26,134 research outputs found

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    The Genetics of Pain: An exploration of gene-by-environment interactions and their effects on pain

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    The findings presented in this dissertation are part of the bigger SYMBIOME project which aims to use the biopsychosocial model of pain to develop a prognostic clinical phenotype for people that experience musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma. Chapter 2 presents an exploratory analysis to assess the relationships between genetic polymorphisms and pain severity and interference. Early childhood trauma was also explored as a moderator between genetic polymorphisms and pain outcomes. For pain severity, major allele carriers (A/A and G/A) of FKBP5 rs9394314 reported significantly higher scores than minor allele carriers (G/G). Further, major allele carriers who had at least one adverse childhood experience (ACE) reported significantly higher scores than minor allele carriers with at least one ACE. For pain interference, minor allele carriers (G/G) of CNR2 rs2501431 scored significantly higher than major allele carriers (A/A and G/A). Chapter 3 presents a cluster analysis that combines genotypes of FKBP5 rs9394314 and CNR2 rs2501431 to explore meaningful relationships with pain and trauma-related distress. ACE was also explored as a moderator of these relationships. Three clusters were identified where the second cluster characterized by major allele carriers of rs9394314 and minor allele carriers of rs2501431 reported significantly higher pain-related functional interference scores. Participants in the second cluster with at least one ACE reported higher pain interference and traumatic distress scores compared to the third cluster, while participants in the first cluster with at least one ACE reported higher pain severity compared to the first cluster. Chapter 4 presents genomic structural equation models (SEM) that explore the relationships of genotypes with trauma-related distress using the traumatic injuries distress scale (TIDS), ACE, and recovery outcomes. The results demonstrate a relationship between TIDS and recovery outcomes, and an indirect relationship between FKBP5 rs9394314 and recovery outcomes exist which is mediated by TIDS. Major allele carriers of FKBP5 rs9394314 reported higher TIDS scores, which was also demonstrated for participants that had at least one ACE. Major allele carriers that scored higher on the TIDS were predicted to be in the none-recovered category. These results support the notion that gene-x-environment interactions may play an important role in pain and recovery

    The Influence of Frontal and Axial Plane Deformities on Contact Mechanics during Squatting: A Finite Element Study

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    Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA) is a degenerative joint disease and a leading cause of disability worldwide. Lower limb malalignment was a risky factor leading to KOA, altering the load distributions. This study aimed to study the influence of knee deformities on knee contact mechanics and knee kinematics during squatting. A full-leg squat FE model was developed based on general open-source models and validated with in vivo studies to investigate the outputs under frontal malalignment (valgus 8掳 to varus 8掳) and axial malalignment (miserable malalignment 30掳). As a result, Varus-aligned and miserable aligned models increased medial tibiofemoral force and lateral patellar contact pressures, while the valgus-aligned model increased lateral tibiofemoral force medial patellar contact pressures with no effects on total contact loads. The Model with a higher medial force ratio (medial force/total force) induced a higher internal tibial rotation. In conclusion, we recommended that patients with knee malalignment be taken care of alignments in both frontal and axial planes

    Des贸rdenes Osteomusculares Asociados Al Teletrabajo En Docentes De La UNAD ZCBOY Durante El Tiempo De Pandemia Por COVID-19.

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    A continuaci贸n, se presentan resultados del proyecto de investigaci贸n, el cual se basa en la pregunta de investigaci贸n: 驴Cu谩les son los des贸rdenes osteomusculares asociados al teletrabajo en docentes de la UNAD ZCBOY durante el tiempo de pandemia por COVID-19? Y tiene por objetivo: Determinar los des贸rdenes osteomusculares asociados al teletrabajo en docentes de la Zona Centro Boyac谩 de la UNAD durante el tiempo de pandemia por COVID-19. Este estudio se enmarco en un enfoque cuantitativo, con un dise帽o no experimental descriptivo transversal ya que no se manipulo ninguna variable y los datos se recolectaron en un 煤nico punto temporal. El tipo de muestra fue no probabil铆stico, no aleatorio y por conveniencia, son docentes de la Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia de la ZONA Centro Boyac谩. Para la recolecci贸n de datos se utiliz贸 el cuestionario N贸rdico de Kuorinka para obtener informaci贸n de los s铆ntomas osteomusculares en regiones del cuerpo, sucedidos en los 煤ltimos 6 meses. Como resultado final se determin贸 mediante una caracterizaci贸n de los docentes de la Zona Centro Boyac谩 que un 78,98% correspondiente a 124 docentes de 157 encuestados padecen alg煤n tipo de trastorno musculoesquel茅tico por el dolor que presentan en alguna regi贸n del cuerpo, del mismo modo el 21,02% correspondientes a 33 docente manifestaron no padecer ning煤n tipo de dolor, por otra parte entre las regiones que m谩s se present贸 dolor fueron: el cuello con un 63,06% correspondiente a 99 docentes, dorsolumbar con un 62,42% correspondiente a 98 docentes y mu帽eca o mano derecha con un 46,50% correspondiente a 73 docentes universitarios.Below are the results of the research project, which is based on the research question: What are the musculoskeletal disorders associated with teleworking in UNAD ZCBOY teachers during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic? And its objective is: To determine the musculoskeletal disorders associated with teleworking in teachers of the Boyac谩 Center Zone of the UNAD during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was framed in a quantitative approach, with a non-experimental descriptive cross-sectional design since no variable was manipulated and the data was collected at a single time point. The type of sample was non-probabilistic, non-random and for convenience, they are teachers from the National Open and Distance University of the ZONA Centro Boyac谩. For data collection, the Nordic Kuorinka questionnaire was used to obtain information on musculoskeletal symptoms in regions of the body that occurred in the last 6 months. As a final result, it was determined through a characterization of the teachers of the Boyac谩 Center Zone that 78.98% corresponding to 124 teachers of 157 respondents suffer from some type of musculoskeletal disorder due to the pain they present in some region of the body, in the same way the 21.02% corresponding to 33 teachers stated they did not suffer any type of pain, on the other hand among the regions that presented the most pain were: the neck with 63.06% corresponding to 99 teachers, thoracolumbar with 62.42% corresponding to 98 teachers and wrist or right hand with 46.50% corresponding to 73 university teachers

    Educaci贸 postural: avaluaci贸 dels coneixements de la salut de l'esquena en activitats de la vida di脿ria en estudiants d'Educaci贸 Secund脿ria

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    Objectiu: Dissenyar i validar un q眉estionari sobre coneixements de la salut i la cura de l鈥檈squena en activitats de la vida di脿ria en joves Tamb茅 analizar diferents models de puntuaci贸 de les respostes. Metodologia: Es va seguir un m猫tode general de prospectiva (Delphi), amb el consens d鈥檜n grup de sis experts. Estudi de consistencia interna i fiabilitat en una mostra de 89 xics i 80 xiques. Amb les dades obteses aplicaci贸 de cinc models de puntuaci贸 basats en donar un pes diferent a les respostes. Consist猫ncia interna del q眉estionari calculada amb l'Alfa de Cronbach amb cadasc煤 dels models. Estudi de la fiabilitat amb l'an脿lisi de mesures repetides test-retest i l鈥檈studi de l鈥檈rror de mesura amb la representaci贸 gr脿fica dels valors descrita per Bland i Altman. Es calcularen les desviacions est脿ndard de les difer猫ncies, la prova t per a una mostra amb les difer猫ncies, els coeficients de correlaci贸 intraclasse i els seus intervals de confian莽a del 95%, l鈥檈rror est脿ndard de mesura, el canvi m铆nim detectable i el coeficient de reproductibilitat. Efecte s貌l/sostre calculat amb els percentatges de resposta m茅s alts i m茅s baixos en les puntuacions del primer passe. Per a l'an脿lisi de la capacitat discriminat貌ria de les puntuacions obtingudes es van utilitzar les mitjanes totals del primer passe, es va reagrupar la variable en quatre grups per quartils i es va aplicar una ANOVA d'un factor entres el quartil 1 y el quartil 4. Resultats: An脿lisi de la validesa tots els valors obtesos sobre la consist猫ncia interna s贸n iguals o majors a .6 Als diferents models, l'Alfa de Cronbach va oscil路lar entre .6 i .7. En la representaci贸 de les puntuacions mitjanes de totes dues passades i el c脿lcul del pendent de la seua funci贸 lineal hi ha una relaci贸 positiva entre les mesures. El valor del pendent, en tots els models al voltant de .7 excepte en el model C que va ser de .56. L鈥櫭璶dex de determinaci贸 va mostrar un nivell de coher猫ncia de les mesures reals amb les te貌riques moderat Coeficient de correlaci贸 entre les puntuacions i el coeficient de correlaci贸 intraclasse igual o major a .75. Error de mesura i l铆mits d'acord de les puntuacions calculats a partir de la desviaci贸 t铆pica de la difer猫ncia de les mitjanes van indicar una probabilitat molt baixa de ser diferents entre ells. L'efecte s貌l/sostre va indicar que aquest efecte no es va produir L'an脿lisi de regressi贸 de les mitjanes i difer猫ncies de les puntuacions totals de tots els models va indicar un augment significatiu de les difer猫ncies en les puntuacions a mesura que el valor mitj脿 d'aquestes va augmentar. Les difer猫ncies entre tots els models van ser significatives. Conclusions: Es presenta un q眉estionari per a mesurar els coneixements sobre la postura corporal i la cura de l'esquena en activitats de la vida di脿ria en adolescents validat. Es determina que les mateixes dades, es poden analitzar utilitzant diferents models, proporcionant cadascun d#aquests informaci贸 diferent

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis

    Building body identities - exploring the world of female bodybuilders

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    This thesis explores how female bodybuilders seek to develop and maintain a viable sense of self despite being stigmatized by the gendered foundations of what Erving Goffman (1983) refers to as the 'interaction order'; the unavoidable presentational context in which identities are forged during the course of social life. Placed in the context of an overview of the historical treatment of women's bodies, and a concern with the development of bodybuilding as a specific form of body modification, the research draws upon a unique two year ethnographic study based in the South of England, complemented by interviews with twenty-six female bodybuilders, all of whom live in the U.K. By mapping these extraordinary women's lives, the research illuminates the pivotal spaces and essential lived experiences that make up the female bodybuilder. Whilst the women appear to be embarking on an 'empowering' radical body project for themselves, the consequences of their activity remains culturally ambivalent. This research exposes the 'Janus-faced' nature of female bodybuilding, exploring the ways in which the women negotiate, accommodate and resist pressures to engage in more orthodox and feminine activities and appearances

    Coloniality and the Courtroom: Understanding Pre-trial Judicial Decision Making in Brazil

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    This thesis focuses on judicial decision making during custody hearings in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The impetus for the study is that while national and international protocols mandate the use of pre-trial detention only as a last resort, judges continue to detain people pre-trial in large numbers. Custody hearings were introduced in 2015, but the initiative has not produced the reduction in pre-trial detention that was hoped. This study aims to understand what informs judicial decision making at this stage. The research is approached through a decolonial lens to foreground legacies of colonialism, overlooked in mainstream criminological scholarship. This is an interview-based study, where key court actors (judges, prosecutors, and public defenders) and subject matter specialists were asked about influences on judicial decision making. Interview data is complemented by non-participatory observation of custody hearings. The research responds directly to Aliverti et al.'s (2021) call to 鈥榙ecolonize the criminal question鈥 by exposing and explaining how colonialism informs criminal justice practices. Answering the call in relation to judicial decision making, findings provide evidence that colonial-era assumptions, dynamics, and hierarchies were evident in the practice of custody hearings and continue to inform judges鈥 decisions, thus demonstrating the coloniality of justice. This study is significant for the new empirical data presented and theoretical innovation is also offered via the introduction of the 鈥榓nticitizen鈥. The concept builds on Souza鈥檚 (2007) 鈥榮ubcitizen鈥 to account for the active pursuit of dangerous Others by judges casting themselves as crime fighters in a modern moral crusade. The findings point to the limited utility of human rights discourse 鈥 the normative approach to influencing judicial decision making around pre-trial detention 鈥 as a plurality of conceptualisations compete for dominance. This study has important implications for all actors aiming to reduce pre-trial detention in Brazil because unless underpinning colonial logics are addressed, every innovation risks becoming the next lei para ingl锚s ver (law [just] for the English to see)
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