953,858 research outputs found

    Ethics and the medical practitioner

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    Historically, the inculcation of good ethical practice within the Maltese medical community has been achieved through a high ethical standard assumed by the teachers which was passed on to their students. In this article the author describes three important aspects related to medical ethics: teaching ethics to medical students; specific issues relating to medical practice in Malta; ethics and medical research.peer-reviewe

    Include medical ethics in the Research Excellence Framework

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    The Research Excellence Framework of the Higher Education Funding Council for England is taking place in 2013, its three key elements being outputs (65% of the profile), impact (20%), and “quality of the research environment” (15%). Impact will be assessed using case studies that “may include any social, economic or cultural impact or benefit beyond academia that has taken place during the assessment period.”1 Medical ethics in the UK still does not have its own cognate assessment panel—for example, bioethics or applied ethics—unlike in, for example, Australia. Several researchers in medical ethics have reported to the Institute of Medical Ethics that during the internal preliminary stage of the Research Excellence Framework several medical schools have decided to include only research that entails empirical data gathering. Thus, conceptual papers and ethical analysis will be excluded. The arbitrary exclusion of reasoned discussion of medical ethics issues as a proper subject for medical research unless it is based on empirical data gathering is conceptually mistaken. “Empirical ethics” is, of course, a legitimate component of medical ethics research, but to act as though it is the only legitimate component suggests, at best, a partial understanding of the nature of ethics in general and medical ethics in particular. It also mistakenly places medicine firmly on only one side of the science/humanities “two cultures” divide instead of in its rightful place bridging the divide. Given the emphasis by the General Medical Council on medical ethics in properly preparing “tomorrow’s doctors,” we urge medical schools to find a way of using the upcoming Research Excellence Framework to highlight the expertise residing in their ethicist colleagues. We are confident that appropriate assessment will reveal work of high quality that can be shown to have social and cultural impact and benefit beyond academia, as required by the framework

    Medical Ethics Books

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    Introduction to Medical Ethics*

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    Ethics in Medical Training

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    Twelve tips to teaching (legal and ethical aspects of) research ethics/responsible conduct of research

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    Teaching research ethics is a requirement within modern health science, nursing and medical curricula. We have drawn on our experience of designing, developing and integrating the teaching of research ethics in a new, fully integrated medical school curriculum, delivered using Problem Based Learning and the recent literature relating to the teaching of research ethics to produce the following 12 Top Tips designed to encourage readers to seek opportunities to embed this teaching within a variety of curricula

    The Role of Compassion in Medical Ethics and Its Reintegration in Modern Practice

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    Compassion has been an integral part of medical ethics since its origins, but as medicine progressed, compassion slowly disappeared from practice. The development of any industry results from many complex factors, but the decline of compassion in medicine can be largely attributed to the evolution of technology and role of medical ethics committees. Change is not always negative, but in this case, medicine neglected one of its foundational principles. This is seen by analyzing the history and progression of medical ethics and its four pillars. Plato and Aristotle defined justice in Greek philosophy, Hippocrates used the concept of non-maleficence in his oaths, the philosophy of John Gregory and Kant brought autonomy into a medical context, and the work of Thomas Percival sought to view medicine a beneficent undertaking. These critical principles were summarized by Joseph Fletcher. Each of these individuals also acknowledged the great role compassion played in medical practice. However, as the medical field developed, its reliance on compassion was in part replaced by a thirst for progress and acting ethics committees. Medicine needs compassion because it was built on compassion. It is not simply an ideal drawn from philosophers, it is a necessity for the wellness of both patients and practitioners

    Patient Suffering and the Anointing of the Sick

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    Anthologized in On Moral Medicine: Theological Perspectives in Medical Ethics, 2nd edition. Edited by Stephen E. Lammers and Allen Verhey. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998, 356-364. And in On Moral Medicine: Theological Perspectives in Medical Ethics, 3rd edition. Edited by M. Therese Lysaught, Joseph Kotva, Stephen E. Lammers, and Allen Verhey. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2012, 468-474

    The Market for Medical Ethics

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    At the core of Kenneth Arrow’s classic 1963 essay on medical uncertainty is a claim that has failed to carry the day among economists. This claim—that physician adherence to an anti-competitive ethic of fidelity to patients and suppression of pecuniary influences on clinical judgment pushes medical markets toward social optimality—has won Arrow near-iconic status among medical ethicists (and many physicians). Yet conventional wisdom among health economists, including several participants in this symposium, holds that this claim is either naïve or outdated. Health economists admire Arrow’s article for its path-breaking analysis of market failures resulting from information asymmetry, uncertainty, and moral hazard. But his suggestion that anticompetitive professional norms can compensate for these market failures is at odds with economists’ more typical treatment of professional norms as monopolistic constraints on contractual possibility. If the goal of health care policy and law is to maximize the social welfare yield from medical spending, consideration of the place of professional ethics norms in health policy requires that we pose three questions. First, how can we distinguish between professional norms that enhance social welfare (even if “anticompetitive” in some sense) and therefore merit our deference (and perhaps even some legal protection) and norms that reduce welfare? Second, when we conclude that a professional norm is socially undesirable, how should we go about choosing among regulatory and legal strategies and deference to markets as means for dissolving the norm? Third, when we conclude that a professional norm is socially desirable, how should we go about preserving it? Should we defer to market outcomes—and perhaps shield select forms of professional collusion from antitrust intervention? Or should we defend this norm actively, through legal and regulatory intervention? This essay focuses on the first of these three questions, since it is the subject of Arrow’s article. From a public policy perspective, however, the second and third are just as important. It is hardly obvious that a socially undesirable norm should be targeted by judges or regulators rather than left to wither in the marketplace; nor is it clear that a socially desirable norm needs legal or regulatory support to survive

    International Code of Medical Ethics

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