269 research outputs found

    Dominance and retaliation in the informal structure of authority: a comparative study of Madhya Pradesh and Bihar

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    In post-independence democratic India several measures have been initiated in order to bring the marginalised and depressed sections of its population into the mainstream of development. While some of these measures have yielded positive results, several others have failed miserably to achieve the desired goals. This has kept the equity issue alive as a hot topic right up to the present day, leading to a great deal of dissatisfaction among the vast majority of India's population. Given the close affinity between caste and class in India, it is not surprising that the bulk of the population who still remain outside the purview of development happen to be the lower castes of the country. The other side of the same coin is the near total manipulation of the instruments of state policy by the higher caste and the elite, thus creating a chasm between the aspirations of different sections of the country芒鈧劉s population. This has resulted in fractured verdicts in electoral politics and in the growth of regionalism, casteism and religious fundamentalism. The growing difference in class character between policymakers and the recipients of various policy measures has not remained unchallenged and at times manifests itself in violence. Continued inequity in the distribution of landed property in areas of intense agricultural activity, particularly in the rural setting, exacerbates the intensity of such conflicts. The age of liberalisation has introduced a new complexity into the whole picture. The presence of a state, which in several areas never did penetrate very far in the pre-liberalisation phase and thus left the population to fend for itself and seek sources of authority in the informal sector, finds its reach even more constricted in the new setting, with most of its energy and resources being devoured by the ever growing sector of the urban middle class. While the dominant section in the rural setting relies on the age-old instruments of hegemony in the informal arena to perpetuate its authority, the instruments of retaliation forged by the depressed and the subaltern section of the population have now acquired a history of infamy in the legal discourse of the state. This paper focuses on such instruments of hegemony and retaliation in the informal arena of authority in the two Indian states of Madhya Pradesh and Bihar, and in particular seeks to trace how capable, or incapacitated, are the lower echelons of society in coping with these new situations

    Naxalism and Tribes in India

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    India has the second largest concentration of tribal population in the world after the African continent. The Schedule Tribes (ST from now on) occupy isolate areas which are comprised of hilly terrain. These Schedule Tribes have a tradition of strongly resisting the infiltration of outsiders, and particularly foreign outsiders into their areas. History provides evidence of protracted struggles between the foreign invaders and the tribals when the former attempted to enter into their areas. In this light the present article aims to highlight the interpretational information related to Naxalism and tribes in India. Here, we present an overview of Naxalism, its genesis, the salient features of the 'Action Plan' of the Naxalite movement. We shall also discuss the so-called "Maoist Mayhem", and Naxalism in Tribal areas and its causes.We shall also discuss measures related to Naxalism and the tribal situation in general. As a conclusion, we shall argue that Naxalism is not a law and order problem but is, moreover, related to an imbalance in the dispensation of social and economic justice, with particular focus on land and mineral resources.India contiene la segunda mayor concentraci贸n de poblaci贸n tribal en el mundo despu茅s del continente africano. Tradicionalmente las llamadas "Scheduled Tribes" han ocupado 谩reas contiguas y aisladas, habitualmente terreno monta帽oso u ondulado, y han resistido con fiereza la infiltraci贸n de extra帽os en su territorio, sobre todo extranjeros. Existen evidencias hist贸ricas de un largo enfrentamiento entre los invasores extranjeros y las tribus cuando aquellos intentaron penetrar sus territorios. Tambi茅n se han dado rebeliones contra las autoridades dominantes. Este art铆culo se propone iluminar la informaci贸n y las interpretaciones que existen sobre el Naxalismo y las tribus en India. Presenta una panor谩mica del Naxalismo, su g茅nesis, y los rasgos principales del 'Plan de Acci贸n' del movimiento, el caos mao铆sta, el Naxalismo en las 谩reas tribales, sus causas, el modo en que las tribus se han visto implicadas en el fuego cruzado, etc. Este art铆culo tambi茅n revisa algunas importantes medidas en relaci贸n al Naxalismo y la situaci贸n de las tribus, para concluir que este movimiento no es un problema de ley y orden, sino que tiene su origen en desequilibrios en la dispensaci贸n de justicia social y econ贸mica, que implican problemas socio-econ贸micos, en especial por cuanto refiere a la tierra y los recursos minerales

    Introduction. Out of Hidden India: Adivasi Histories, Stories, Visual Arts and Performances

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    This issue of Anglistica AION is dedicated to indigenous India and to some of its forms of emerging subjectivity. After having been studied by ethnoanthropologists as cultural exceptions or worse after having embodied the stereotype of the 鈥榖orn offender鈥 in colonial legislation, Indian tribals are claiming a new articulated visibility and an amplified political resonance. As Rashmi Varma remarks, in post-independence India, tribals are emerging as political protagonists in their own right asking, and in part obtaining, attention and recognition. Unfortunately even in the postcolonial state tribals continue to suffer from an easy mis-representation of their role and status, figuring very often as dangerous insurgents who threaten national security or as backward minorities whose survival hinders development

    India's Experiment with Revolution

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    Revolutionary marxist politics which from its appearance in the political rhetoric of the Naxalite movement in the 1960s has had a rollercoaster ride. Traveling from the south to the east, returning to the south and then gradually spreading to raise the specter of a north-south red corridor, it has created an apparition of revolution from time to time without being able to realise the dream so far. However, paradoxically Maoism has not only emerged and spread across the country 鈥 at present in sixteen states and 194 of the 610 districts 鈥 despite socialistic claims of the Indian state and competitive open and transparent election process in the polity in four distinct phases, it has elicited a dominantly security-centric response from the Indian state. The current phase of liberalisation and globalization of the Indian economy has created new contexts for its spread and consolidation. This paper puts this phenomenon and the questions it raises in historical, social, political and economic contexts

    Naxalbari at its Golden Jubilee: Fifty recent books on the Maoist movement in India

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    There are not many other issues in South Asia that have attracted as much scholarly attention in the last decade as India's Naxalite or Maoist movement. At least 50 scholarly or political books, several novels, and numerous essays have been published since 2007. What we hope to do in this article is to ask why this movement has generated such attention at this moment in time, to analyse the commentaries that have emerged and the questions that have been asked, and also to identify some of the shortfalls in the existing literature and propose some lines of research to be pursued by future scholars

    Naxal problem in India an economic analysis

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    India, having one of the fastest growing economies in the world, and being the most populous democratic country, has great potential to become a future superpower. However, in this increasingly globalised environment, India faces several threats to its security. The Naxalites has been identified as the biggest internal security threat to India by none other than the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The complex and structural causes of the problem support this proposition. The Naxal movement also presents the greatest overall threat to India in the future, as it highlights various underlying weaknesses of India鈥檚 governance, political institutions and socio-economic structure.so here we analyse the root cause of this problem and economic analysis