662 research outputs found

    Effektivit√§t und Durchf√ľhrbarkeit exekutive Funktionen zentrierender Interventionen im Kindergartenalter

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    Externalisierende St√∂rungen geh√∂ren zu den h√§ufigsten psychischen Erkrankungen im Kindes- und Jugendalter. In vielen √§tiologischen Modellen zu externalisierenden St√∂rungen werden exekutive Dysfunktionen als Basisdefizitebetrachtet. Das Training der exekutiven Kernfunktionen (Arbeitsged√§chtnis, Inhibitionskontrolle und kognitive Flexibilit√§t) im Vorschulalter, in dem Hirnentwicklung bedeutende Schritte durchl√§uft, kann daher ein vielversprechender Ansatzpunkt zur Pr√§vention und Intervention externalisierender St√∂rungen sein. Es wurden verschiedene Ans√§tze zum Training exekutiver Funktionen entwickelt. Eine quantitative Zusammenfassung der Effektivit√§t dieser Ans√§tze im Vorschulalter stand bisher jedoch aus. Daher wurde in Studie 1 eine Meta-Analyse durchgef√ľhrt, um diese Forschungsl√ľcke zu schlie√üen. In der Literaturrecherche konnten k = 42 Studien identifiziert werden. M√∂gliche Verzerrungsrisiken wurden erfasst. Die Effektst√§rken hinsichtlich der exekutiven Funktionen betrugen d = .31 (kalte Inhibitionskontrolle), d = .46 (Arbeitsged√§chtnis), d = 44 (hei√üe Inhibitionskontrolle) und d = .42 (kognitive Flexibilit√§t). Hinsichtlich der externalisierenden Symptomatik waren kleine (ADHSSymptomatik: d = .40) bis mittlere Effekte (weitere externalisierende Symptomatik: d = .59) feststellbar. Insbesondere Scaffolding- und metakognitiv-orientierte Trainings, die meist mehrere exekutive Funktionen zugleich trainierten, erwiesen sich dahingehend als effektiv. In Hinblick auf die hei√üe Inhibitionskontrolle konnten aufmerksamkeitslenkende Trainings den gr√∂√üten Effekt erzielen. In der zuk√ľnftigen Forschung sollten weitere gut-kontrollierte Studien durchgef√ľhrt werden, um die Ergebnisse dieser Meta-Analyse weiter zu verifizieren. Auf Basis dieser Ergebnisse wurde das kognitive Training CRIPS (Pauli-Pott, 2019) bei Mitarbeit von Christopher Mann entwickelt. Es basiert auf Prinzipien des Scaffoldings und beinhaltet dar√ľber hinaus auch aufmerksamkeitslenkende Trainingsinhalte. Das Training wurde in zwei ersten Studien evaluiert. In Studie 2, einer Machbarkeitsstudie, wurde die Attraktivit√§t und die Motivierbarkeit des Trainings aus Sicht der Zielgruppe (Vorschulkinder) qualitativ evaluiert. Daf√ľr wurden in zwei Kindertagesst√§tten zwei bis drei essenzielle Trainingsstunden des CRIPS-Trainings durchgef√ľhrt. Anschlie√üend wurden die teilnehmenden n = 7 Vorschulkindern und n = 3 Erzieherinnen mit halbstrukturierten Interviews hinsichtlich der Motivierbarkeit und 137 Attraktivit√§t befragt. Der √ľberwiegende Teil der Kinder gab eine hohe Motivierbarkeit an und bewertete die Trainingsinhalte als attraktiv. Einzelne Inhalte wurden als weniger attraktiv als andere bewertet. Die √Ąu√üerungen der Erzieherinnen stimmten mit denen der Kinder √ľberein. Die als weniger attraktiv empfundenen Elemente des Trainings sollten auf Basis der Interviews √ľberarbeitet werden, um die Attraktivit√§t und Motivierbarkeit weiter zu steigern. In Studie 3 wurde die Wirksamkeit des CRIPS-Training in einer Pilot-Studie, evaluiert. Es sollte √ľberpr√ľft werden, ob mindestens kleine Effektst√§rken des Trainings bei teilstation√§r versorgten Kindern mit externalisierenden Symptomen/St√∂rungen festgestellt werden k√∂nnen. Insgesamt nahmen n = 14 Kinder teil. Es wurden zu drei Rekrutierungszeitpunkten jeweils acht der zw√∂lf Termine des CRIPS-Trainings in einer kinder- und jugendpsychiatrischen Tagesklinik durchgef√ľhrt. Zu jedem Rekrutierungszeitpunkt fanden pr√§- und Postmessungen zu Arbeitsged√§chtnis, hei√üer und kalter Inhibitionskontrolle statt (neuropsychologische Tests) sowie ein Fragebogenrating durch das Betreuungspersonal der Tagesklinik zu externalisierenden Symptomen. Es konnten Effekte bzgl. des Arbeitsged√§chtnisses (d = 1.57) und der kalten Inhibitionskontrolle (d = .31) gefunden werden. Hinsichtlich der hei√üen Inhibitionskontrolle war kein Unterschied zwischen den Gruppen erkennbar. Anders als erwartet konnte kein Effekt hinsichtlich der externalisierenden Symptome festgestellt werden. Zudem lag ein mittlerer Effekt zugunsten der Kontrollgruppe hinsichtlich der Verhaltensprobleme vor. Dies k√∂nnte zum einen an dem kurzen Zeitrahmen, zum anderen an der fehlenden Verblindung und der nicht detailliert erfassten begleitenden medikament√∂sen Therapie gelegen haben. Die Frage der Wirksamkeit hinsichtlich externalisierender Symptomatik sollte in weiteren Studien nachgegangen werden. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit ist es gelungen, eine Forschungsl√ľcke zu schlie√üen, in dem ein erster quantitativer Vergleich exekutive Funktionen-zentrierender Interventionsans√§tze im Vorschulalter durchgef√ľhrt wurde. Es konnten effektive Ans√§tze festgestellt werden. Komponenten eines kognitiven Trainingsverfahrens wurden in zwei ersten Pilot-Studien evaluiert

    Soundscape in Urban Forests

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    This Special Issue of Forests explores the role of soundscapes in urban forested areas. It is comprised of 11 papers involving soundscape studies conducted in urban forests from Asia and Africa. This collection contains six research fields: (1) the ecological patterns and processes of forest soundscapes; (2) the boundary effects and perceptual topology; (3) natural soundscapes and human health; (4) the experience of multi-sensory interactions; (5) environmental behavior and cognitive disposition; and (6) soundscape resource management in forests

    Glazba u kurikulu ranoga i predŇ°kolskoga odgoja

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    From the beginning of organized early childhood and preschool education, music has been an integral part of kindergarten educational practice. The key role in the formation of institutional early childhood and preschool education was played by Friedrich Fr√∂bel (1782‚Äí1852). It is due to him that kindergartens opened during the 19th century, first in Germany and then in other countries. He considered music an essential component of educational practice. The kindergarten movement also influenced Croatia. In 1869, the first kindergarten (zabaviŇ°te) was opened in Zagreb. The following decades saw an expansion of the network of preschool institutions. Music activities, most often singing, were an integral part of them. Methodical approaches to early music education have changed and improved over time. Changes in the conception of early childhood and preschool education pedagogy also reflected on the position of music activities in certain educational programs or curricula of early childhood and preschool education. While singing activities were the focus of the traditional methodical approach, the contemporary approach emphasizes researching music. Music activities have their place in the modern curriculum of early childhood and preschool education. They represent a significant opportunity to encourage the complete development of early and preschool-age children and stimulate their education, learning activities, and the development of their competencies.Od pońćetaka organiziranoga ranog i predŇ°kolskog odgoja glazba je sastavni dio odgojno-obrazovne prakse djeńćjih vrtińáa. Temeljna vaŇĺnost za formiranje institucijskoga ranog i predŇ°kolskog odgoja imao je Friedrich Fr√∂bel (1782. - 1852.). Njegovom se zaslugom djeńćji vrtińái pońćinju otvarati tijekom 19. stoljeńáa prvo u Njemańćkoj, a zatim i drugim zemljama. Glazbu je smatrao bitnom sastavnicom odgojno-obrazovne prakse. Pokret za otvaranjem djeńćjih vrtińáa utjecao je i na Hrvatsku. Godine 1869. otvoreno je prvo djeńćje zabaviŇ°te (djeńćji vrtińá) u Zagrebu. Tijekom narednih desetljeńáa Ň°irila se mreŇĺa predŇ°kolskih ustanova. Glazbene aktivnosti, najńćeŇ°ńáe pjevanje, bile su njihov sastavni dio. Metodińćki pristupi ranom glazbenom odgoju mijenjali su se i usavrŇ°avali tijekom vremena. Promjene u koncepcijama ranoga i predŇ°kolskoga odgoja imale su odraz i na poloŇĺaj glazbenih aktivnosti u pojedinim odgojno-obrazovnim programima odnosno kurikulima ranoga i predŇ°kolskoga odgoja. U tradicionalnom metodińćkom pristupu naglasak je bio na pjevanju dok suvremeni pristup naglasak stavlja na istraŇĺivanje glazbe. Glazbene aktivnosti svoje mjesto imaju i u suvremenom kurikulu ranoga i predŇ°kolskoga odgoj te predstavljaju znańćajnu moguńánost za poticanje cjelovitoga razvoja te odgoja, uńćenja i razvoja kompetencija djeteta rane i predŇ°kolske dobi.

    The Cinematic Daydream as a Tool of Political Emancipation: Plus-de-Jouir, Aufhebung and the Parallax

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    In this research, we will start by expo- sing the paradox of ‚Äėsurplus enjoyment‚Äô (the Lacanian plus-de-jouir), showing that its parallax structure of lack and excess is also applicable to the pheno- menon of (surplus) repression. Linking his concept with the Hegelian Aufhebung, understood as a ‚Äėfailed negation of negation‚Äô or a ‚Äėnegation of negation‚Äô as failure, we will focus in detail on the central example illustrating our theoretical positions, which is Iciar Bollain‚Äôs film Tambien la Lluvia (Even the Rain). In analyzing its narrative structures that address the neocolonial reality, we will tend to approach indirectly, by reading the medium of cinematic narration, the ‚Äėneocolonial question.

    An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Lived Experiences of Graduate-Level Peace Educators: Voices for Sustained Peace

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    Peace education is arguably one of the underappreciated areas of study within the social sciences. Many lifelong, dedicated peace education professionals often feel undervalued by the military-industrial complex apparatus. Influential individuals and corporations that thrive in chaotic and conflicting environments every so often underestimate the relevance of peace educators. Educators find among academic and professional students an intensified urgency to learn the skills necessary to address real-world conflict; however, these courageous individuals are seemingly battling powerful forces with wealth and power. Although such happenings can be demoralizing, it is slowly galvanizing dedicated peace educators to evolve by altering their skill sets, remaining resilient, and growing from the ongoing challenges. In this dissertation, I sought to investigate the lived experiences of peace educators and explore, through their voices, the challenges they face as global conflicts spiral out of control. This study aims to share the peace educators’ voices first-hand. From the findings, the study unveils some of the invisible structural and systemic issues that often undermine peace educators’ efforts. Participants’ storylines showed that the job is interdisciplinary, transformative, and holistic. Bringing forth the narratives and interpreting their stories were pivotal in unearthing peace educators’ involvement in designing programs, developing conflict management strategies, and deepening their understanding of educational policies

    MONTESSORI PRACTICES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION WITH TEACHERS’ EXPERIENCES

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    The study was conducted using a qualitative research method to examine Montessori preschool education practices in Turkiye. The study group consisted of 14 teachers in Montessori classrooms of preschools in the central district of a province in Turkiye. The data were collected with a Structured Classroom Observation Form, Material Control List and Semi-structured interviews. The MAXQDA 2022 software was used for the analysis of teacher interviews. According to the findings, the structure of the Montessori classrooms was generally in accordance with the Montessori philosophy, and there was a sufficient number and variety of Montessori materials in the classrooms. Practical life and mathematics activities were frequently included in the program. The most commonly used materials were sensorial and cosmic field materials. Teachers felt inadequate about Montessori practices. There were problems with the high-class size, mixed age, cost and supply of material. According to teachers, education provides children with self-regulation skills and enables effective learning. In addition, education has some advantages for parents and teachers. Children were bored with the activities, parents had insufficient knowledge of the practices, and teachers had time management problems. Finally, teachers offered recommendations for improving practices

    Body appreciation around the world: Measurement invariance of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) across 65 nations, 40 languages, gender identities, and age

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    The Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) is a widely used measure of a core facet of the positive body image construct. However, extant research concerning measurement invariance of the BAS-2 across a large number of nations remains limited. Here, we utilised the Body Image in Nature (BINS) dataset ‚Äď with data collected between 2020 and 2022 ‚Äď to assess measurement invariance of the BAS-2 across 65 nations, 40 languages, gender identities, and age groups. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis indicated that full scalar invariance was upheld across all nations, languages, gender identities, and age groups, suggesting that the unidimensional BAS-2 model has widespread applicability. There were large differences across nations and languages in latent body appreciation, while differences across gender identities and age groups were negligible-to-small. Additionally, greater body appreciation was significantly associated with higher life satisfaction, being single (versus being married or in a committed relationship), and greater rurality (versus urbanicity). Across a subset of nations where nation-level data were available, greater body appreciation was also significantly associated with greater cultural distance from the United States and greater relative income inequality. These findings suggest that the BAS-2 likely captures a near-universal conceptualisation of the body appreciation construct, which should facilitate further cross-cultural research

    What is wrong with constructivist teaching? Elaboration, recapitulation and synthesis of theoretical and historical controversies

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    The aim of the study is to use a historical and theoretical-comparative methodological approach to elaborate and recapitulate the phenomenon, history, theoretical, methodological and didactic characteristics as well as certain controversies of constructivism in education. The emphasis will be placed on observing the constructivist teaching in the discourse of the movements of reform pedagogy from a hundred and more years ago. By synthesizing the analysed facts, one can state with certainty that constructivist teaching is a multiple and robust theoretical concept with its own definitions and a long history. The didactic arrangements of constructivist teaching show roots in the concepts of schools and teaching of the reform pedagogy movement, but these two terms cannot be considered synonymous. Constructivist teaching provides essential educational benefits to students, but there are also well-argued criticisms and limitations whose interpretations depend on the theoretical, epistemological and cultural perspectives of observation
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