148,042 research outputs found

    Microbiological quality of commercial dairy products

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    The purpose of this research was to assess the hygienic properties of commercially available dairy foods. The products surveyed included liquid milks (pasteurized and UHT-treated), cultured dairy products (kefir, cultured buttermilk, sour cream, yogurt, probiotic fermented milks), cheeses (quarg products, soft, semi-hard, hard, and extra hard cheeses made from bovine, caprine, and ovine milk), processed cheeses, butters, butter creams, dried milks, and ice creams. A total of 320 samples were purchased from food stores located in the western part of Hungary. Upon collection, all products were taken to the laboratory and were stored as required until analysis. Although none of the samples tested contained Salmonella spp. or Listeria monocytogens, approximately 14% of them failed to meet the legal requirements in terms of overall hygienic quality. The share of non-compliant samples was especially high among cheeses

    Municipal waste composts in organic agriculture, aiming to the future

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    The Finnish study shows possibilities for using high quality municipal waste composts as fertilizers without any negative effects on soil heavy metals, hygienic quality or microbiological functions

    Water quality monitoring and hydraulic evaluation of a household roof runoff harvesting system in France

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    The quality of harvested rainwater used for toilet flushing in a private house in the south-west of France was assessed over a one-year period. Twenty-one physicochemical parameters were screened using standard analytical techniques. The microbiological quality of stored roof runoff was also investigated and total flora at 22°C and 36°C, total coliforms, Escherichia Coli, enteroccocci, Cryptospridium oocysts, Giardia cysts, Legionella species, Legionella pneumophila, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were analysed. Chemical and microbiological parameters fluctuated during the course of the study, with the highest levels of microbiological contamination observed in roof runoffs collected during the summer. Overall, the collected rainwater had a relatively good physicochemical quality but variable, and, did not meet the requirements for drinking water and a microbiological contamination of the water was observed. The water balance of a 4-people standard family rainwater harvesting system was also calculated in this case study. The following parameters were calculated: rainfall, toilets flushing demand, mains water, rainwater used and water saving efficiency. The experimental water saving efficiency was calculated as 87 %. The collection of rainwater from roofs, its storage and subsequent use for toilet flushing can save 42 m3 of potable water per year for the studied system

    Monitoring of water quality from roof runoff: Interpretation using multivariate analysis

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    The quality of harvested rainwater used for toilet flushing in a private house in the south-west of France was assessed over a one-year period. Temperature, pH, conductivity, colour, turbidity, anions, cations, alkalinity, total hardness and total organic carbon were screened using standard analytical techniques. Total flora at 22°C and 36°C, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci were analysed. Overall, the collected rainwater had good physicochemical quality but did not meet the requirements for drinking water. The stored rainwater is characterised by low conductivity, hardness and alkalinity compared to mains water. Three widely used bacterial indicators - total coliforms, E. coli and enterococci - were detected in the majority of samples, indicating microbiological contamination of the water. To elucidate factors affecting the rainwater composition, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the complete data set of 50 observations. Chemical and microbiological parameters fluctuated during the course of the study, with the highest levels of microbiological contamination observed in roof runoffs collected during the summer. Escherichia coli and enterococci occurred simultaneously, and their presence was linked to precipitation. Runoff quality is also unpredictable because it is sensitive to the weather. Cluster analysis differentiated three clusters: ionic composition, parameters linked with the microbiological load and indicators of faecal contamination. In future surveys, parameters from these three groups will be simultaneously monitored to more accurately characterise roof collected rainwater

    Microbiological quality of Moroccan labeled Euphorbia resinifera honey

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    In the present work, microbiological profile of thirty-seven samples of labeled honey were collected in a Protected Geographical Indication “PGI” area of Tadla-Azilal region, which is an endemic zone of Euphorbia resinifera plant. A profile was assessed using conventional microbial methods, like enumeration, detection and/or germs identification, in accordance with ISO norms. This is the first study in which a honey with Moroccan “PGI” was tested, in order to assess its compliance with bacteriological recommendations. Coliforms (Total and fecal Coliforms), Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Sporus of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens were not detected. The numbers of Standard Plate Count “SPC” were less than 102 CFU.g-1 for all samples. The molds and yeasts were found among samples and 32% and 40% of samples were positive, respectively. However, no samples showed a higher value than recommended limit [102 CFU.g-1]. We conclude that samples of labeled euphorbia honey of Tadla-Azilal analyzed present good commercial quality parameters (SPC, molds and yeasts “absence of unwanted fermentations”), a good sanitary quality (absence of coliforms and S. aureus) and are safe (Slam., Shig., Sporus of B. cereus and C. perf.). Standardization (regulation and specifications) and a rationalization of beekeeping techniques throughout Euphorbia “PGI” area studied may further sustainably improve the quality of this unique honey, and ensure it over the years

    Pilot scale application of ozonated water wash - effect on microbiological and sensory quality parameters of processed iceberg lettuce during self-life

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    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of ozonated water wash on the microbiological and sensory quality parameters of minimally processed iceberg lettuce in pilot scale in comparison to aqueous chlorine wash. Alternative solutions for chlorine are needed, since its use is prohibited in organic food processing. Iceberg lettuce samples were washed with three different ozone solutions and the water wash and the 100 ppm chlorine wash were used as control. Ozone generator based on corona discharge was used to produce ozone at level 7 ppm. The samples (150 g) packed in oriented polypropylene pouches were stored for 10 days at +5C and the microbiological and sensory quality was analysed on days 1, 6 and 10. There was no significant difference between chlorine wash samples and the samples washed 1 min in a machine with ozonated water concerning the microbiological quality. Compared with the chlorine with lower concentrations of ozone it is possible to control the microbial load. Concerning the sensory quality all samples endured all of the treatments well except the treatment with 7 ppm ozone for 5 min. As a conclusion the bubbling gaseous ozone in water can be as effective disinfection method as chlorine wash when the following processing parameters are taken into account: concentration of ozone during the whole process, exposure time, water temperature and the amount and type of the organic material

    A cross sectional study of water quality from dental unit water lines in dental practices in the West of Scotland

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    OBJECTIVE: To determine the microbiological quality of water from dental units in a general practice setting and current practice for disinfection of units. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of the water quality from 40 dental units in 39 general practices and a questionnaire of the disinfection protocols used in those practices. SETTING: NHS practices in primarydental care. SUBJECTS: Thirty-nine general practices from the West of Scotland. METHODS: Water samples were collected on two separate occasions from dental units and analysed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Water specimens were collected from the triple syringe, high speed outlet, cup filler and surgery tap. Each participating practitioner was asked to complete a questionnaire. Results Microbial contamination was highest from the high speed outlet followed by the triple syringe and cup filler. On average, the TVC counts from the high speed water lines at 37 degrees C and for the high speed lines, triple syringe and cup filler at 22 degrees C were significantly higher than that from the control tap water specimens. The study included units from 11 different manufacturers with ages ranging from under one year to over eight years. The age of the dental unit analysed did not appear to influence the level of microbial contamination. Five of the practices surveyed used disinfectants to clean the dental units but these had no significant effect on the microbiological quality of the water. The majority of dental units (25 out of 40) were never flushed with water between patients. A number of different non-sterile irrigants were used for surgical procedures. CONCLUSION: The microbiological quality of water from dental units in general dental practice is poor compared with that from drinking water sources. Suitable sterile irrigants should be used for surgical procedures in dental practice. Further work is required for pragmatic decontamination regimens of dental unit water lines in a general dental practice setting

    Quality of High-protein Diet Bar Plus Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Grain Evaluated Sensorially by Untrained Tasters

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    The objective of this study was to develop, analyze composition and evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of high-protein diet bars (PB) with the addition of chia grain (Salvia hispanica L.), partially replacing isolated soy protein and concentrated whey protein, in proportions of 0, 10, 15 and 20%. The proximate composition was analyzed of PB, for microbiological quality of Bacillus cereus, Filamentous fungi and yeast count, total fecal coliforms, and Salmonella ssp. search. Sensory analysis was performed utilizing acceptance testing of characteristics on a nine-point hedonic scale for various attributes, including purchasing intention of the tested PB. Bars showed 20% moisture, 2.3% ash, 20-23% protein and 19% lipids. The effect of increasing of chia was to increase crude fiber content and decrease total carbohydrate and total energy value. All samples were within the microbiological food standards established by current legislation. All PB formulations obtained a good overall impression index and all characteristics were above mean grades, with the exception of taste (63%) in the PB containing 0% chia. Chia grain has a positive influence on sensory aspects and appears to be an alternative way to increase the nutritional quality of high-protein diet bars

    Microbiological Quality of Kunnu-Zaki Drinks Sold in Some selected Towns in Osun State, Nigeria

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    The microbiological quality of freshly processed and hawked kunnu-zaki drinks, a common Nigerian non-alcoholic beverage was investigated in some selected towns in Osun State, South Western Nigeria. A total of nine (9) towns were assessed. Kunnu-zaki drinks were purchased from these towns on twelve different occasions for a period of six month. The samples were microbiologically analyzed using standard methods. pH values ranged from 3.09 - 4.21 in East and West senatorial district. The TTA of the samples ranged from 0.32 - 0.49 in Central and East senatorial district. All the screened drink samples had varying levels of bacterial contamination ranging from 4.2 x 103 to 15.0 x 103 CFU/ml, 4.1 x 104 to 9.6 x 104 CFU/ml and 3.5 x 105 to 9.0 x 105 CFU/ml for total bacteria, coliform and E. coli count respectively. Total coliform count on MPN ranged from 3 MPN/ml to 93 MPN/ml. 77.78% of the total sampled drinks (n=108) that is (84/108) had bacteria and fungi count. While all the drinks sampled had total coliform count on MPN exceeding the recommended safe level of zero organisms detectable per 100ml. Seven (7) bacteria species were isolated from the kunnu-zaki drink sampled. The bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli, Bacillus species, Staphylococcus species, Pseudomonas species, Streptococcus specie, Enterobacter species, and Klebsiella species. Fungal count ranged from 3.3 x 106 to 8.0 x 106 CFU/ml respectively. Four (4) fungi were also isolated which include Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicilium italicum, Aspergillus Niger and Aspergillus flavus. It can therefore be concluded that the presence of these isolated organisms in kunnu-zaki samples analyzed in Osun State could serve as indicator for the need to promote awareness about the possible health hazards that could arise due to the unhygienic ways of handling and processing of the beverage
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