70,972 research outputs found

    Sturgeon Chub Distributional Patterns and Habitat Use and Benthic Fish Assemblage Structure in Missouri River Tributaries of South Dakota

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    Native species of the Missouri River drainage inhabiting benthic habitats dominate state and federal lists of species at risk. Sicklefin Chub Macrhybopsis meeki and Sturgeon Chub Macrhybopsis gelida are two native Missouri River benthic minnows that are currently under review for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) due to extensive population declines and local extirpations within their native range. Substantial alterations to the Missouri River threaten Macrhybopsis spp. and other benthic fishes; however, large, less impacted tributaries in South Dakota may act as refugia for native species. The extent of Sicklefin Chub and Sturgeon Chub populations is largely unknown in the state and recent assessments documenting Missouri River benthic fish assemblages are lacking. The goal of this project was to update the distribution and abundance of benthic fishes of the Missouri River and its major tributaries with an emphasis on Sicklefin Chub and Sturgeon Chub in South Dakota. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate abiotic and biotic influences on distributional patterns of Sicklefin Chub and Sturgeon Chub and characterize their habitat use, and 2) describe and compare patterns of benthic fish assemblage structure within rivers and for the region. Information presented herein pertains to the tributaries, due to zero catch of Macrhybopsis spp. in the mainstem Missouri River. Sturgeon Chub were captured in the Cheyenne, White, and Little White rivers but were absent from the Little Missouri and Grand rivers. Relative abundances of both age-0 and age-1+ Sturgeon Chub were highest in the White River. Distributions of Sturgeon Chubs were limited to lower areas of all rivers where stream width, turbidity, discharge, and observed habitat complexity were highest and Flathead Chub Platygobio gracilis and Hybognathus spp. (Plains Minnow H. placitus and Western Silvery Minnow H. argyritis) were more abundant. Sturgeon Chub primarily used main or secondary flowing channels and were predominantly found in or near the thalweg. Velocity, depth, and percent gravel predicted Sturgeon Chub presence on smaller scales. Predominantly native fish assemblages were observed in all rivers. Total species richness was lowest in the White River, where extreme environmental conditions likely limit species diversity and nonnative species establishment. Longitudinal patterns of assemblage structure were observed in the White, Cheyenne, and Little White rivers due to natural and anthropogenic changes in habitat conditions. Species additions occurred as rivers gradually increased in size and habitat complexity, but native species were replaced in response to abrupt habitat changes, such as those created by impoundments. High abundances of native, benthic fishes in Missouri River tributaries of South Dakota that are experiencing overall population declines highlights the importance of large, relatively unaltered tributaries to the conservation of freshwater biodiversity in North America. Advisor: Mark A. Peg

    Biological Assessment Missouri National Recreational River

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    A 59 mile stretch of the Missouri River between Gavins Point Dam and Ponca State Park was added to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System by a 1978 amendment (Section 707 of the National Parks and Recreation Act) to the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Components of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System are classified as wild, scenic, or recreational, based upon the amount of development existing in the river corridor at the time of designation. The 59 mile reach of the Missouri River from Gavins Point Darn to Ponca State Park was classified as recreational and is known as the Missouri National Recreational River (MNRR). Primary responsibility for implementing the project was assigned to the Secretary of the Interior, while secondary responsibility was given to the Secretary of the Army acting through the Chief of Engineers. In 1980 the Secretary of the Interior and the Chief of Engineers signed a Cooperative Agreement which gave overall administrative authority to the Department of the Interior, while day-to-day management of the river was assigned to the Corps of Engineers

    A Relationship Between River Modification and Species Richness of Freshwater Turtles in Iowa

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    Comparisons were made of turtle populations in Red Rock Reservoir and the major rivers of the Mississippi River and Missouri River damage systems in Iowa. Of the inland rivers of the Mississippi drainage examined in this study, the Des Moines River had the least amount of remaining turtle habitat. Number of turtle species ranged from five in the Des Moines River to 11 in the Mississippi River, but only three species were found in Red Rock Reservoir. In the Missouri drainage, number of turtle species ranged from three in both the Little Sioux and Nishnabotna rivers to five in the Missouri River. Regression analysis found remaining turtle habitat to be the strongest predictor of species richness. Stream modification appeared to lower the species richness of riverine turtles by eliminating intolerant species. Intolerant forms were absent when river modification eliminated their habitat and created a more uniform and simplified environment Map turtles (Graptemys geographica LeSueur), false map turtles (Graptemys pseudogeographica Gray), Blanding\u27s turtles (Emydotdea blandingi Holbrook), and smooth soft-shells (Apalone mutica LeSueur), appeared to be most affected by modification. Turtle species richness was lower in Red Rock Reservoir than in the Des Moines River, possibly due to the great fluctuation in the water level of the reservoir

    Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers: Value and Importance of these Transport Arteries for U.S. Agriculture

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    The upper Mississippi River is a 663-mile segment extending from Minneapolis, Minnesota to near St. Louis, Missouri: this waterway forms borders for Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri and Wisconsin. The 349-mile Illinois waterway extends from Chicago, Illinois to the confluence of the Illinois and upper Mississippi Rivers near St. Louis, Missouri. Both transport arteries originate important quantities of corn, soybeans and wheat that are transported via the middle and lower Mississippi River to export elevators in the lower Mississippi River port area (3). Past studies indicated over 90 percent of the export-destined corn and soybeans originating in states that border the upper Mississippi and Illinois waterways is destined for lower Mississippi River ports (1, 4). In addition, it is estimated that over half of the U.S.'s corn exports and over a third of the soybean exports originate in states bordering the upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers and move via these transport arteries to lower Mississippi River ports (1, 4)

    New Distributional Records of the Ohio Shrimp, Macrobrachium ohione Smith (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Arkansas

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    The Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) is a migratory (amphidromous) river shrimp that occurs in some Arkansas rivers. It is known from the Upper Missouri River from its mouth downstream to the Gulf of Mexico, but shrimp abundance has declined, particularly upstream of Louisiana. Ohio Shrimp has also been collected in the lower reach of the Missouri River not far from the confluence of the Mississippi River in St. Louis County. Dams and alterations in channel flow are hypothesized to have impacted upriver migrations of shrimp. Current range, abundance, and life history of Ohio shrimp is relatively unknown in the Mississippi River basin in reaches distant from sea water. Here, we report recent collections of Ohio shrimp in Arkansas rivers that were notably greater than 800 km from the Gulf of Mexico

    Recruitment Sources of Invasive Bighead Carp (Hypopthalmichthys nobilis) and Silver Carp (H. molitrix) Inhabiting the Illinois River

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    Knowledge of natal environments and dispersal of invasive Bighead Carp (Hypopthalmichthys nobilis) and Silver Carp (H. molitrix) inhabiting the Illinois River would be valuable for directing population reduction efforts intended to supplement electrical barriers in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and limit the probability of these species invading the Great Lakes. However, the extent to which Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (collectively referred to as bigheaded carps) stocks in the Illinois River are derived from recruits that originate within the Illinois River itself versus immigrants from the Mississippi and Missouri rivers is unknown. Bigheaded carps are also known to use connected floodplain lakes during early life, but the contribution of these habitats to recruitment of Bighead and Silver carps in the Illinois River is also unknown. The aim of this study was to identify natal environment of adult bigheaded carps collected from the Illinois River during 2010-2011 using stable isotope and trace element analyses of otolith cores. Both water and otolith strontium:calcium ratios (Sr:Ca) and water and otolith oxygen isotope ratios (expressed as δ18O) were strongly correlated for known-origin bigheaded carps, consistent with other fish species. Most Bighead and Silver carps collected from the Illinois River used river channel rather than floodplain lake habitats during early life. The majority of adult Silver Carp originated in the Illinois River, although 11-39% were immigrants from the Missouri or middle Mississippi rivers. In contrast, 97% of the Bighead Carp originated in the Illinois River. Our results indicate that efforts to substantially reduce abundance of bigheaded carps in the Illinois River drainage should continue to focus on the Illinois River itself, but will likely need to be expanded to include the middle Mississippi and Missouri Rivers for sustainable control of Silver Carp

    Stream piracy and glacial diversion of Little Missouri River, North Dakota

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    Bedrock river terraces, as much as 275 to 500 feet above the present Little Missouri, are remnants of a former floodplain. The presence of these former shallow valley floor (Little Missouri Terrace No. 4) along the pre-glacial channel and east and north of the Killdeer Mountains suggests several pre-glacial rivers. Peripheral precipitation in advance of the Kansan-Illinoian glacier, head-ward erosion with consequent new gradient breached the divide between the pre-glacial Little Missouri River and the “Medicine Stone” River, (herein named, after a local landmark), which flowed eastward into pre-glacial Missouri River. The history of that portion of the Little Missouri River that flows ninety miles eastward from “The Bend” in T. 147 N., R. 101 W., to its junction with the Missouri River near the center of T. 148 N., R. 91 W., is characterized by a succession of pirating streams with resulting local inversion of drainage. This cycle of stream capture includes five main stages that are outlined below. Stage No. 1 – Pre-glacial Little Missouri River flowed north to Yellowstone River. Stage No. 2 – Little Missouri River was captured by Cherry Creek. Stage No. 3 – Cherry Creek and the Little Missouri River were captured by Medicine Stone River. This was followed by deep trenching of the newly established valley. Stage No. 4 – This marks the beginning of continental glaciation and alluviation of the previously entrenched channel. Stage No. 5 – Maximum glaciation was followed by re-trenching of the old-channel. The present Little Missouri River, although intermittently overloaded, is progressively cleaning its channel in the process of establishing a new gradient

    The Status of Fishes in the Missouri River, Nebraska: Lake Sturgeon \u3ci\u3e(Acipenser fulvescens)\u3c/i\u3e

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    Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) occurrences in the Missouri River along Nebraska’s eastern border are historically sporadic and rare. Presently, the wild Lake Sturgeon population in this river reach may be extirpated. A Recovery Program initiated by the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) has stocked almost 150,000 hatchery-reared Lake Sturgeon into the lower Missouri River at several sites in Missouri. As a result, the number of Lake Sturgeon collected has increased. Since monitoring began in 2003, no Lake Sturgeon have been collected above Gavins Point Dam while 40 fish were collected downstream of Gavins Point Dam. The majority of captures occurred in the lower channelized reach downstream of the confluence of the Platte and Missouri rivers. All fish collected are assumed to be progeny of MDC’s Recovery Program as either they were hatchery marked or their size (mean fork length = 764 mm, range = 602–997 mm) correlated with the expected growth rates. At present, their rarity warrants continued listing as a state threated species

    Growth Rate Responses of Missouri and Lower Yellowstone River Fishes to a Latitudinal Gradient

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    Notropis atherinoides, freshwater drums Aplodinotus grunniens, river carpsuckers Carpiodes carpio and saugers Stizostedion canadense collected in 1996-1998 from nine river sections of the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers at two life-stages (young-of-the-year and age 1+ years) were significantly different among sections. However, they showed no river-wide latitudinal trend except for age 1+ years emerald shiners that did show a weak negative relation between growth and both latitude and length of growing season. The results suggest growth rates of fishes along the Missouri River system are complex and could be of significance in the management and conservation of fish communities in this altered system
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