78 research outputs found

    2022 GREAT Day Program

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    SUNY Geneseo’s Sixteenth Annual GREAT Day.https://knightscholar.geneseo.edu/program-2007/1016/thumbnail.jp

    2021 GREAT Day Program

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    SUNY Geneseo’s Fifteenth Annual GREAT Day.https://knightscholar.geneseo.edu/program-2007/1015/thumbnail.jp

    Evolution of Life-History Characteristics in Gadoidei

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    Life-history characteristics (e.g., age and growth) have been used extensively to understand the temporal population dynamics of fish species, but less so within a phylogenetic framework. This study investigates life-history characteristics within the suborder Gadoidei (order: Gadiformes) and to test the extent of phylogenetic signal for those characteristics. To accomplish this, a phylogeny of Gadoidei was first constructed based on both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Within this phylogenetic framework, life-history traits, including growth rate, age at maturity, and longevity, as well as ecological data, such as water depth and diet type, were mapped to the phylogeny using parsimony analysis to examine the extent of phylogenetic signal. A phylomorphospace was constructed to estimate an ancestral body plan for gadoid fishes, to examine possible convergences and divergences among the target groups, and whether the morphological features relate to the life-history aspect of the study. Lastly, life-history characteristics were mapped onto the phylomorphospace to compare body shape and life-history data within a comprehensive phylogenetic framework. The results of both the parsimony and morphometric analyses show support for the hypothesis that shared ancestry plays a role in the evolution of life-history traits

    Coastal fishes of the western Indian Ocean

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    The primary purpose of this book is to provide a means of identifying the more than 3 200 species of coastal fishes known to occur in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Coastal fishes are those that inhabit waters generally less than ~200 m deep, the waters over continental and insular shelves, and upper continental slopes. The book also includes some oceanic species and species that live in deeper water, but are sometimes caught in trawls in less than 200 m, or that migrate into shallower waters at night to feed. The Western Indian Ocean (WIO), as treated in these volumes, is the area between Cape Point, South Africa, and 77°34' E, at Kanyakumari (formerly Cape Cormorin), the southernmost point of India, and to 40° S, just south of St Paul Island. Although considered as separate water bodies, the Red Sea and Persian/Arabian Gulf have been included. Some contributors have also chosen to include species from Sri Lanka. The region thus encompasses the entire east and southern coasts of Africa, Madagascar and the various island clusters of the Comoros, the Seychelles, the Maldive and Lakshadweep islands, the Chagos Archipelago and the islands and sea mounts of the Mascarene Plateau, to as far as 40° S, and thus some fishes from St Paul and Amsterdam Islands have been included. This large expanse, stretching from tropical waters of the northwestern Indian Ocean to the warm temperate waters of False Bay, South Africa, includes a number of poorly known biogeographic areas. A map of the entire Indian Ocean is placed on the inside front cover of each printed volume, with some areas in greater detail on the inside back cover. The book does not include distribution maps for species, but gives localities from which species are known, with emphasis on WIO localities; our understanding of distributions of many species is often incomplete. Fishes are the most abundant and diverse group of vertebrates and have colonised every aquatic habitat on Earth: the oceans, lakes, rivers and caves, from polar seas at –2 °C to hot, freshwater springs at 44 °C, and from tropical reefs and mangrove forests to the deepest ocean depths. Fishes are also the most poorly known group of vertebrates. In the 2006 edition of Joseph Nelson’s Fishes of the World the estimate of the number of species of extant fishes worldwide stood at about 23 000. This number is growing annually, and was thought to be about 33 460 species at the end of 2016 (www.fishwisepro.com). Between the years 2000 and 2015 an average of 150 new species of marine fishes were described each year – of which 10% of the total (156 species) were from the WIO. The WIO is home to about 15% of all the marine fish species in the world’s oceans. Another measure of the diversity of fishes of this area is its relatively high level of endemicity, particularly around southern Africa and in the Red Sea. About 13% of southern African marine fishes are endemic, most of these in only five families: Clinidae with about 44 endemic species, Gobiidae with 28, Sparidae with 28, Pentanchidae with 6, and Batrachoididae with 7 endemic species. In the Red Sea at least 170 of the more than 1100 species are endemic. The WIO region is also home to a large human population, representing a wide range of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. The area includes the countries of South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia, Eritrea, Sudan, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka, as well as the many island nations and territories. Many of the people living in coastal areas are dependent on fish catches and other marine resources for both sustenance and often a livelihood, as highly diversified artisanal fisheries make up the bulk of the fishing effort in the region. And, as elsewhere in the world, many of the fish resources have been compromised by commercial interests (including those of other countries), often leaving fish stocks in a poor state. This book has a number of purposes, all of which coalesce around providing users with a better understanding of the area’s fishes and their environment. Accordingly, it includes a number of background chapters covering subjects as diverse as the oceanography of the region, and the history and evolution of the bony fishes. In recent years genetic analysis has proved to be a powerful tool for taxonomists. In many instances molecular results have caused taxonomists to rethink both the definitions of certain taxa and the interrelationships of taxa. In some instances, what were long considered cohesive (monophyletic) taxa were found to include groups of fishes that are in fact not closely related (paraphyletic), while in other instances taxa thought to be distinct were found not to be, meriting their merging with other existing taxa. At times, long-accepted family groups have been divided into two or more distinct families, or separate families have been combined into a single one. Where possible such changes in our understanding of the relationships of fishes are reflected in these volumes. Where some contributors have taken a more conservative approach by awaiting more research and not adopting these changes, alternative taxonomies are noted (see also the introductory chapter on Naming organisms and determining their relationships). For each species in the book, the literature pertinent to that species in the WIO is given: the original species description reference, synonyms for the region and other important taxonomic and biological references. For many commercially important species or fishes of interest to anglers there is additional information on life history, size and capture, and for some but not all species, their IUCN conservation status if Near Threatened, Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered (in the first instance, valid at the time of writing. See www.iucnredlist.org for current information. Note: we have not included the IUCN conservation status where species are of Least Concern or Data Deficient). Most species are illustrated with photographs, drawings or paintings. Colour photographs and paintings are provided on plates for each volume.1st Editio

    Explorers The Good, The Bad + The Ugly Deep Sea Species: An Introductory Book for Children

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    The Explorers The Good, The Bad + The Ugly Deep Sea Species: An Introductory Book for Children introduces children aged 10 - 12 to the fascinating animals of the deep seas, their adaptations to survive, the science of deep sea exploration, and the threats facing them. This book is full of photos, fun facts and information sheets that have been created to help inspire teachers and children to learn about these incredible creatures as well as engaging in learning about the ocean. The books support STEM, as well as a range of cross curricular lessons and activities including science, maths, English, and the arts. Contributors: Eimear Manning, The Camden Education TrustThe Explorers The Good, The Bad + The Ugly Deep Sea Species: An Introductory Book for Children introduces children aged 10 - 12 to the fascinating animals of the deep seas, their adaptations to survive, and the threats facing them.Marine Institut

    066 -- Feeding Morphology of Deep-Sea Demersal Fishes

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    Deep-sea inhabitants survive high pressure, limited food availability, lack of sunlight, and cold temperatures. These deep-sea conditions have spurred adaptations that allow organisms to fill an array of niches. For example, distinctive feeding modes and jaw morphologies enable organisms to utilize the food resources available in their environment. Here, we investigate feeding biomechanics in deep-sea fishes across three families of fishes, the rattails (Macrouridae), snailfishes (Liparidae), and cutthroat eels (Synaphobranchidae). Each of these families exist in abundance and occupy important ecological roles in their environment. We compare jaw morphologies and mechanics between families to gain insights into feeding mode, including ram feeding, suction feeding, and manipulation. Mechanical advantage, measured here, is the ratio of the output force to the input force, indicative of the total force applied by an apparatus (like a set of jaws). High mechanical advantages in the jaws indicate greater force transmission, characteristic of fishes that manipulate prey, while low mechanical advantage indicates greater velocity transfer, common to suction feeders. We compare tooth shape between the oral jaws and the pharyngeal jaws, the latter of which aid in prey processing. Members of the Synaphobranchidae family had a lower mechanical advantage in their oral jaws, indicating their scavenging feeding mode requires a lower force transmission than active prey capture and manipulation. Macrourids had larger pharyngeal jaws than their liparid counterparts, suggesting that pharyngeal jaw size is a function of prey type. This research helps characterize ecological roles and describe the organismal interactions that govern the deep sea

    Monitoring the recovery of exploited deep-water species

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    Commercial fisheries for deep-water species off the Irish coast developed in the late 1990s and declined in the early 2000s. Many of the exploited stocks were depleted a result of commercial exploitation and ICES has advised a zero catch for Orange Roughy since 2004, and for Portuguese Dogfish and Leafscale Gulper shark since 2005. Since 2016, the deep water access regulation has effectively banned trawling in waters deeper than 800 m (EC, 2016) and fishing for deep-water sharks with static netting >600 m is also banned by the technical measures regulation (EC, 2019). However, some of these species continue to be caught, either by gears not covered by this regulation or in water <800 m deep. The Marine Institute carried out a survey programme to assess the distribution and abundance of these species between 1992 and 1999 and again between 2006 and 2009. Since 2019, 3 days of the Irish Anglerfish and Megrim Survey have been allocated to monitoring the recovery of commercial deep-water species. This work was funded under the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF) from 2019 to 2021 and European Maritime, Fisheries and Aquaculture Fund (EMFAF) since 2022. The main objective of the current project is to assess the recovery of exploited deep-water species in Irish waters by comparing the results from 2019 to 2022 surveys with those from the previous period in 2006 to 2009 (methods used in the earlier period 1992 to 1999 were different, therefore a direct comparison with that period is not possible).EMFF, EMFAF, the project is co-funded by the Government of Ireland and the European Unio

    Bone Density Variation in Rattails (Macrouridae,Gadiformes): Buoyancy, Depth, Body Size, and Feeding

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    A grant from the One-University Open Access Fund at the University of Kansas was used to defray the author's publication fees in this Open Access journal. The Open Access Fund, administered by librarians from the KU, KU Law, and KUMC libraries, is made possible by contributions from the offices of KU Provost, KU Vice Chancellor for Research & Graduate Studies, and KUMC Vice Chancellor for Research. For more information about the Open Access Fund, please see http://library.kumc.edu/authors-fund.xml.Extreme abiotic factors in deep-sea environments, such as near-freezing temperatures, low light, and high hydrostatic pressure, drive the evolution of adaptations that allow organisms to survive under these conditions. Pelagic and benthopelagic fishes that have invaded the deep sea face physiological challenges from increased compression of gasses at depth, which limits the use of gas cavities as a buoyancy aid. One adaptation observed in deep-sea fishes to increase buoyancy is a decrease of high-density tissues. In this study, we analyze mineralization of high-density skeletal tissue in rattails (family Macrouridae), a group of widespread benthopelagic fishes that occur from surface waters to greater than 7000 m depth. We test the hypothesis that rattail species decrease bone density with increasing habitat depth as an adaptation to maintaining buoyancy while living under high hydrostatic pressures. We performed micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scans on 15 species and 20 specimens of rattails and included two standards of known hydroxyapatite concentration (phantoms) to approximate voxel brightness to bone density. Bone density was compared across four bones (eleventh vertebra, lower jaw, pelvic girdle, and first dorsal-fin pterygiophore). On average, the lower jaw was significantly denser than the other bones. We found no correlation between bone density and depth or between bone density and phylogenetic relationships. Instead, we observed that bone density increases with increasing specimen length within and between species. This study adds to the growing body of work that suggests bone density can increase with growth in fishes, and that bone density does not vary in a straightforward way with depth

    FISH, cephalopods and associated habitats of the Discovery rise seamounts, Southeast Atlantic

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    In February 2019, seamounts of the Discovery Rise, SE Atlantic (41–45°S, 3°W - 3°E), were explored in support of the application of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management in the Southeast Atlantic Fisheries Organization (SEAFO) Convention Area. Video records of the seafloor were produced by the Video-Assisted Multisampler System (VAMS) along 15 valid transects conducted in plateau and flank areas of Shannon, Tablemount, Discovery and Heardman seamounts at depths ranging from 394 to 1839 m. Nine benthic seascapes were classified and described based on substrate hardness, texture, slope, physical and biological modifiers as observed in the video images. Predominant water masses were estimated from temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen vertical profiles obtained by CTD casts in the vicinity of each transect. A total of 366 fishes were seen (total observation time = 25.0 h) and classified in 32 morphotypes, included in 9 orders and 12 families. Most fish morphotypes (14) were included in the Macrouridae family. Family Moridae, on the other hand, included 65.3% of all fish records (239), with two particularly abundant morphotypes: Laemonema sp. (116) and Guttigadus sp. (92). Thirteen cephalopods were observed and classified in five morphotypes; the oegopsid squid Moroteuthopsis ingens was the most abundant of them (6). Despite the taxonomic uncertainties associated with video identifications, the explored region was found to contain a mixture of tropical – subtropical and subantarctic faunas of the Atlantic. Similarities of fauna composition and non-directional beta diversity estimates revealed some degree of seamount identity, but 57.5–61.9% of morphotypes were shared among seamounts (Jaccard = 0.425, Sørensen = 0.381). Fishes and cephalopods were more frequently observed on the shallower plateau areas under the influence of warmer and more oxygenated Antarctic Intermediate Waters. Depth and related factors did not influence richness, but dissimilarities in fauna composition between video transects increased with increasing depth intervals. Spatial habitat heterogeneity may have accounted for the increased beta diversity within seamounts. The most widely explored Tablemount seamount contained the most diverse observed sites, but also a considerable spatial variability likely associated with seascape heterogeneity. In two sites (transects 11 and 14), there were exceptionally high aggregations of the morid cods Laemonema sp., at the shallowest ‘gravely’ site explored (397 m), and Guttigadus sp., at a site of intermediate depth (1020 m) covered mostly by soft sediments. Neither of these species (or congenerics) have been previously classified as ‘seamount-aggregating” species. On the other hand, the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) and other commercial species known to aggregate in these seamounts were not found in the explored areas.En prens
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