208,694 research outputs found

    Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

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    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa, kGa), liquid-side mass transfer coefficients (kL and kS) and specific gas¿slurry contact area (a). The second part of this paper reviews the recent progress in our knowledge and understanding of the enhancement of gas¿slurry mass transfer due to the presence of solids. Five different cases are distinguished, i.e. \ud \ud ¿ enhanced mass transfer by physical adsorption on small particles.\ud \ud ¿ enhanced mass transfer by fast homogeneous reactions in the slurry, due to inert particles,\ud \ud ¿ enhanced mass transfer by homogenous reaction in the liquid with dissolving particles,\ud \ud ¿ enhanced mass transfer due to reactive particles and\ud \ud ¿ enhanced mass transfer due to catalytic particles in heterogeneous reactive systems.\ud \ud Prospective areas for additional research are identified

    Study of a laminar falling film flowing over a wavy wall column: Part I. Numerical investigation of the flow pattern and the coupled heat and mass transfer

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    Flow pattern and heat and mass transfer characteristics for a film flowing over a vertical wavy column are numerically investigated in a laminar flow regime. In our approach, the heat and mass transfer coefficients are avoided in order to include hydrodynamics directly in the heat and mass transfer rates. As a consequence the numerical model is decomposed into two steps. Firstly, the flow pattern for a film with a free interface is developed. Secondly, heat and mass transfer are investigated with the incorporation of velocity fields. The heat and mass transfer coefficients increase in laminar flow

    Mass Transfer by Stellar Wind

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    I review the process of mass transfer in a binary system through a stellar wind, with an emphasis on systems containing a red giant. I show how wind accretion in a binary system is different from the usually assumed Bondi-Hoyle approximation, first as far as the flow's structure is concerned, but most importantly, also for the mass accretion and specific angular momentum loss. This has important implications on the evolution of the orbital parameters. I also discuss the impact of wind accretion, on the chemical pollution and change in spin of the accreting star. The last section deals with observations and covers systems that most likely went through wind mass transfer: barium and related stars, symbiotic stars and central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN). The most recent observations of cool CSPN progenitors of barium stars, as well as of carbon-rich post-common envelope systems, are providing unique constraints on the mass transfer processes.Comment: Chapter 7, in Ecology of Blue Straggler Stars, H.M.J. Boffin, G. Carraro & G. Beccari (Eds), Astrophysics and Space Science Library, Springe

    Nova-induced mass transfer variations

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    We investigate variations of the mass transfer rate in cataclysmic variables (CVs) that are induced by nova outbursts. The ejection of nova shells leads to a spread of transfer rates in systems with similar orbital period. The effect is maximal if the specific angular momentum in the shell is the same as the specific orbital angular momentum of the white dwarf. We show analytically that in this case the nova-induced widening of the mass transfer rate distribution can be significant if the system, in the absence of nova outbursts, is close to mass transfer instability (i.e., within a factor of ~1.5 of the critical mass ratio). Hence the effect is negligible below the period gap and for systems with high-mass white dwarfs. At orbital periods between about 3 and 6 hrs the width of the mass transfer rate distribution exceeds an order of magnitude if the mass accreted on the white dwarf prior to the runaway is larger than a few 10^{-4} M_sun. At a given orbital period in this range, systems with the highest transfer rate should on average have the largest ratio of donor to white dwarf mass. We show results of population synthesis models which confirm and augment the analytic results.Comment: ApJ, in press; 14 pages (incl. 7 figures), emulateapj styl

    Thermal Timescale Mass Transfer Rates in Intermediate-Mass X-ray Binaries

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    Thermal timescale mass transfer generally occurs in close binaries where the donor star is more massive than the accreting star. The mass transfer rates are usually estimated in terms of the Kelvin-Helmholtz timescale of the donor star. But recent investigations indicate that this method may overestimate the real mass transfer rates in accreting white dwarf or neutron star binary systems. We have systematically investigated the thermal-timescale mass transfer processes in intermediate-mass X-ray binaries, by calculating binary evolution sequences with various initial donor masses and orbital periods. From the calculated results we find that on average the mass transfer rates are lower than traditional estimates by a factor of 4\sim 4.Comment: 13 pages, 4 figures, and 2 tables, accepted for publication in A&

    Assessment of the mass transfer strategy and the role of the active bacterial population on the biological degradation of siloxanes

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    Producción CientíficaUpgrading of biogas to remove siloxanes is mandatory to meet the standards required for its use as a substitute of fossil fuels. The biological degradation of these pollutants is a low cost and environmental friendly alternative to conventional techniques, albeit certain limitations, such as the low solubility of siloxanes, still hinder its application. In the present work, two parameters were optimized in aerobic and anoxic two-phase biotrickling filters (TP-BTF): the trickling liquid velocity (TLV) and the internal gas recirculation, with the aim of improving siloxanes biological removal. The results obtained showed that the increase in TLV from 2 to 10 m h−1 resulted in higher removal efficiency (RE) under both anoxic and aerobic conditions, reaching maximum values of 55 and 47%, respectively. This effect was more significant for the linear siloxanes. On the contrary, a further increase in the TLV to 20 m h−1 together with the implementation of internal gas recirculation caused an excessive turbulence in the liquid side, detaching the biofilm and having a negative effect for the RE. The cyclic siloxanes were more effectively eliminated along the process (maximum REs of 75% were recorded for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5)), but the studied system modifications exerted a minor effect on their RE. The active bacterial population involved in siloxanes degradation (studied throughout RNA extraction and sequencing) was dominated by the clade Acidithiobacillacea KCM-B-112 and the genus Parvibaculum in aerobic conditions, while the members of the family Phyllobacteriacea and the genera Nocardia and Baekduia dominated in anoxic conditions.European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 745785Junta de Castilla León - EU-FEDER (CLU 2017-09, CL-EI-2021-07 y UIC 315)European Commission-H2020- MSCA-IF-2019 grant (ENHANCEMENT, ref. 897284

    Mass transfer in bubble column for industrial conditions—effects of organic medium, gas and liquid flowrates and column design

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    Most of available gas–liquid mass transfer data in bubble column have been obtained in aqueous media and in liquid batch conditions, contrary to industrial chemical reactor conditions. This work provides new data more relevant for industrial conditions, including comparison of water and organic media, effects of large liquid and gas velocities, perforated plates and sparger hole diameter. The usual dynamic O2 methods for mass transfer investigation were not convenient in this work (cyclohexane, liquid circulation). Steadystate mass transfer of CO2 in an absorption–desorption loop has been quantified by IR spectrometry. Using a simple RTD characterization, mass transfer efficiency and kLa have been calculated in a wide range of experimental conditions. Due to large column height and gas velocity, mass transfer efficiency is high, ranging between 40% and 90%. kLa values stand between 0.015 and 0.050 s−1 and depend mainly on superficial gas velocity. No significant effects of column design and media have been shown. At last, using both global and local hydrodynamics data, mass transfer connection with hydrodynamics has been investigated through kLa/G and kLa/a

    Molarity model of mass transfer process for extraction in rotating disc contractor column

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    In the rotating disc contactor (RDC) column, liquid-liquid extraction process occurs when one of the liquid phase (drops) is dispersed into another liquid phase (continuous phase). The mass transfer process occurs when the drops flows countercurrent to the continuous phase. In this study, a new mass transfer model will be presented. A number of mass transfer models have been developed. These models are Initial Approach of Mass Transfer (IAMT) model, Boundary Approach of Mass Transfer (BAMT) model and Simultaneous Discrete Mass Transfer (S-DMT) model. IAMT model is a model for mass transfer when the drops first enter the column and move upward the column. BAMT model is a model of mass transfer where the drops already exist in the whole column initially. Meanwhile S-DMT model is a modification of the BAMT model where the concentration of drops in S-DMT model is being determined by using number of particle. In this study, the S-DMT model will be modified in order to develop the Molarity Model of Mass Transfer (MM-MT). In MM-MT, the method to determine the concentration of drops and continuous phase is being substitute with molarity. Molarity is a method in chemistry to determine the concentration of a chemical solution. Since the system that involves in this study is cumene/ water/ acid isobutiric, molarity is used to improve the S-DMT model. A program for MM-MT was developed by using software C++ 6.0. After the program was test, the real simulation of mass transfer process that occurs in the RDC column has been run. The simulation took 500 iterations to complete. The results obtained from the MM-MT simulation were being compared with the result obtained from Separation Process System (SPS). The error for concentration of drops and continuous phase has been determined and this error showed whether the MM-MT model is better than the S-DMT model

    Mathematical modelling of mass transfer in a multi-stage rotating disc contactor column

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    In this study, the development of an improved forward and inverse models for the mass transfer process in the Rotating Disc Contactor (RDC) column were carried out. The existing mass transfer model with constant boundary condition does not accurately represent the mass transfer process. Thus, a time-varying boundary condition was formulated and consequently the new fractional approach to equilibrium was derived. This derivation initiated the formulation of the modified quadratic driving force, called Time-dependent Quadratic Driving Force (TQDF). Based on this formulation, a Mass Transfer of A Single Drop (MTASD) Algorithm was designed, followed by a more realistic Mass Transfer of Multiple Drops (MTMD) Algorithm which was later refined to become another algorithm named the Mass Transfer Steady State (MTSS) Algorithm. The improved forward models, consisting of a system of multivariate equations, successfully calculate the amount of mass transfer from the continuous phase to the dispersed phase and was validated by the simulation results. The multivariate system is further simplified as the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system of a functional from a space of functions to a plane. This system serves as the basis for the inverse models of the mass transfer process in which fuzzy approach was used in solving the problems. In particular, two dimensional fuzzy number concept and the pyramidal membership functions were adopted along with the use of a triangular plane as the induced output parameter. A series of algorithms in solving the inverse problem were then developed corresponding to the forward models. This eventually brought the study to the implementation of the Inverse Single Drop Multistage (ISDMS)-2D Fuzzy Algorithm on the Mass Transfer of Multiple Drops in Multistage System. This new modelling approach gives useful information and provides a faster tool for decision-makers in determining the optimal input parameter for mas
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