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    The scientific evaluation of music content analysis systems: Valid empirical foundations for future real-world impact

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    We discuss the problem of music content analysis within the formal framework of experimental design

    Replica conditional sequential monte carlo

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    © 2019 International Machine Learning Society (IMLS). We propose a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme to perform state inference in non-linear non-Gaussian state-space models. Current state-of-the-art methods to address this problem rely on particle MCMC techniques and its variants, such as the iterated conditional Sequential Monte Carlo (cSMC) scheme, which uses a Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) type proposal within MCMC. A deficiency of standard SMC proposals is that they only use observations up to time t to propose states at time t when an entire observation sequence is available. More sophisticated SMC based on lookahead techniques could be used but they can be difficult to put in practice. We propose here replica cSMC where we build SMC proposals for one replica using information from the entire observation sequence by conditioning on the states of the other replicas. This approach is easily parallelizable and we demonstrate its excellent empirical performance when compared to the standard iterated cSMC scheme at fixed computational complexity

    Validating generic metrics of fairness in game-based resource allocation scenarios with crowdsourced annotations

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    Being able to effectively measure the notion of fairness is of vital importance as it can provide insight into the formation and evolution of complex patterns and phenomena, such as social preferences, collaboration, group structures and social conflicts. This paper presents a comparative study for quantitatively modelling the notion of fairness in one-to-many resource allocation scenarios - i.e. one provider agent has to allocate resources to multiple receiver agents. For this purpose, we investigate the efficacy of six metrics and cross-validate them on crowdsourced human ranks of fairness annotated through a computer game implementation of the one-to-many resource allocation scenario. Four of the fairness metrics examined are well-established metrics of data dispersion, namely standard deviation, normalised entropy, the Gini coefficient and the fairness index. The fifth metric, proposed by the authors, is an ad-hoc context-based measure which is based on key aspects of distribution strategies. The sixth metric, finally, is machine learned via ranking support vector machines (SVMs) on the crowdsourced human perceptions of fairness. Results suggest that all ad-hoc designed metrics correlate well with the human notion of fairness, and the context-based metrics we propose appear to have a predictability advantage over the other ad-hoc metrics. On the other hand, the normalised entropy and fairness index metrics appear to be the most expressive and generic for measuring fairness for the scenario adopted in this study and beyond. The SVM model can automatically model fairness more accurately than any ad-hoc metric examined (with an accuracy of 81.86%) but it is limited by its expressivity and generalisability.Being able to effectively measure the notion of fairness is of vital importance as it can provide insight into the formation and evolution of complex patterns and phenomena, such as social preferences, collaboration, group structures and social conflicts. This paper presents a comparative study for quantitatively modelling the notion of fairness in one-to-many resource allocation scenarios - i.e. one provider agent has to allocate resources to multiple receiver agents. For this purpose, we investigate the efficacy of six metrics and cross-validate them on crowdsourced human ranks of fairness annotated through a computer game implementation of the one-to-many resource allocation scenario. Four of the fairness metrics examined are well-established metrics of data dispersion, namely standard deviation, normalised entropy, the Gini coefficient and the fairness index. The fifth metric, proposed by the authors, is an ad-hoc context-based measure which is based on key aspects of distribution strategies. The sixth metric, finally, is machine learned via ranking support vector machines (SVMs) on the crowdsourced human perceptions of fairness. Results suggest that all ad-hoc designed metrics correlate well with the human notion of fairness, and the context-based metrics we propose appear to have a predictability advantage over the other ad-hoc metrics. On the other hand, the normalised entropy and fairness index metrics appear to be the most expressive and generic for measuring fairness for the scenario adopted in this study and beyond. The SVM model can automatically model fairness more accurately than any ad-hoc metric examined (with an accuracy of 81.86%) but it is limited by its expressivity and generalisability.peer-reviewe
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