369 research outputs found

    Weighted Modal Transition Systems

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    Specification theories as a tool in model-driven development processes of component-based software systems have recently attracted a considerable attention. Current specification theories are however qualitative in nature, and therefore fragile in the sense that the inevitable approximation of systems by models, combined with the fundamental unpredictability of hardware platforms, makes it difficult to transfer conclusions about the behavior, based on models, to the actual system. Hence this approach is arguably unsuited for modern software systems. We propose here the first specification theory which allows to capture quantitative aspects during the refinement and implementation process, thus leveraging the problems of the qualitative setting. Our proposed quantitative specification framework uses weighted modal transition systems as a formal model of specifications. These are labeled transition systems with the additional feature that they can model optional behavior which may or may not be implemented by the system. Satisfaction and refinement is lifted from the well-known qualitative to our quantitative setting, by introducing a notion of distances between weighted modal transition systems. We show that quantitative versions of parallel composition as well as quotient (the dual to parallel composition) inherit the properties from the Boolean setting.Comment: Submitted to Formal Methods in System Desig

    Expressiveness and Completeness in Abstraction

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    We study two notions of expressiveness, which have appeared in abstraction theory for model checking, and find them incomparable in general. In particular, we show that according to the most widely used notion, the class of Kripke Modal Transition Systems is strictly less expressive than the class of Generalised Kripke Modal Transition Systems (a generalised variant of Kripke Modal Transition Systems equipped with hypertransitions). Furthermore, we investigate the ability of an abstraction framework to prove a formula with a finite abstract model, a property known as completeness. We address the issue of completeness from a general perspective: the way it depends on certain abstraction parameters, as well as its relationship with expressiveness.Comment: In Proceedings EXPRESS/SOS 2012, arXiv:1208.244

    Structural Refinement for the Modal nu-Calculus

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    We introduce a new notion of structural refinement, a sound abstraction of logical implication, for the modal nu-calculus. Using new translations between the modal nu-calculus and disjunctive modal transition systems, we show that these two specification formalisms are structurally equivalent. Using our translations, we also transfer the structural operations of composition and quotient from disjunctive modal transition systems to the modal nu-calculus. This shows that the modal nu-calculus supports composition and decomposition of specifications.Comment: Accepted at ICTAC 201

    Hennessy-Milner Logic with Greatest Fixed Points as a Complete Behavioural Specification Theory

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    There are two fundamentally different approaches to specifying and verifying properties of systems. The logical approach makes use of specifications given as formulae of temporal or modal logics and relies on efficient model checking algorithms; the behavioural approach exploits various equivalence or refinement checking methods, provided the specifications are given in the same formalism as implementations. In this paper we provide translations between the logical formalism of Hennessy-Milner logic with greatest fixed points and the behavioural formalism of disjunctive modal transition systems. We also introduce a new operation of quotient for the above equivalent formalisms, which is adjoint to structural composition and allows synthesis of missing specifications from partial implementations. This is a substantial generalisation of the quotient for deterministic modal transition systems defined in earlier papers

    Labelled transition systems as a Stone space

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    A fully abstract and universal domain model for modal transition systems and refinement is shown to be a maximal-points space model for the bisimulation quotient of labelled transition systems over a finite set of events. In this domain model we prove that this quotient is a Stone space whose compact, zero-dimensional, and ultra-metrizable Hausdorff topology measures the degree of bisimilarity such that image-finite labelled transition systems are dense. Using this compactness we show that the set of labelled transition systems that refine a modal transition system, its ''set of implementations'', is compact and derive a compactness theorem for Hennessy-Milner logic on such implementation sets. These results extend to systems that also have partially specified state propositions, unify existing denotational, operational, and metric semantics on partial processes, render robust consistency measures for modal transition systems, and yield an abstract interpretation of compact sets of labelled transition systems as Scott-closed sets of modal transition systems.Comment: Changes since v2: Metadata updat

    Quantities in Games and Modal Transition Systems

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    Bounded Petri Net Synthesis from Modal Transition Systems is Undecidable

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    In this paper, the synthesis of bounded Petri nets from deterministic modal transition systems is shown to be undecidable. The proof is built from three components. First, it is shown that the problem of synthesising bounded Petri nets satisfying a given formula of the conjunctive nu-calculus (a suitable fragment of the mu-calculus) is undecidable. Then, an equivalence between deterministic modal transition systems and a language-based formalism called modal specifications is developed. Finally, the claim follows from a known equivalence between the conjunctive nu-calculus and modal specifications

    Refinement checking on parametric modal transition systems

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    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refinement process like exclusive, conditional and persistent choices. We introduce a new model called parametric modal transition systems (PMTS) together with a general modal refinement notion that overcomes many of the limitations. We investigate the computational complexity of modal and thorough refinement checking on PMTS and its subclasses and provide a direct encoding of the modal refinement problem into quantified Boolean formulae, allowing us to employ state-of-the-art QBF solvers for modal refinement checking. The experiments we report on show that the feasibility of refinement checking is more influenced by the degree of nondeterminism rather than by the syntactic restrictions on the types of formulae allowed in the description of the PMTS

    A Linear-Time Branching-Time Spectrum for Behavioral Specification Theories

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    We propose behavioral specification theories for most equivalences in the linear-time--branching-time spectrum. Almost all previous work on specification theories focuses on bisimilarity, but there is a clear interest in specification theories for other preorders and equivalences. We show that specification theories for preorders cannot exist and develop a general scheme which allows us to define behavioral specification theories, based on disjunctive modal transition systems, for most equivalences in the linear-time--branching-time spectrum

    Graphical representation of covariant-contravariant modal formulae

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    Covariant-contravariant simulation is a combination of standard (covariant) simulation, its contravariant counterpart and bisimulation. We have previously studied its logical characterization by means of the covariant-contravariant modal logic. Moreover, we have investigated the relationships between this model and that of modal transition systems, where two kinds of transitions (the so-called may and must transitions) were combined in order to obtain a simple framework to express a notion of refinement over state-transition models. In a classic paper, Boudol and Larsen established a precise connection between the graphical approach, by means of modal transition systems, and the logical approach, based on Hennessy-Milner logic without negation, to system specification. They obtained a (graphical) representation theorem proving that a formula can be represented by a term if, and only if, it is consistent and prime. We show in this paper that the formulae from the covariant-contravariant modal logic that admit a "graphical" representation by means of processes, modulo the covariant-contravariant simulation preorder, are also the consistent and prime ones. In order to obtain the desired graphical representation result, we first restrict ourselves to the case of covariant-contravariant systems without bivariant actions. Bivariant actions can be incorporated later by means of an encoding that splits each bivariant action into its covariant and its contravariant parts.Comment: In Proceedings EXPRESS 2011, arXiv:1108.407
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