score, neuropathy impairment score-lower limbs and Kumamoto score. There was no correlation with compound autonomic dysfunction test, modified body mass index and numerous indices of heart dysfunction. After 18 months, familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy stage and polyneuropathy disability score systems were not able to reveal any significant change, whereas all other outcome measures significantly worsened. Among the outcome measures monitoring the neuropathic disturbances, neuropathy impairment score-lower limbs showed the highest responsiveness to change (adjusted effect size: 0.79), followed by CMT examination score (0.67), Kumamoto scale (0.65), 6MWT (0.62). 10MWT showed a very small value (0.21). Compound autonomic dysfunction test had a large value (0.91) whereas modified body mass index a small/moderate value (0.49). 6MWT is a simple and sensitive tool to monitor neuropathic involvement but not cardiac dysfunction in hATTR course

    Broad phenotypic spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations in GMPPB-related dystroglycanopathies : an Italian cross-sectional study

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    Background: Dystroglycanopathy (alpha-DG) is a relatively common, clinically and genetically heterogeneous category of congenital forms of muscular dystrophy (CMD) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) associated with hypoglycosylated alpha-dystroglycan. To date, mutations in at least 19 genes have been associated with alpha-DG. One of them, GMPPB, encoding the guanosine-diphosphate-mannose (GDP-mannose) pyrophosphorylase B protein, has recently been associated with a wide clinical spectrum ranging from severe Walker-Warburg syndrome to pseudo-metabolic myopathy and even congenital myasthenic syndromes. We re-sequenced the full set of known disease genes in 73 Italian patients with evidence of either reduced or nearly absent alpha-dystroglycan to assess genotype-phenotype correlations in this cohort. We used innovative bioinformatic tools to calculate the effects of all described GMPPB mutations on protein function and attempted to correlate them with phenotypic expressions. Results: We identified 13 additional cases from 12 families and defined seven novel mutations. Patients displayed variable phenotypes including less typical pictures, ranging from asymptomatic hyperCKemia, to arthrogryposis and congenital clubfoot at birth, and also showed neurodevelopmental comorbidities, such as seizures and ataxic gait, as well as autism-spectrum disorder, which is seldom described in clinical reports of dystroglycanopathies. We also demonstrated that few mutations recur in the Italian GMPPB-mutated population and that alterations of protein stability are the main effects of GMPPB missense variants. Conclusion: This work adds to the data on genotype-phenotype correlations in alpha-DG and offers new bionformatic tools to provide the conceptual framework needed to understand the complexity of these disorders.Peer reviewe

    Recommendations for pre-symptomatic genetic testing for hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis in the era of effective therapy: a multicenter Italian consensus

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    Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv, v for variant) is a late-onset, autosomal dominant disease caused by progressive extracellular deposition of transthyretin amyloid fibrils, leading to organ damage and death. For other late-onset fatal diseases, as Huntington's disease, protocols for pre-symptomatic genetic testing (PST) are available since decades. For ATTRv, limited experience has been reported to date, mostly gathered before the availability of approved therapies. We aimed at developing recommendations for a safe and feasible PST protocol in ATTRv in the era of emerging treatments, taking also into account Italian patients' characteristics and healthcare system rules. After an initial survey on ongoing approaches to PST for ATTRv in Italy, two roundtable meetings were attended by 24 experts from 16 Italian centers involved in the diagnosis and care of this disease. Minimal requirements for PST offer and potential critical issues were highlighted. By November 2019, 457 families affected by ATTRv with 209 molecularly confirmed pre-symptomatic carriers were counted. The median age at PST was 41.3years of age, regardless of the specific mutation. Half of the Italian centers had a multidisciplinary team, including a neurologist, an internist, a cardiologist, a medical geneticist and a psychologist, although in most cases not all the specialists were available in the same center. A variable number of visits was performed at each site. Experts agreed that PST should be offered only in the context of genetic counselling to at risk individuals aged 18 or older. Advertised commercial options for DNA testing should be avoided. The protocol should consist of several steps, including a preliminary clinical examination, a pre-test information session, an interval time, the genetic test and a post-test session with the disclosure of the test results, in the context of an experienced multidisciplinary team. Recommendations for best timing were also defined. Protocols for PST in the context of ATTRv can be refined to offer at risk individuals the best chance for early diagnosis and timely treatment start, while respecting autonomous decisions and promoting safe psychological adjustment to the genetic result