452,600 research outputs found

    414 InternatIonal Journal of electronIcs & communIcatIon technology

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    Abstract Neural networks are a new method of programming computers. They are exceptionally good at performing pattern recognition and other tasks that are very difficult to program using conventional techniques. Programs that employ neural nets are also capable of learning on their own and adapting to changing conditions. Neural nets may be the future of computing .A good way to understand them is with a puzzle that neural nets can be used to solve. Suppose that you are given 500 characters of code that you know to be C, C++, Java, or Python. Now, construct a program that identifies the code's language. One solution is to construct a neural net that learns to identify these languages. According to a simplified account, the human brain consists of about ten billion neurons --and a neuron is, on average, connected to several thousand other neurons. By way of these connections, neurons both send and receive varying quantities of energy. One very important feature of neurons is that they don't react immediately to the reception of energy. Instead, they sum their received energies, and they send their own quantities of energy to other neurons only when this sum has reached a certain critical threshold. The brain learns by adjusting the number and strength of these connections. The brain's network of neurons forms a massively parallel information processing system. This contrasts with conventional computers, in which a single processor executes a single series of instructions

    Analog Neural Networks as Decoders

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    Analog neural networks with feedback can be used to implement l(Winner-Take-All (KWTA) networks. In turn, KWTA networks can be used as decoders of a class of nonlinear error-correcting codes. By interconnecting such KWTA networks, we can construct decoders capable of decoding more powerful codes. We consider several families of interconnected KWTA networks, analyze their performance in terms of coding theory metrics, and consider the feasibility of embedding such networks in VLSI technologies

    Combining Recurrent and Convolutional Neural Networks for Relation Classification

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    This paper investigates two different neural architectures for the task of relation classification: convolutional neural networks and recurrent neural networks. For both models, we demonstrate the effect of different architectural choices. We present a new context representation for convolutional neural networks for relation classification (extended middle context). Furthermore, we propose connectionist bi-directional recurrent neural networks and introduce ranking loss for their optimization. Finally, we show that combining convolutional and recurrent neural networks using a simple voting scheme is accurate enough to improve results. Our neural models achieve state-of-the-art results on the SemEval 2010 relation classification task.Comment: NAACL 201

    Theoretical Properties for Neural Networks with Weight Matrices of Low Displacement Rank

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    Recently low displacement rank (LDR) matrices, or so-called structured matrices, have been proposed to compress large-scale neural networks. Empirical results have shown that neural networks with weight matrices of LDR matrices, referred as LDR neural networks, can achieve significant reduction in space and computational complexity while retaining high accuracy. We formally study LDR matrices in deep learning. First, we prove the universal approximation property of LDR neural networks with a mild condition on the displacement operators. We then show that the error bounds of LDR neural networks are as efficient as general neural networks with both single-layer and multiple-layer structure. Finally, we propose back-propagation based training algorithm for general LDR neural networks.Comment: 13 pages, 1 figur

    Bayesian Learning of Neural Networks for Signal/Background Discrimination in Particle Physics

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    Neural networks are used extensively in classification problems in particle physics research. Since the training of neural networks can be viewed as a problem of inference, Bayesian learning of neural networks can provide more optimal and robust results than conventional learning methods. We have investigated the use of Bayesian neural networks for signal/background discrimination in the search for second generation leptoquarks at the Tevatron, as an example. We present a comparison of the results obtained from the conventional training of feedforward neural networks and networks trained with Bayesian methods.Comment: 3 pages, 4 figures, conference proceeding

    Deep Convolutional Spiking Neural Networks for Image Classification

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    Spiking neural networks are biologically plausible counterparts of the artificial neural networks, artificial neural networks are usually trained with stochastic gradient descent and spiking neural networks are trained with spike timing dependant plasticity. Training deep convolutional neural networks is a memory and power intensive job. Spiking networks could potentially help in reducing the power usage. There is a large pool of tools for one to chose to train artificial neural networks of any size, on the other hand all the available tools to simulate spiking neural networks are geared towards computational neuroscience applications and they are not suitable for real life applications. In this work we focus on implementing a spiking CNN using Tensorflow to examine behaviour of the network and empirically study the effect of various parameters on learning capabilities and also study catastrophic forgetting in the spiking CNN and weight initialization problem in R-STDP using MNIST and N-MNIST data sets

    Reliable Local Explanations for Machine Listening

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    One way to analyse the behaviour of machine learning models is through local explanations that highlight input features that maximally influence model predictions. Sensitivity analysis, which involves analysing the effect of input perturbations on model predictions, is one of the methods to generate local explanations. Meaningful input perturbations are essential for generating reliable explanations, but there exists limited work on what such perturbations are and how to perform them. This work investigates these questions in the context of machine listening models that analyse audio. Specifically, we use a state-of-the-art deep singing voice detection (SVD) model to analyse whether explanations from SoundLIME (a local explanation method) are sensitive to how the method perturbs model inputs. The results demonstrate that SoundLIME explanations are sensitive to the content in the occluded input regions. We further propose and demonstrate a novel method for quantitatively identifying suitable content type(s) for reliably occluding inputs of machine listening models. The results for the SVD model suggest that the average magnitude of input mel-spectrogram bins is the most suitable content type for temporal explanations
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