226 research outputs found

    Castles in the air: the life, times and influence of the Reverend Moses Harvey (1820-1901).

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    The period from 1874 to 1901 was a time of significant transition in the economic and political life of Newfoundland. Twenty years into responsible government and with Confederation on the backburner, the colony’s politicians turned their attention to economic diversification, landward development and carving out the island’s place in the British Empire. The period saw both economic prosperity and retrenchment; the construction of a trans-insular railway; the adoption of policies to foster agriculture, forestry, manufacturing and mining; and diplomatic efforts to resolve France’s outstanding claims on the northwest coast of the island. At the same time, the government made an attempt to intervene directly in its primary industry, the fisheries. It created a Fisheries Commission in 1889 that recommended conservation measures and artificial propagation as ways to restore the health of some of the island’s fish stocks. They also proposed new methods of curing, packaging and marketing Newfoundland’s cod, as well as a complete overhaul of the truck system. A major player in both the public and private debates surrounding all of these subjects was the Reverend Moses Harvey. Along with being minister of the Free Church of Scotland in St. John’s, Harvey was one of Newfoundland’s most active promoters in the late nineteenth century. He served as the media mouthpiece for both Prime Minister William Whiteway and Prime Minister Robert Thorburn; editing the Evening Mercury – the official organ of the Liberal Party and then the Reform Party – from 1882 to 1883 and 1885 until 1890. As well, Harvey wrote regular columns on Newfoundland issues for newspapers in London, New York, Boston, Montreal, Toronto, and Halifax. He also produced numerous books, articles, encyclopedia entries, and travel guides outlining the island’s attractions and its vast economic potential. In short, Harvey made a significant contribution in shaping the way residents and the outside world viewed Newfoundland during this period. This thesis examines late nineteenth-century Newfoundland through the writing of Moses Harvey. The biographical approach offers a fuller, more nuanced account of some of the major historical themes of the period including the politics of progress, opening up the interior, railway construction and attitudes toward the fisheries. It also provides an insider’s prospective on what led to some of the major political decisions, policy positions or compromises taken by the Whiteway and Thorburn governments. Finally, a more detailed review of Harvey’s work exposes the practical and political differences that he had with people like D.W. Prowse and Bishop Michael Howley. While these so-called “boomers” in Newfoundland’s historiography agreed on broad themes, they parted ways over what should be done with the fisheries and how best to channel the colony’s growing sense of nationalism

    The Newfoundland Quarterly, volume 102, no. 3 (Winter 2009)

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    The Newfoundland Quarterly, volume 102, no. 3 (Winter 2009

    Atlantic Advocate, vol. 51, no. 04 (December 1960)

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    Range: vol. 47, no. 1 (September 1956) - vol. 82, no. 5 (January 1992) only.Running from September 1952 to January 1992, the Atlantic Advocate published news and other material about Atlantic Canada. By the end of the 1950s it had absorbed both the Atlantic Guardian and the Maritime Advocate and Busy East. (Christine M. Brown, "Atlantic Advocate," Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, vol. 1, p. 86.

    Newfoundland who's who 1927; Nfld. who's who 1927

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    Richard Hibbs assembled the first Newfoundland Who's Who in order "to provide a record of the leading citizens of the Country, who in one capacity or another are contributing to its upbuilding and general welfare" (p. [17]). It contains biographical entries of living individuals with some portraits; the sequence is not alphabetical but an index is provided. The vast majority of those profiled are men. It also includes a list of Newfoundland historical events and a review of Newfoundland businesses with illustrations.Index -- Obituary -- Chief events in Newfoundland history -- Biographies -- Commercial and industrial : a review of business enterprises.Alternative titles from common name and from spine. Includes advertisements

    Evangelicalism in the Anglican Church in nineteenth-century Newfoundland

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    Evangelicalism, a Protestant movement whose beginnings can be traced to eighteenth-century Great Britain, had also a vital presence in Newfoundland from 1819 to 1844. This thesis studies the three main Newfoundland-based Church of England Evangelicals, Aubrey George Spencer, Thomas Finch Hobday Bridge, and Robert Traill Spence Lowell. During this period, Newfoundland was not a diocese of its own, but part of the larger diocese of Nova Scotia until 1839 when Newfoundland and Bermuda became a separate diocese with Spencer as bishop. -- The distinguishing hallmarks of Evangelicals, in comparison to other religious groups, have been defined by David W. Bebbington. The thesis, therefore, seeks to use Bebbington' s characteristics to determine the Evangelicalism of Spencer, Bridge, and Lowell. Bebbington’s four characteristics are: the urgent need to accept Christ as one's personal saviour and experience a change of life and heart (conversionism), tireless ministerial, educational, and benevolent activities, including an active opposition to Roman Catholics and other religious competitors (activism), a deep reverence for Scripture as the supreme religious and ethical norm (biblicism), and belief in Christ's death as the central salvific event to secure salvation (crucicentrism). -- Chapter One begins by examining the state-of-the-question. This is followed by a brief explanation of each of Bebbington' s characteristics, not only as Bebbington himself defines them globally for all Evangelicals, but also as each one affected the Newfoundland context. -- Chapter Two examines Missionary Societies, an integral element of the conversion-oriented and educational activities of Evangelicals. While such societies as the Church Missionary Society and the American Home Missionary Society are briefly explored, a more detailed examination is allotted to merchant Samuel Codner's Newfoundland School Society, not only because of Spencer's and Bridge's involvement, but also because the society represented Great Britain's first successful attempt to educate the poor children of Newfoundland. -- Chapters Three through Five, which represent the main portion of the thesis, deal with Spencer, Bridge, and Lowell. Each chapter begins with a short biography, followed by an exploration of their work and thought, employing Bebbington' s characteristics as a guide. Included in this examination are ecclesiastical, educational, and benevolent activities that encompass not only their missionary labours, church work, educational work, and societal involvement, but also their active opposition of Roman Catholics and Tractarians. Their thinking about conversion, the value of Scripture, and the issue of Christ's death are also included. Throughout, sermons, treatises, letters, novels, and other writings are used as sources. Each chapter concludes with a discussion to what extent these men were Evangelicals. -- Chapter Six sums up the major findings. The conclusion of this thesis is that these men were all Evangelicals, but each one varied as to his religious or ethical emphases. Lowell, for example, did not explicitly promote conversionism and its doctrine of assurance, but was all the more virulently opposed to Catholicism. Also, Spencer and Lowell championed the Bible as a means of private devotion, whereas Bridge did not. -- The demise of Church of England Evangelicalism in nineteenth-century Newfoundland began with Bishop Spencer's departure for Jamaica and his replacement by the Tractarian Bishop Feild. Hence, the religious climate in nineteenth-century Newfoundland shifted away from Evangelicalism, although it was never totally extinguished. Where applicable throughout the main body of the thesis, Feild's views are compared to those of Spencer, Bridge, and Lowell

    Socio-economic versus educational input variables as related to grade IV reading achievement among boys in St. John's, Newfoundland

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    The major purpose of this study was to determine whether socio-economic variables were more related to reading achievement among grade four boys in urban Newfoundland than were certain educational inputs which have in the past been given emphasis in efforts to raise educational productivity in the province. Several minor hypotheses were set up to elucidate the relationships between reading achievement, as measured by vocabulary and paragraph comprehension scores, and the following variables: intelligence, father's occupation, mother's education, reading material at home, size of family, pupil absenteeism, teacher's qualifications and size of the school. -- Three hundred and fifty pupils were selected randomly from the fourth grade male population in schools within the city limits and operating under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic School Board for St. John's. Data collection took place in May and June, 1968, using three standardized tests and two questionnaires. A complete set of data was obtained for 305 pupils, their parents, their twenty-five teachers and twelve schools. -- Pearson product-moment correlation, partial product-moment correlation and multiple correlation were used to test the hypotheses. A descriptive analysis of the data, classifying pupils by each of the variables in the study and using means and medians, was also presented. Most of the calculations were carried out by means of the computer at Memorial University. -- The major finding of this study revealed that when variables were combined in multiple correlation the socio-economic variables explained a much larger proportion of the variance in reading achievement than did the combined group of educational input variables. Furthermore, of the sociological variables considered, two - father's occupation and mother's education - predicted achievement in reading almost as well as the whole group combined. One other sociological factor, size of family, contributed slightly to the multiple correlation coefficient when reading comprehension was used as the dependent variable. The two educational variables used in this study accounted for only a negligible amount of the variance in pupils' reading achievement. However, of the whole group of factors considered, intelligence proved to be the best predictor of reading achievement. -- The findings of this study suggest the need for educators to recognize that certain factors remote from the school exert a great influence on the reading achievement of pupils and to take these factors into account when devising educational policies and programs. Compensatory educational arrangements as well as diagnostic and remedial procedures to effect cure should be considered. Concomitantly, consideration should be given by those interested in education in the province to raising the socio-economic and cultural levels of the homes through a long-range program of involvement in adult education

    Early childhood programs: a study of provision for kindergarten and pre-school programs in Newfoundland

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    This study was designed to trace the historical development and current status of kindergarten and pre-school programs in the Province of Newfoundland. It included a survey questionnaire which was sent to teachers employed to teach pupils enrolled for their first year of public schooling. The purpose of the survey was to determine the teachers' perceptions of current kindergarten provision. -- The information gathered pertaining to the historical review was obtained from briefs, reports, historical documents and legislative statutes. The data required to establish the current status of kindergarten programs were obtained from the responses of 410 teachers employed by the various school systems in the Province. The finite population of kindergarten teachers (546), employed in 470 schools, were administered the questionnaire and a 75 per cent response was obtained. -- The statistical procedures used to analyse the survey data included percentages, cumulative frequencies and cross tabulations. Sixty factors were identified from related research and were used in the questionnaire. These were classified under five headings as follows: (i) kindergarten administration, (ii) teacher characteristics, (iii) pupil characteristics, (iv) environmental features and (v) teachers’ opinions. Personal data such as sex, age, teaching experience and professional qualifications of respondents assisted in establishing a composite profile of the “typical” kindergarten teacher. -- Results of the historical review indicate that kindergarten and pre-school development appear to be concomitants of economic and industrial growth. Various interest groups have recently championed the rights of young children in society and the members of these groups have articulated the needs of young children and their rights to the provision of early childhood programs. -- The findings of the survey data indicate that there is considerable variation in kindergarten provision. The disparity is evident in curriculum content, availability of equipment and facilities, consultative services, enrolment age of pupils and administrative structure. The academic qualifications of the respondents were also varied, the programs which they provided were different and their attitudes towards current teacher preparation programs and inservice training indicated considerable dissatisfaction. The data also show that currently there were three “cohorts” of kindergarten teachers: (i) those who teach only kindergarten pupils (ii) those who are primary teachers responsible for multi-grade classes which include kindergarten pupils and (iii) those who teach kindergarten pupils and have additional teaching or administrative duties. -- The general conclusions from the study were that: (i) recent legislation, to be administered by the Department of Education and the Department of Social Services, should facilitate the expansion of early childhood programs for Newfoundland children, (ii) attention should be given to small rural schools to upgrade kindergarten provision, (iii) revised guidelines for the aims and objectives of primary education should be developed and (iv) both inservice and teacher preparation programs for primary teachers should be reviewed

    Atlantic Advocate, vol. 50, no. 01 (September 1959)

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    Range: vol. 47, no. 1 (September 1956) - vol. 82, no. 5 (January 1992) only.Running from September 1952 to January 1992, the Atlantic Advocate published news and other material about Atlantic Canada. By the end of the 1950s it had absorbed both the Atlantic Guardian and the Maritime Advocate and Busy East. (Christine M. Brown, "Atlantic Advocate," Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, vol. 1, p. 86.

    Atlantic Advocate, vol. 51, no. 01 (September 1960)

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    Range: vol. 47, no. 1 (September 1956) - vol. 82, no. 5 (January 1992) only.Running from September 1952 to January 1992, the Atlantic Advocate published news and other material about Atlantic Canada. By the end of the 1950s it had absorbed both the Atlantic Guardian and the Maritime Advocate and Busy East. (Christine M. Brown, "Atlantic Advocate," Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, vol. 1, p. 86.

    Newfoundland who's who 1937; Nfld. who's who 1937

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    Third edition of the Who's Who, current to 1937. It contains biographical entries of living individuals with some portraits; the sequence is not alphabetical but an index is provided. The vast majority of those profiled are men. It also includes a list of Newfoundland historical events and a review of Newfoundland businesses with illustrations.Index -- Obituary -- Chief events in Newfoundland history -- Biographies -- Commercial and industrial : a review of business enterprises.Alternative titles from common name and from spine. Includes advertisements
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