48,249 research outputs found

    "Painting with faces": The casting director in American theatre, cinema, and television

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    In Casting By (2012), HBO’s documentary on the casting director, Martin Scorsese praises his close working relationship with his casting director. “More than 90% of directing” he asserts, “is the right casting.” Taking as its starting point that the casting director is, as Scorsese’s enthusiasm reveals, a vital but often unrecognized part of the production team, “‘Painting with Faces’: The Casting Director in American Theatre, Cinema, and Television” offers the first extended scholarly analysis of the profession. This comparative history broadens the concept of what constitutes a decision-maker in three major culture industries by arguing that casting directors, often devalued as feminized clerical labor, exercise more control over the creative and economic aspects of production than we usually acknowledge. Chapter one, “The Pre-Professional Casting Director,” offers a pre-history of the theatrical casting processes to explain how and why the professions of casting director and talent scout emerged in the twentieth century. Examining how casting operated throughout different epochs and in diverse production practices (particularly the medieval cycle plays, the English early modern theatres, and the American stock companies), I contend that those who took on the functions of proto-casting director were, contrary to today’s perception of the casting director as “below-the-line” labor, usually the production’s most important creative personnel. Turning to the twentieth century, chapter two, “The Company Casting Director,” argues that in-house casting employees working during the golden age of Broadway, classical Hollywood, and early television eras exerted more creative influence within their respective companies than industrial scholarship allows. Seen as what one film historian calls “low-level decision-makers,” casting directors rarely figure in industry studies because these analyses typically focus on directors or producers. Archival documents such as memoirs, memos, and casting idea lists indicate, however, that casting personnel were not simply clerical workers, but, rather, by contributing to hiring decisions, among those who helped shape their respective companies’ aesthetic vision. My project’s third chapter, “The Independent Casting Director,” brings women into the historical record by explaining the rise of the female casting director and the concomitant gendering of the profession. The chapter’s first half argues that examining the major entertainment industries concurrently reveals that media scholars have profoundly misunderstood the rise of female labor in entertainment occupations such as casting. By focusing on Los Angeles and the classical Hollywood studio system, critics ignored the more permeable divisions of labor that existed in New York-based theatre and early television. The looser organizational structure of these two industries allowed women to pursue entertainment careers and produce culture on the east coast in ways they could not on the west. Also concentrating on gender, the latter half of this chapter contends that the disproportionate number of women who entered casting in the 1960s-70s led scholars, journalists, and industry professionals to devalue the profession by associating it with stereotypically feminine traits. Arlie Russell Hochschild’s theories of “emotional labor” and Vicki Mayer’s media scholarship on “nurturing,” accommodating feminized workers apply to common observations about casting directors. Whether or not casting is a service profession, certainly casting directors (male and female) perceive it as such and often use feminized language to describe what they do. Yet casting requires skills typically seen as masculine, which many industry studies theorists argue the role of decision-maker demands. For example, with production funding increasingly scarce in today’s weak economic climate, casting directors often serve as de facto producers by attaching talent to theatre and film projects to secure the necessary financing. The funding for the Oscar-winning Crash (Haggis, 2004) was cast-contingent, and that movie’s casting directors, Sarah Halley Finn and Randi Hiller, received credit for getting the film made. Chapter four, “The Digital-Age Casting Director,” explores the digital revolution’s impact on today’s casting practices. As I trace casting offices’ increased use of digital media to locate and audition actors, I argue that digital devices give casting directors more control over the decision-making process. Digital cameras and video-sharing websites, for example, allow casting directors to edit most auditions and regulate the content upon which many hiring decisions are now based. My work on casting culminates by examining the digital era’s implications for casting’s future. I contend that even those digital special effects such as vactors that could potentially limit the casting director’s creative input are unlikely to do so as most CG-manipulated characters are still modeled on live performers.U of I OnlyU of I Only Extension request made by author via Graduate Colleg

    El problema de la oligarquía en la Política de Aristóteles

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    p. 69-95La oligarquía es una de las seis formas de Estado y de gobierno que estudió Aristóteles en su Política. La realidad social, política e histórica mostró que era la forma de organización política más frecuente. Aristóteles distinguió varios tipos de oligarquías, estudió cómo llegan a instaurarse, las causas de su degeneración y final extinción. Las ideas de Aristóteles tuvieron una amplia influencia entre los comentaristas de los siglos XIII a XVII, que optaron por considerar el régimen oligárquico como una forma de Estado dominada por pocos o por ricos.S

    Sponsorship image and value creation in E-sports

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    .E-sports games can drive the sports industry forward and sponsorship is the best way to engage consumers of this new sport. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of sponsorship image and consumer participation in co-creation consumption activities on fans’ sponsorship response (represented by the variables interest, purchase intention and word of mouth) in e-sports. Four antecedent variables build sponsorship image (i.e., ubiquity of sport, sincerity of sponsor, attitude to sponsor and team identification). A quantitative approach is used for the purposes of this study. Some 445 questionnaires were filled in by fans who watch e-sports in Spain; these are analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The outcomes show that sponsor antecedents are crucial factors if a sponsor wants to change their sponsorship image and influence sponsorship response, and that it is also possible to use participation to improve responsesS

    Interactive Sonic Environments: Sonic artwork via gameplay experience

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    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of video-game technology in the design and implementation of interactive sonic centric artworks, the purpose of which is to create and contribute to the discourse and understanding of its effectiveness in electro-acoustic composition highlighting the creative process. Key research questions include: How can the language of electro-acoustic music be placed in a new framework derived from videogame aesthetics and technology? What new creative processes need to be considered when using this medium? Moreover, what aspects of 'play' should be considered when designing the systems? The findings of this study assert that composers and sonic art practitioners need little or no coding knowledge to create exciting applications and the myriad of options available to the composer when using video-game technology is limited only by imagination. Through a cyclic process of planning, building, testing and playing these applications the project revealed advantages and unique sonic opportunities in comparison to other sonic art installations. A portfolio of selected original compositions, both fixed and open are presented by the author to complement this study. The commentary serves to place the work in context with other practitioners in the field and to provide compositional approaches that have been taken

    Bioinformatic characterization of a triacylglycerol lipase produced by Aspergillus flavus isolated from the decaying seed of Cucumeropsis mannii

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    Lipases are enzymes of industrial importance responsible for the hydrolysis of ester bonds of triglycerides. A lipolytic fungus was isolated and subsequently identified based on the ITS sequence analysis as putative Aspergillus flavus with accession number LC424503. The gene coding for extracellular triacylglycerol lipase was isolated from Aspergillus flavus species, sequenced, and characterised using bioinformatics tools. An open reading frame of 420 amino acid sequence was obtained and designated as Aspergillus flavus lipase (AFL) sequence. Alignment of the amino acid sequence with other lipases revealed the presence GHSLG sequence which is the lipase consensus sequence Gly-X1-Ser-X2-Gly indicating that it a classical lipase. A catalytic active site lid domain composed of TYITDTIIDLS amino acids sequence was also revealed. This lid protects the active site, control the catalytic activity and substrate selectivity in lipases. The 3-Dimensional structural model shared 34.08% sequence identity with a lipase from Yarrowia lipolytica covering 272 amino acid residues of the template model. A search of the lipase engineering database using AFL sequence revealed that it belongs to the class GX-lipase, superfamily abH23 and homologous family abH23.02, molecular weight and isoelectric point values of 46.95 KDa and 5.7, respectively. N-glycosylation sites were predicted at residues 164, 236 and 333, with potentials of 0.7250, 0.7037 and 0.7048, respectively. O-glycosylation sites were predicted at residues 355, 358, 360 and 366. A signal sequence of 37 amino acids was revealed at the N-terminal of the polypeptide. This is a short peptide sequence that marks a protein for transport across the cell membrane and indicates that AFL is an extracellular lipase. The findings on the structural and molecular properties of Aspergillus flavus lipase in this work will be crucial in future studies aiming at engineering the enzyme for biotechnology applications

    The Time Devil runs amok: How I improved my creative practice by adopting a multimodal approach for a specific audience.

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    This research illustrates how teacher-writers can improve their craft and pedagogy by writing for a specific audience, namely school children. It also illustrates why they might do so. It interrogates what was learnt from an innovative collaboration between a university teacher-education department, an inner-city secondary school and the United Kingdom’s National Maritime Museum (NMM). Multimodality (Barnard 2019) inspired the project: local spaces, institutional settings, historical objects, photographs, pictures, time-travelling films and narratives motivated the teacher-writer and participants to read and respond imaginatively to the world. The author found that the project caused him to “remediate” his own practice: to transfer “existing skills in order to tackle new genres” (Barnard 2019: 121). This process enabled him to become a more effective writer and teacher. The research shows that the problem of multimodal overload – having too much choice regarding what to write about and the many forms writing can take – can be circumnavigated if participants are given both autonomy and constraints. It illustrates in some depth how the concept of reciprocity is vital to adopt if writers are to improve their craft

    Medicina personalizada en lactantes con cáncer: Estudio farmacogenético de polimorfismos relacionados con toxicidad y respuesta a la quimioterapia

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    Introducción La farmacogenética es una herramienta de la “Medicina personalizada” que contribuye a optimizar los tratamientos antineoplásicos, adaptándolos a las características genéticas particulares de cada individuo, maximizando su eficacia y minimizando su toxicidad. El lactante con cáncer es un paciente de particular vulnerabilidad y sus comorbilidades tiene una especial repercusión vital. El estudio farmacogenético en esta población resulta pionero y novedoso en nuestro medio. La identificación de marcadores predictivos específicos permitirá individualizar más la terapéutica en esta población tan frágil y mejorar en consecuencia su calidad de vida y su pronóstico vital. Material y métodos Estudio de cohortes ambispectivo de pacientes oncológicos entre 1 y 18 meses de edad, receptores de quimioterapia en el Hospital La Fe de Valencia, en el periodo comprendido entre enero 2007 y agosto 2019. La parte retrospectiva comprende hasta diciembre 2015, el estudio prospectivo desde enero 2016 hasta agosto 2019. En primer lugar, se realiza un análisis descriptivo de variables epidemiológicas, clínico/biológicas, terapéuticas y pronósticas de 72 pacientes con dichas características. Se describe la toxicidad derivada de sus 578 ciclos de quimioterapia (37 variables clínicas), el tiempo de seguimiento y su supervivencia (meses). En segundo lugar, se realiza un estudio analítico cuyo objetivo es correlacionar los polimorfismos genéticos relacionados con la quimioterapia de 64 de los pacientes, la toxicidad grave secundaria al tratamiento (≥ grado 3 según CTAE 4.0) y su supervivencia. El genotipado se realiza en el Centro Nacional de Genotipado (CEGEN) mediante la tecnología MassArray (AgenaBioscience), previa configuración de un panel farmacogenético pediátrico en base a las evidencias recogidas en la base de datos PharmGKB, fichas técnicas de los medicamentos y consorcios internacionales expertos. El análisis estadístico descriptivo se realiza con los programas Excel 2016 y R: las variables cualitativas con el recuento numérico (porcentaje) y las variables cuantitativas como mediana +/- rango intercuartílico ante ausencia de normalidad en la distribución de los datos (p <0,05, prueba de Kolmogorov-Smirnov). En el análisis de supervivencia se utiliza el estimador Kaplan-Meier. El análisis estadístico analítico de correlación entre polimorfismos y toxicidad se realiza mediante regresión logística penalizada por Elastic Net empleando R. El análisis estadístico analítico de correlación entre polimorfismos y recaída/muerte se realiza mediante regresión de Cox penalizada por Elastic Net. Resultados Las variables epidemiológicas, clínico/biológicas y terapéuticas de los pacientes de la muestra son consecuentes con las descritas en la literatura del lactante con cáncer. Las neoplasias con mayor impacto negativo en la supervivencia son la leucemia mieloblástica aguda y los tumores del sistema nervioso central. La toxicidad más prevalente es hematológica, digestiva e infecciosa. Existe correlación entre la toxicidad grave secundaria a los quimioterápicos en forma de anemia, neutropenia y/o trombopenia y 46 polimorfismos genéticos diferentes. Así mismo se encuentra asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la supervivencia global y la supervivencia libre de enfermedad y ciertos polimorfismos genéticos (26 y 13 respectivamente). Los polimorfismos obtenidos pertenecen a genes encargados del transporte (6 genes) y metabolismo (17 genes) de los fármacos, de la reparación del material genético y la supresión tumoral (5 genes) y de otras funciones biológicas (4 genes). Conclusión Los resultados del presente estudio muestran correlación estadística entre 46 polimorfismos de genes implicados en la cinética farmacológica y la reparación del material genético y la variabilidad en la toxicidad quimioterápica y supervivencia de pacientes lactantes con cáncer. En definitiva, aportaciones de la farmacogenética que pueden contribuir a la optimización del tratamiento antineoplásico en esta población particular y a la predicción de sus riesgos, de especial impacto en los supervivientes del cáncer infantil

    Metodología de intervención para trabajar ODS. Educación a través de las artes

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    La Agenda 2030 presenta 17 Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS), con sus metas e indicadores universales que los países miembros de la ONU emplean para enmarcar sus políticas. Entre las metas del ODS 4 “educación de calidad” encontramos: “asegurar que todos los alumnos adquieran los conocimientos teóricos y prácticos necesarios para promover el desarrollo sostenible, entre otras cosas mediante la educación para el desarrollo sostenible y los estilos de vida sostenibles, los derechos humanos, la igualdad de género, la promoción de una cultura de paz y no violencia, la ciudadanía mundial y la valoración de la diversidad cultural y la contribución de la cultura al desarrollo sostenible”. La educación, se considera el motor de la Agenda 2030 porque, además de representar el centro del ODS 4, desempeña también un papel notable en la implementación de los demás, mejorando su alcance y efectividad. Así pues, entre las disciplinas que sustentan este trabajo se escogió la Educación para el Desarrollo Sostenible y la Ciudadanía Global como marco de acción y punto de partida en la formación de los ciudadanos de un futuro viable, equitativo y habitable. Se continuó investigando las oportunidades del desarrollo de la Competencia Intercultural en las relaciones humanas, aquello que diferencia a unas personas de otras puede aportar al conjunto de la sociedad y cómo la educación permitiría su aprovechamiento. Con todo ello, se planteó el marco didáctico de interacción en el cual se implementó la interculturalidad en el ejercicio educativo. Se estudió así el poder de las artes como medio de motivación e inspiración a la hora de transmitir de la manera más eficaz posible los valores considerados más arriba. El objetivo del presente estudio se centra en demostrar el potencial de las artes para fomentar las competencias comunicativas, sociales, interculturales, emocionales, de ciudadanía y sostenibilidad. Para ello, se ha realizado una investigación aplicada que deriva en una propuesta concreta de intervención con un programa educativo destinado a la enseñanza de lenguas, tanto primera como extranjera, en distintos niveles de la educación formal en Mali y en España, aplicando un método holístico basado en el paradigma interpretativo. A través de la pintura, la literatura y el cine, se plantean una serie de actividades ideadas para crear un entorno educativo integrador, favorecer el empoderamiento del alumnado y promover el pensamiento crítico, la empatía, la resiliencia, la comunicación, la cooperación y la educación intercultural, como competencias esenciales para la consecución de los 17 ODS, la construcción de un mundo transcultural sostenible y el desarrollo de una ciudadanía global preparada para los retos del siglo XXI. En la metodología de este proceso educativo innovador, multidisciplinar, flexible y adaptable, se ha empleado un análisis del proceso de investigación para monitorizarlo adecuadamente (DAFO). Cada una de las propuestas presenta una recogida de datos cualitativos (observación, rúbricas) y cuantitativos (encuestas, entrevistas) y se ofrece un análisis de contraste de los resultados finales. Con todo, se espera facilitar la exigente tarea que supone hacer consciente a la sociedad de base (desde la misma infancia; desde los niveles más bajos de la misma y en todos los niveles de la educación formal) de en qué consisten los ODS y su relevancia para hacer de todas las personas corresponsables directas en su consecución para garantizar un futuro sostenible para toda la ciudadanía global.The 2030 Agenda presents 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with their universal targets and indicators that UN member countries use to frame their policies. Among the targets of SDG 4 “quality education,” we find the one that seeks: “to ensure that all students acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to promote sustainable development, among other things through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, the promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, world citizenship and the appreciation of cultural diversity and the contribution of culture to sustainable development”. Education is considered the engine of the 2030 Agenda because, in addition to representing the centre of SDG 4, it also plays a notable role in the implementation of the others, improving their scope and effectiveness. Among the disciplines that support this research, Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship sets the framework for action and represents a starting point in the formation of citizens for a viable, equitable and habitable future. Global citizenship implies human relations and those and intrinsically shaped by culture. Intercultural Education and, more specifically, the development of Intercultural Competence needed to be considered. What differentiates some people from others can contribute to society as a whole and education is the means to explore and understand. For the design of a didactic framework of interaction, the power of the arts was studied as a means of motivation and inspiration when transmitting the values considered above in the most effective way possible. The objective of this study focuses on proving the potential of the arts to promote communicative, social, intercultural, emotional, citizenship and sustainability skills. For this, the theoretical research derived in a concrete intervention proposal with an educational program in language teaching, both first and foreign languages, at different levels of formal education in Mali and Spain, applying a holistic method based on the interpretive paradigm. Through painting, literature and cinema, a series of activities were designed to create an inclusive educational environment, favour the empowerment of students and promote critical thinking, empathy, resilience, communication, cooperation and intercultural education, as essential skills for the achievement of the 17 SDGs, the construction of a sustainable transcultural world and the development of global citizenship prepared for the challenges of the 21st century. In the methodology of this innovative, multidisciplinary, flexible and adaptable educational process, an analysis of the research process has been used to adequately monitor it (SWOT). Each of the proposals presents a collection of qualitative data (observation, rubrics) and quantitative data (surveys, interviews) and contrast analysis of the final results is offered. All in all, it is expected to facilitate the demanding task of making basic society aware (from childhood itself, from its lowest levels and at all levels of formal education) of what the SDGs consist of and their relevance to make all people directly co-responsible in its achievement to guarantee a sustainable future for all global citizens

    Responding to research evidence in Parliament: a case study on selective education policy

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    This research focusses on how members of the UK Parliament engaged with evidence in relation to the policy decision leading to the Selective Schools Expansion Fund, a policy designed to enable the existing 163 English Grammar Schools to apply for additional funds to expand their intake. Although a small case study, the narrow focus provides a fertile setting for analysis of the relationship between research evidence, Parliamentary debates, and policy decisions. The article provides contextual background in relation to the dominant political parties’ (Conservative and Labour) education policy manifesto statements and a discussion on the nature and understanding of evidence. Particular attention is given to how evidence can be used to support claims and the importance of justified warrants. Using NVivo software, we identified the thematic content of 11 Parliamentary debates and analysed the findings using descriptive statistics, which we tested with a playful, carnivalesque extrapolation of the data. Argumentative analysis shows that within the debates a number of rhetorical tools are used to avoid empirical evidence, including the deployment of a ‘moral sidestep’ which discourse analysis reveals in this case to be the repeated communication that grammar schools are ‘good’. In this way, Ofsted ratings are conflated with moral goodness, leading to a disproportionate diversion of school funding in their favour. This case study exposes strengths and weaknesses of Parliamentary debate, which might be relevant to educational researchers who focus on evidence-based policy and to the policy makers and other stakeholders who engage with the evidence such researchers offer
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