2,559,157 research outputs found

    Review of the New World genera of the Leafhopper Tribe Erythroneurini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocycbinae)

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    The genus-level classification of New World Erythroneurini is revised based on results of a phylogenetic analysis of 100 morphological characters. The 704 known species are placed into 18 genera. Erasmoneura Young and Eratoneura Young, previously treated as subgenera of Erythroneura Fitch, and Erythridula Young, most recently treated as a subgenus of Arboridia Zachvatkin, are elevated to generic status. Three species previously included in Erasmoneura are placed in a new genus, Rossmoneura (type species, Erythroneura tecta McAtee). The concept of Erythroneura is thereby narrowed to include only those species previously included in the nominotypical subgenus. New World species previously included in Zygina Fieber are not closely related to the European type species of that genus and are therefore placed in new genera. Neozygina, n. gen., based on type species Erythroneura ceonothana Beamer, includes all species previously included in the ???ceonothana group???, and Zyginama, n. gen., based on type species Erythroneura ritana Beamer, includes most species previously included in the ???ritana group??? of New World Zygina. Five additional new genera are described to include other previously described North American Erythroneurini: Hepzygina, n. gen., based on type species Erythroneura milleri Beamer and also including E. aprica McAtee; Mexigina, n. gen., based on type species Erythroneura oculata McAtee; Nelionidia, n. gen., based on type species N. pueblensis, n. sp., three additional new species, and Erythroneura amicis Ross; Neoimbecilla, n. gen., based on type species Erythroneura kiperi Beamer and one new species; and Illinigina, n. gen., based on type species Erythroneura illinoiensis Gillette. Five new genera, based on previously undescribed species, are also recognized: Aztegina, n. gen, based on A. punctinota, n. sp., from Mexico; Amazygina, n. gen., based on type species A. decaspina, n. sp., and three additional new species from Ecuador; Hamagina, n. gen., based on type species H. spinigera, n. sp., and two additional new species from Peru and Ecuador; Napogina, n. gen., based on type species N. recta, n. sp., and one additional new species from Ecuador; Perugina, n. gen., based on type species P. denticula, n. sp., from Peru; and Spinigina, n. gen., based on type species S. hirsuta, n. sp., and an additional new species from Peru. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the New World Erythroneurini consist of three lineages resulting from separate invasions from the Old World.published or submitted for publicationis peer reviewe

    Properties of the Abelian Projection Fields in SU(N)SU(N) Lattice Gluodynamics

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    't~Hooft's abelian projection of SU(N)SU(N) gauge theory yields NN mutually constrained, compact abelian fields which are permutationally equivalent. We formulate the notion of ``species permutation'' symmetry of the NN abelian projection fields and discuss its consequences for cross-species correlators. We show that at large NN cross-species interactions are 1N{1\over N} suppressed relative to same-species interactions. Numerical simulations at N=3N=3 support our symmetry arguments and reveal the existence of inter-species interactions of size {\cal O\/}\bigl({1\over N-1}\bigr) as analytically predicted.Comment: 13 pages, 1 postscript figure include

    Asymptotic regime in N random interacting species

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    The asymptotic regime of a complex ecosystem with \emph{N}random interacting species and in the presence of an external multiplicative noise is analyzed. We find the role of the external noise on the long time probability distribution of the i-th density species, the extinction of species and the local field acting on the i-th population. We analyze in detail the transient dynamics of this field and the cavity field, which is the field acting on the ithi^{th} species when this is absent. We find that the presence or the absence of some population give different asymptotic distributions of these fields.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures. To be published in Eur. Phys. J.

    Review of the West Indian species of Efferia Coquillett (Diptera: Asilidae): Part 1. Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba, and Jamaica

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    The genus Efferia Coquillett from the Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba, and Jamaica is reviewed. The fauna now totals 16 species with 6 new species described (Ef. bellardii n. sp., Ef. bromleyi n. sp., Ef. hinei n. sp., Ef. insula n. sp., Ef. pina n. sp., and Ef. vinalensis n. sp.). Cuba has the greatest diversity with 10 species, Jamaica 3, the Bahamas 2, and the Cayman Islands 1. Efferia stylata (Fabricius) is removed from the species list of these West Indian islands. The wings of Ef. caymanensis Scarbrough and Ef. bromleyi, spermathecae of Ef. bromleyi, Ef. cubensis (Bromley), Ef. insula, Ef. nigritarsis (Hine), and terminalia of all species are illustrated. Keys for the identification of the species are provided. Specimens of two additional species from Cuba are in too poor a condition to be described but their terminalia are illustrated and the species are included in the key to the males

    Arbuscular mycorrhizas in phosphate-polluted soil: interrelations between root colonization and nitrogen

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    To investigate whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) – abundant in a phosphate-polluted but nitrogen-poor field site – improve plant N nutrition, we carried out a two-factorial experiment, including N fertilization and fungicide treatment. Percentage of root length colonized (% RLC) by AMF and tissue element concentrations were determined for four resident plant species. Furthermore, soil nutrient levels and N effects on aboveground biomass of individual species were measured. Nitrogen fertilization lowered % RLC by AMF of Artemisia vulgaris L., Picris hieracioides L. and Poa compressa L., but not of Bromus japonicus Thunb. This – together with positive N addition effects on N status, N:P-ratio and aboveground biomass of most species – suggested that plants are mycorrhizal because of N deficiency. Fungicide treatment, which reduced % RLC in all species, resulted in lower N concentrations in A. vulgaris and P. hieracioides, a higher N concentration in P. compressa, and did not consistently affect N status of B. japonicus. Evidently, AMF had an influence on the N nutrition of plants in this P-rich soil; however – potentially due to differences in their mycorrhizal responsiveness – not all species seemed to benefit froma mycorrhiza-mediated N uptake and accordingly, N distribution

    A revision of Pediacus Shuckard (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) for America north of Mexico : with notes on other species

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    The genus Pediacus Shuckard is revised for America north of Mexico. Seven species are recorded: P. andrewsi Thomas, n. sp.; P. fuscus Erichson; P. gracilis Thomas, n. sp.; P. hesperoglaber Thomas, n. sp.; P. ommatodon Thomas, n. sp.; P. stephani Thomas, n. sp.; and P. subglaber LeConte, new status. The species are described and illustrated, and a key is presented for their identification. The described European and Neotropical species are reviewed and illustrated

    Central American Temnocerus Thunberg, 1815 (Coleoptera: Rhynchitidae)

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    Twenty eight species of Temnocerus Thunberg, 1815 are recognized from Central America (Mexico to Panama) with eight previously described species and 20 new species as follows: T. abdominalis (Voss), T. chiapensis n. sp., T. chiriquensis (Sharp), T. confertus (Sharp), T. cyaneus n. sp., T. ellus n. sp., T. giganteus n. sp., T. guatemalenus (Sharp), T. guerrerensis n. sp., T. herediensis n. sp., T. mexicanus n. sp., T. michoacensis n. sp., T. minutus n. sp., T. niger n. sp., T. oaxacensis n. sp., T. obrieni, n. sp., T. oculatus (Sharp), T. potosi n. sp., T. pseudaeratus n. sp., T. pueblensis n. sp., T. pusillus (Sharp), T. regularis (Sharp), T. rostralis n. sp., T. rugosus n. sp., T. salvensis n. sp., T. tamaulipensis n. sp., T. thesaurus (Sharp) and T. yucatensis n. sp. Rhynchites debilis Sharp is placed in synonymy with Temnocerus guatemalenus (Sharp) and Pselaphorhynchites lindae Hamilton is placed in synonymy with Temnocerus regularis (Sharp). A key to species based on external characters and male genitalia is provided as well as digital images, aedeagus drawings, and map distributions

    Ecological Studies on Nepenthes at Barito Ulu, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

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    Ecological studies on the Nepenthes species at Barito Ulu, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia were conducted between August 2005 and September 2006. Surveys and two small plot inventories were used to determine the diversity and population of Nepenthes at the study site. We found eight Nepenthes species around the BaritoUlu study area: N. albomarginata, N. ampullaria, N. gracilis, N. hirsuta, N. rafflesiana, N. reinwardtiana, N. stenophylla, and N. hispida. Plot A was dominated by N. rafflesiana with one other species found; whilst in plot B we found five species but it was also dominated by N. rafflesiana. In plot A, the one year stem length growth rate of N. albomarginata was faster than N. rafflesiana (5.0 and 3.5 cm respectively). While in plot B, N. gracilis (21.7 cm) and N. reinwardtiana (13.1 cm) showed faster growth rates than N. albomarginata (5.2 cm), N. rafflesiana (7.0 cm) and N. stenophylla (8.5 cm). Generally, the habitat of Nepenthes in the study site is heath forest

    Generic changes in United States Issini (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Issidae)

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    Three new genera of the family Issidae are described for species formerly included in the genus Hysteropterum sensu lato: Balduza Gnezdilov and O’Brien, gen. n. (type species: Hysteropterum unum Ball 1910), Stilbometopius Gnezdilov and O’Brien, gen. n. (type species: Issus auroreus Uhler 1876), Abolloptera Gnezdilov and O’Brien, gen. n. (type species: Hysteropterum bistriatum Caldwell 1945),. The genus Tylanira Ball 1936 is redescribed. The male genitalia of Tylanira bifurca Ball 1936 is described and illustrated. Tylana ustulata Uhler 1876 is transfered to Tylanira. Hysteropterum bufo Van Duzee 1923 is transfered to Balduza gen. n. and the male genitalia of the species is described and illustrated. The subgenus Paralixes Caldwell 1945 of the genus Ulixes Stål 1861 is raised to genus – Paralixes Caldwell 1945, stat. n. A key to the issid genera of the United States is given. New data on the distribution of 7 species are given

    A revision of the striatella species group of the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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    A taxonomic revision of species of the striatella group, including descriptions ofthree new species from Mexico, Nicaragua and Costa Rica is presented. To date we recognize 6 species in this group: Rhagoletis striatella, R. jamaicensis, R. macquartii, R. triangularis n. sp., R. nicaraguensis n. sp., and R. solanophaga n. sp. Information and records about their distribution, known host plants, and morphological relationships among the species are discussed. A key to the species within the group is presented.Se presenta una revision taxonomic a de las especies del grupo striatella, la cual incluye descripciones de tres nuevas especies provenientes de Mexico, Nicaragua y Costa Rica. Ala fecha reconocemos 6 especies en este grupo: Rhagoletis striatella, R. jamaicensis, R. macquartii, R. triangularis n. sp., R. nicaraguensis n. sp., and R. solanophaga n. sp .. Se discute informacion sobre su distribucion, plantas hospederas conocidas, y las relaciones morfologicas entre sus especies. Ademas se presenta una clave para separar todas las especies del grupo
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