9 research outputs found

    Special Issue in Honor of Professor James D. McChesney on the Occasion of his 80th Birthday

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    Plants have been the sources of important pharmaceuticals, flavoring agents, and agrochemicals. The antimalarial drugs artemisinin and quinine; the anticancer drugs taxol, etoposide, and vinca alkaloids; the sugar-free sweetening agents stevioside and rebaudiosides; and antifeedant azadiractin are good examples of important plant-based drugs, food additives, and agrochemicals currently on the market. Despite these and many other successes, there are significant challenges to discovering and developing commercially important natural products from plants, such as procuring plant materials in large quantities, separating active constituents from complex mixtures, and undesirable qualities, such as low solubility or poor chemical or metabolic stability of active constituents. Dr. James D. McChesney has contributed immensely to overcoming the inherent challenges associated with discovering and developing products modeled from plant-based natural product leads. His research on artemisinin, taxol, galanthamine, podophyllotoxin, and stevia sweet glycosides exemplifies the magnitude of these contributions. His extensive work on the structural modification of taxol led to the discovery and development of the anticancer agent TPI 287, a third-generation taxane analog that is currently undergoing clinical trials. Dr. McChesney has had a long, distinguished teaching and research career, has authored more than 225 research publications, and holds more than 60 patents. He is a past president and Fellow of the American Society of Pharmacognosy and a Fellow of the AAAS. He has mentored many graduate students, post-docs, and junior faculty members who hold prominent positions in natural products research establishments in the US and worldwide. We wish to dedicate this Special Issue Book Version to celebrate the eightieth birthday of Dr. McChesney, a prolific thinker with abundant inventiveness in the field of natural product chemistry and pharmacognosy

    DNA fingerprinting of five Tabebuia species with reference to their anti-trypanosomal activity

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    Tabebuia is the largest genus of the Bignoniaceae family, with great importance due to its beautiful decorative flowering trees, as well as, its remarkable biological activities. The exact identification of Tabebuia species is important, not only, for cultivation purposes but also for exploration of their phytochemical and biological potential. DNA fingerprinting technology is now considered an easily accessible, quick, and accurate method of species identification. The current study investigated the genetic diversity among five Tabebuia species, using start codon targeted (SCoT), and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. Results indicated the efficiency of both markers for genetic fingerprinting of the five tested Tabebuia species with ISSR analysis being more polymorphic than SCoT analysis. The dendrogram generated from the combination of ISSR and SCoT analyses classified the tested species into two main clusters. Cluster I included T. guayacan, while Cluster II was separated into sub-cluster I comprising T. rosea and sub-cluster II that was further subdivided into sub-cluster IIa (T. pulcherrima) and sub-cluster IIb (T. argentea and T. pallida). Furthermore, the antitrypanosomal activity of the alcohol extracts of stems and leaves of the five tested Tabebuia was evaluated. Results revealed a variation in activity between extracts from different species. The highest antitrypanosomal activity was recorded for the stem and leaf extracts from T. pulcherrima, with IC50 (6.4-7.2 µg/mL) and (8.3 and 8.9 µg/mL) after 48 and 72 h respectively, followed by T. pallida leaf then T. rosea stem extracts

    Using micropropagation to develop medicinal plants into crops.

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    Abstract: Medicinal plants are still the major source of therapies for several illnesses and only part of the herbal products originates from cultivated biomass. Wild harvests represent the major supply for therapies, and such practices threaten species diversity as well as the quality and safety of the final products. This work intends to show the relevance of developing medicinal plants into crops and the use of micropropagation as technique to mass produce high-demand biomass, thus solving the supply issues of therapeutic natural substances. Herein, the review includes examples of in vitro procedures and their role in the crop development of pharmaceuticals, phytomedicinals, and functional foods. Additionally, it describes the production of high-yielding genotypes, uniform clones from highly heterozygous plants, and the identification of elite phenotypes using bioassays as a selection tool. Finally, we explore the significance of micropropagation techniques for the following: a) pharmaceutical crops for production of small therapeutic molecules (STM), b) phytomedicinal crops for production of standardized therapeutic natural products, and c) the micropropagation of plants for the production of large therapeutic molecules (LTM) including fructooligosaccharides classified as prebiotic and functional food crops

    The Effect of Organic Nutrient and Growth Regulators on Seed Germination, Embryo and Shoots Development of Dendrobium antennatum Lindl. Orchid by In Vitro

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    Abstract Dendrobium antennatum has high economic value as cut flowers and flowerpots. Like orchid seeds in general, D. antennatum is difficult to germinate under natural conditions. This study aimed to determine the effect of coconut water on seed germination and embryo development, as well as the effect of NAA on shoots development of D. antennatum. This study consisted of two stages. In the first stage, the 12 weeks-old seeds after pollination were sown on MS medium containing 2 g/L peptone + 0%; 5%; 10%; and 20% coconut water. After 8 weeks of culture, the seeds germinated and the shoot formed were recorded. The highest in seed germination (92.2%) and the formation of shoots (51.4%) were obtained when seeds were cultured on MS medium containing 2 g/L peptone + 20% coconut water. In the second stage, the shoots were sub-cultured on MS medium containing 1 mg/L thidiazuron + 0 mg/L; 1 mg/L; 2 mg/L; and 3 mg/L NAA. After 16 weeks of sub-culture, the height of lantlets, the length of the roots and leaves, number of leaves and roots formed were recorded. MS medium containing 1 mg/L thidiazuron + 1 mg/L NAA was the most suitable for the shoots development of D.antennatum. The embryo development of D.antennatum in vitro begins with the enlargement of embryo, with further it emerges from the seed coat (germinated) followed by the formation of the apical meristems to form the shoots and the roots

    Genetic Homogeneity Revealed Using SCoT, ISSR and RAPD Markers in Micropropagated <i>Pittosporum eriocarpum</i> Royle- An Endemic and Endangered Medicinal Plant

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    <div><p><i>Pittosporum eriocarpum</i> Royle, a medicinally important taxon, is endemic to Uttarakhand region of Himalaya. It has become endangered due to over-collection and the loss of habitats. As raising plants through seeds in this plant is problematic, a reliable protocol for micropropagation using nodal explants has been developed. High shoot regeneration (95%) occurred in MS medium augmented with BA 0.4mg/l in combination IBA 0.6mg/l. <i>In vitro</i> regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium supplemented with three auxins, of which 0.6 mg/l indole butyric acid proved to be the best for rooting (90%) with maximum number of roots per shoot. Thereafter, rooted plants were hardened and nearly 73% of rooted shoots were successfully acclimatized and established in the field. Start codon targeted (SCoT), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to validate the genetic homogeneity amongst nine <i>in vitro</i> raised plantlets with mother plant. DNA fingerprints of <i>in vitro</i> regenerated plantlets displayed monomorphic bands similar to mother plant, indicating homogeneity among the micropropagated plants with donor mother plant. The similarity values were calculated based on SCoT, ISSR and RAPD profiles which ranged from 0.89 to 1.00, 0.91 to 1.00 and 0.95 to 1.00 respectively. The dendrograms generated through Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis revealed 97% similarity amongst micropropagated plants with donor mother plant, thus confirming genetic homogeneity of micropropagated clones. This is the first report on micropropagation and genetic homogeneity assessment of <i>P</i>. <i>eriocarpum</i>. The protocol would be useful for the conservation and large scale production of <i>P</i>. <i>eriocarpum</i> to meet the demand for medicinal formulations and also for the re-introduction of <i>in vitro</i> grown plants in the suitable natural habitats to restore the populations.</p></div